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WHEN the author closed the second volume, he 
hoped that the work would be concluded in this 
one; but notwithstanding all his efforts to do so, 
he has only been able to complete the district of 
Kelso a district so rich and full of interest, that it 
was with great difficulty the important materials 
with which it abounds were condensed within the 
narrow compass of the present volume. He there- 
fore trusts that, under the circumstances, the exten- 
sion of the work to another volume, with the view 
of including a great mass of valuable matter with- 
out which the work would be imperfect will meet 
with the approval of subscribers and the public. 

To the Eev. James Jarvie, Kelso, the author is 
indebted for valuable information in regard to the 
modern history of Kelso. 

The concluding volume will be published in the 
course of the next year. 

A. J. 

JEDBURGH, September, 1859. 





1. Old names of the country lying along the Forth, 

and from Tweed to Avon ... ... ... 1 

2. Between 635 and 1020, churches in Teviotdale and 

Lothian belonged to Lindisfarne ... ... 2 

3. After 1020, the Bishop of St. Andrews assumed 

jurisdiction ... ... ... ... 3 

4. Boundary of the episcopates of Glasgow and St. 

Andrews ... ... ... ... 3 

5. The people inhabiting north side of Tweed ... 4 

6. Names of places on north and south of river ... 5 

7. Druidical remains on north of Tweed ... ... 5 


1. Etymology of its name ... ... ... 6 

2. Situation of the town and scenery around it ... 8 

3. The town and streets ... ... ... 10 

4. The Town-hall and Market-place ... ... 11 

5. Bridge-street ... ... ... ... 13 

6. Havannah, or Ednam House ... ... ... 16 

7. Abbey-close, Butts, and Kirkstyle ... ... 17 

8. MillofKelso ... ... ... ... 19 

9. Roxburgh-street, Cunzie-nook, Horse-shoe, Chalk- 

heugh, and Windy Goul ... ... ... 21 

10. Approaches to the town, roads, bridges, and femes 23 

11. Town formed part of regality of Abbey v ... 29 

12. Site of burgh, burgh records and statutes, whipmen 30 

13. Markets and trade of the town ... ... 35 

14. Literature, Chalkheugh library, newspapers and 

reading-r6oms ... ... ... ... 37 

15. The schools of the town 39 


16. The manor of Kelso and Abbey ... ... 40 

First notice of the manor the boundaries thereof 
governed by a provost Wester Kelso Fair- 
cross first settlement of monks at Selkirk, at 
Kelso benefits conferred on a district by foun- 
dation of abbey property of the monks in flocks 
and herds, in lands and fisheries right of the 
monks to a tenth of all the bucks and does taken 
by king's huntsmen- skins of animals tradition 
of Northumberland as to monks visiting Delavel's 
kitchen monks the early bankers they enjoyed 
wardship of heirs grants made to the abbey for 
interment in the cemetery the monks exporters 
the property of the monks in lands and churches 
in the counties of Selkirk, Berwick, Peebles, 
Lanark, Dumfries, Ayr, and Edinburgh colonies 
of monks sent from Kelso revenues of house. 

17. Confirmation Charter of Malcolm IV. ... ... 355 

18. Annals of the Abbey and Town ... ... 67 

Of the Abbey. Abbots Herbert, Ernold, John, 
Osbert interdict by Pope Alexander III., its 
form Geoffrey, Richard de Cave, Henry, Richard 
Maunsel, Hugh de Maunsel, Robert de Smal- 
hame, Patrick, Henry de Lambeden, Richard, 
Walron, Thomas de Durham, William de Alyn- 
crom, William de Dalgernock, William, Patrick, 
William, Allan, Andrew Stewart, Thomas Ker, 
James Stewart, commendator, Duke of Guise, 
commendator, Sir John Maitland, commendator, 
BothwelL Of the Tmm.lwo of Shrewsbury's 
captains burn Kelso in 1522 next year town 
and monastery burnt by Dacre Duke of Nor- 
folk burnt town and abbey Bowes and Laiton's 
visit to it, 1544 next year the Earl of Hertford 
destroyed town and abbey garrison of Wark 
ravaged the town Queen Mary at Kelso, where 
she slept two days bond signed at Kelso to put 
down Border thieves- parties to it Earls of 
Angus and Marr, the Master of Glammis at 
Kelso joined by Both well, Home, Cessford, and 
Coldingknowes, and barons of Teviotdale town 
of Kelso fined 2000 merks town destroyed by 
an accidental fire in 1645 Montrose at Kelso 
same year in 1715 Scottish rebels at Kelso 
persons of the surname of Kelso. 




1. The palace of the Duke of Koxburghe, its situation, 

name, and scenery around it ... ... 87 

2. Fair-cross, origin of the name ... ... 88 

3. Woods around Fleurs ... ... ... 89 

4. The family of Ker ... ... ... ... 90 

5. Bond between the Scotts and Kers ... ... 93 

6. Sir Eobert Ker, first Earl of Koxburghe ... 98 

7. Competition between Brigadier-General Walter Ker 

of Littledean and Sir James Norcliffe Innes for 
the honours and estates of Roxburgh ... 104 

8. The House of Innes ... ... ...105 


1. Etymology of the name ... ... ... 107 

, 2. Charter by Thorlongus of church of Ednain to the 

monks of Durham ... ... ... 108 

3. Description of Ednam ... ... ... 109 

4. Property of the monks of Coldingham, Kelso, and 

Dryburgh, in Ednam ... ... ... 110 

5. Hospital of Ednam ... ... ... Ill 

6. The family of Edmonstone, origin and end of the 

race ... ... ... ... ... 112 

7. Wych elm in brewery garden ... ... 113 

8. Ednam the birth-place of Captain Cook, notices of 

family ... ... ... ... ... 114 

9. James Thomson, the poet, was he bom in Ednam 1 115 
10. William Dawson, the agriculturist ... ... 115 


1. Situation ... ... ... ... ... 116 

2. Greater part of estate included in the old barony of 

Ednam ... ... ... ... ... 116 

3. Mansion of Henderside Park ... ... ...116 

4. The estate was acquired by one Ormston, and was 

carried by marriage to John Waldie ... ... 117 

5. Lineage of the family ... ... ... 118 


1. These two manors the property of the Morvilles 
during 12th century, at whose death in 1196 the 
manors passed to his only sister, Helena, wife of 
the lord of Galloway ... ... ... 118 



2. When Sir James Douglas became proprietor of these 

manors ... ... ... ... ... 119 

3. Grants made to the church ... ... ... 120 

4. Newton-Don House; its site the woods around 

house beautiful weeping birches near garden 
woolly-leafed poplar nurses an ivy yew-trees 
wych elms remarkable thorn-trees for size and 
beauty the river Eden trap dyke across river 
melancholy incident ... ... ...121 


1. Etymology of the name ... ... ... 123 

2. Situation and view from the hill ... .... 124 

3. Barony of Stitchell part of barony of Gordon ... 124 

4. Origin of the family of Gordon and its descendants 125 

5. Nicolas de Sticcenil ... ... ... 125 

6. The church of Stitchel ... ... ...126 

7. Persons who bore the surname of Stitchel ... 127 

8. George Eedpath minister of Stitchel ... ... 127 


1. Etymology of name and situation ... ... 128 

2. The manor of Home formed a part of the territory 

of the Earl of Dunbar ... ... ...128 

3. The manor of Home was given by Patrick, Earl of 

Dunbar, as a marriage gift to his daughter Ada, 
on her marriage with her cousin, William of 
Greenlaw ... ... ... ... 129 

4. Assumed name of the manor as a surname after 

marriage ... ... ... ... 129 

5. Dispute between Home and monastery settled ... 130 

6. Castle of Home notices thereof ... ... 131 

7. Badge of the Homes ... ... ... 133 


1. Etymology of name ... ... ... 133 

2. The manor of Smalham ... ... ... 133 

3. The family of Olifard the first owners origin of the 

name of Oliver he was Justiciary of Lothian 
grants to Dryburgh Abbey and the house of Soltre 134 

4. Walter of Moray succeeded Oliver in the barony ... 135 

5. William Earl of Douglas acquired the barony in 

1451 ... ... .. 360 



6. Hospital of Smalham ... ... ... 136 

7. Edward I. was at Smalham ... ... ... 136 

8. Persons who bore the surname of Smalham ... 137 

9. The mother of Captain Cook resided in Smalham 137 
10. Smalham Crags ... ... ... ... 138 


1. Situation of this place ... ... ... 139 

2. Residence of the nurse of St. Cuthbert ... ... 139 

3. Legend of St. Cuthbert ... ...139 


1. Situation and extent of the barony ... ... 140 

2. The mansion of Makerston, and scenery, trees, &c., 

in park ... ... ... ... ... 141 

3. Etymology of its name ... ... ... 141 

4. Walter Corbet proprietor about the middle of 12th 

century ... ... ... ... ... 142 

5. The Macdougals next proprietors of barony, 1370 144 

6. Origin and history of the family Appendix . . . 360 

7. Notices of the family ... ... ... 145 

8. Property of Kelso monks in barony ... ... 150 

9. Camp on left bank of the Tweed above Mackerston 150 

10. Charterhouse ... ... ... ... 150 


1. Extent of manor and possessions thereof in early 

times ... ... ... ... ... 151 

2. Friars, the seat of the baronial court ... ... 152 

3. Remarkable trysting-tree at Friars ... ... 153 

4. Is any part of the peninsula in Kelso parish? .. 154 

5. Inquiry as to the site of the old church of Rox- 

burgh ... ... ... ... ... 157 

6. Church and graveyard old tombstones grave of 

Edie Ochiltree ... ... ... ... 158 

7. Village of Roxburgh ; Wallace's Tower ... ... 159 


1. Situation ... ... ... ... ... 160 

2. The estate formerly belonged to the family of Ker 

of Greenhead ... ... ... ... 161 

3. It now belongs to William Scott Ker of Chatto ... 161 

4. Lineage of the family ... ... ... 161 

5. Prince Charles slept a night at the tower of Sunlaws 162 




1. Etymology of the name its situation description 

of fort ... ... ... ... ... 162 

2. Traditions regarding it and Rutherford ... ... 184 

3. Tumulus in front of Mackerston House, its appear- 

ance and extent ... ... ... ... 165 

4. Trows etymology of name description of the Tors 167 

5. Legend of the Church of Rome as to St. Cuthbert's 

corpse floating down the river in a stone boat ... 168 

6. Stockstrother ... ... ... ... 362 


1. First appearance of barony in record during 12th 

century ... ... ... ... ... 170 

2. Notices of the early proprietors Burnards ... 171 

3. The Rutherfurds possessed it about the beginning 

of the 17th century ... ... ... 172 

4. Tradition of the Bloody Well ... ... ...173 

5. Baron Rutherfurd, notices of ... ... ... 174 

6. Notice of Major Rutherfurd Burns visited him in 

1787 ... ... ... ... ... 176 

7. Downlaw ruins of an observatory on its summit 

Stanan Stane, near Watling-street, on farm of 
Heriotsfield Harlaw traces of an old ditch re- 
ferred to in charter of the 13th century ... 176 

8. Hospital of Fairnington; its site belonged to 

bishop of Glasgow in 1186 grants to chapel, &c. 177 


1. First appears in record during the days of David I., 

by whom the territory was granted to his follower 
Maccus, who conferred on it his name ... 178 

2. Situation and extent of the barony ... ... 179 

3. Notices of the family of Maxwell ... ... 180 

4. Bridgend purchased by James Douglas from Ker of 

Greenhead the name changed to Springwood 
Park notices of the family of Douglas lineage 
of the family ... ... ... ... 183 

5. Situation of the old mansion of Bridgend ... 185 

6. Description of the mansion of Springwood Park, and 

scenery around the woods young trysting-tree 
remarkable poplar at Maxwellheugh, 92 feet high 
and 32 feet 6 inches in girth ... ... 186 

7. Maisondieu, or hospital ... ... ... 187 



8. Town of Maxwellheugh tumulus within the 

grounds of Pinnaclehill view of, from the ridge 

to the west of town ... ... ... 188 

9. Softlaw notices of its early proprietors ... 189 

10, Church of Maccuswel existed before 1159 it 

was dedicated to St. Michael the graveyard ... 190 

11. St. Thomas' Chapel, where situated? ... ... 191 


1. Etymology of name it is first seen in charter of 

David the early proprietors granted by William 
the Lion to Sir Eustace de Vesci, who married his 
daughter ... ... ... ... ... 193 

2. Eobert Bruce conferred the barony on his son 

Robert David II. gave it to Thomas Murray 
William Earl of Douglas obtained it in 1451 it 
was afterwards granted to Sir Kobert Ker of 
Cessford ... ... ... ... ... 193 

3. Property of monks of Kelso in Sprouston, and by 

whom granted ... ... ... ... 197 

4. Village of Sprouston ... ... ... ... 198 

5. King and Queen of England at Sprouston for 

several days in 1256 ... ... ... 199 

6. Lands of Easter Softlaw ... ... ...199 


1. Situation of the territory ... ... ... 199 

2. Was the property of the monks of Kelso notices 

of the town and grange of Redden David II. 
erected it into a royalty in favour of monks ... 200 

3. Reddenburn ... ... ... ... 201 


1. Manor granted by William the Lion to Bernard, an 

Anglo-Norman ... ... ... ... 201 

2. Notices of the family assumed Hauden as a sur- 

name ... ... ... ... ... 202 

3. Estate now property of Sir William Elliot of Stobs 202 

4. Property of monks in Hawden ... ... 203 

5. Haddenstank ... ... ... ... 204 


1. Barony granted by David I. to Richard Germyn ... 204 

2. Sir Adam Quinton got Wellflat as a marriage portion 

with Floria, daughter of Germyn ... ... 205 



3. James III. conferred the barony on Walter Scott of 

Kirkurd ... ... ... ... ... 205 

4. Geoffrey of Lempetlaw was chamberlain to William 

the Lion ... ... ... ... ... 205 

5. The barony was originally a separate parish grave- 

yard still used the church, which was the pro- 
perty of the house of Soltre, is not in existence . . . 205 


1. Etymology of name Linton mistaken by previous 

writers for Linton Roderick in Peebleshire . . . 206 

2. The barony was the property of William Sumerville 

in 1160 origin of the family of Sumerville 
Linton first estate in Scotland notices of the 

3. Legend of Linton 

4. Monument over the church-door remarks thereon 215 

5. The skull of a beaver and the remains of an ox, bos 

primogenius, found in Linton loch ... ... 217 

6. Barony now possessed by Robert Elliot of Harwood 

and Clifton ... ... ... ... 223 

7. Graden, Fauside, and Greenlees ... ... 224 

8. Blakelaw Thomas Pringle, the author of " The 

Excursion," born here beautiful view of vale of 
Tweed and Merse from Blakelaw ridge . . . 225 

9. Old town of Linton ... ... ... ... 226 

10. Church of Linton tumulus of sand on which it is 

built legend thereof ... ... ... 227 

11. Font of the church used by a blacksmith to hold 

small coals ... ... ... ... 228 


1. Etymology of name ... ... ... ... 229 

2. Early history of the territory property of the 

monks of Kelso in it Colpinhopes ... ... 230 

3. Chapel of St. Ethelrida, where situated tradition 

regarding it ... ... ... ... 232 

4. In 1375, Yetham the property of the family of 

Macdougal of Makerston ... ... ... 233 

5. James IV. granted to Sir Robert Ker the lordship 

of Yetham ... ... ... ... 234 

6. William Bennet was owner in 1647 ... ... 234 

7. Halterburnhead origin of name, &c. ... ... 235 

8. The church and graveyard of Yetham ... ... 235 



9. The town of Yetham notices thereof ... ... 237 

10. Shrovetide at Yetham football, &c. ... ...239 

11. Christmas festivities ... ... ... 241 

12. Account of the gipsy tribes ... ... ... 241 

13. Barony of Town Yetham ... ... ...258 

14. Town Yetholm ... ... ... ...261 

15. CHERRYTREES and Thirlestane ... ... 262 

16. King Edward at Yetholm for two days ... ... 264 

17. Persons who bore the surname of Yetholm ... 265 


1. Etymology of name boundaries and extent of 

territory ... ... ... ... ... 265 

2. Territory originally formed part of Northumbria . . . 267 

3. First owner named Liulf Uctred, his son, suc- 

ceeded, and then the lands passed to Eschena de 
Londiniis, called Lady Molle she married Walter 
the first Steward of Scotland origin of the family 
persons who followed Walter to Scotland 
charter of Malcolm in favour of Walter . . . 269 

4. Anselru of Whitton possessed part of Molle . . . 273 

5. Lands in territory belonging to monks of Kelso 

monks had a grant of the forest in Molle . . . 273 

6. Property of the house of Melrose in territory . . . 278 

7. The monks of Paisley ... ... ...279 

8. The canons of Jedburgh ... ... ...280 

9. Lands of Robert de Croc in territory surname of 

Lindsay ... ... ... ... ... 280 

10. Cocklaw powerful castle on sources of Beaumont 

besieged by the English in 1401 it belonged to 

the family of Gledstones ... ... ... 282 

11. Town of Molle and church of Molle ... ... 285 

12. Woods of Molle 289 


1. Etymology situation and extent of territory its 

early history ... ... ... ... 290 

2. The family of Corbet appears to have possessed the 

lands in 12th century ... ... ... 291 

3. Town of Morebottle church of Morebottle pro- 

phecy in regard to it dedicated to St. Lawrence 
disputes with the monks of Melrose ... 293 

4. Dissenting meeting-house Mrs. Morrison intro- 

duced spinning-wheel into Morebottle ... 295 



5. WHITTON etymology, situation, extent, and boun- 

daries was an ancient possession of the family 

of Kiddel ... ... ... 297 

6. Fort of Whitton ... ... ... ... 298 

7. PRIMSIDE granted by Earl Henry, son of David I., 

to Ridel believed to have been the earliest pos- 
session of the family in Scotland ... ... 299 

8. CROOKEDSHAWS its situation remarkable bar of 

sand at Loch ... ... ... ... 300 

9. CLIFTON etymology its early history it belonged 

to St. Cuthbert during the seventh century no- 
tices thereof ... ... ... ... 302 

10. GRUBET etymology doubtful in 12th century pro- 

perty of Uctred, who took the surname for the 
territory De Vescis were over-lords of this terri- 
tory in the 13th century ... ... ... 303 

11. WIDEOPEN its situation property of the maternal 

uncle of the poet Thomson ... ... ... 305 

12. GATESHAW situation and extent belonged origi- 

nally to the monks fermed by Kers the family 

of Ker of Gateshaw ... ... ...306 

13. Corbet House tower of Gateshaw ... ... 307 

14. OTTERBURJT, Tofts, Cowbog, Heavyside, Lochside, 

and Foumerdean ... ... ... 308 


1. Etymology property of Orm during the beginning 

of the 12th century origin of name Rasawe the 
property of the monks of MeLrose ... ... 310 

2. Church of Hunum disputes between bishop of 

Glasgow and monks of MeLrose as to titles ... 313 

3. Town of Hownam and Hownan Kirk, Capehope, &c. 314 

4. Rings legend thereof ... ... ...315 

5. CHATTHOU etymology situation notices thereof 316 

6. PHILOGAR, Beirhope, Burvanes, Buchtrig, and Over 

Whitton ... ... ... ... 317 


1. Etymology situation and extent of old territory of 

Eckford ... ... ... ... 320 

2. A family of Geoffrey one of the earliest proprietors 321 

3. Mowbray acquired it during the reign of William 

the Lion lost Cessford in 1316, and Eckford in 
1320 .. 322 



4 On forfeiture of Mowbray, territory granted by 

Robert I. to Walter, steward of Scotland ... 322 

5. Moss Tower ... ... ... ... 323 

6. Town of Eckford church thereof jugs still to be 

seen at the door of church notices of church . . . 324 

7. Moss Tower farm Church's oats remarks thereon 324 

8. GRAEMSLAW etymology situation and extent 

hospital on banks of Cayle ... ... ... 325 

9. HAUGHEAD situation property of Hall, called 

Hobbie Hall, in 17th century his son, Henry 
Hall, commanded at Drumclog and BothweU 
Bridge his banner he was taken in company 
with Cargill died of his wounds tried after 
death remarks on this form of trial, and " Jed- 
dart Justice" ... ... ... ... 327 

10. Eichard Cameron licensed here by Welsh notices 

as to Cameron ... ... ... ... 330 

11. PRIEST'S CROWN etymology situation remains 

found there in 1857 ... ... ...331 

12. CESSFORD barony, a part of the old territory of 

Eckford etymology of name situation and ex- 
tent the early proprietors of the manor Castle 
of Cessford : description thereof besieged by 
Surrey in 1523 Hall of Haughead imprisoned in 
it a large ash-tree which grew there at the end 
of last century ... ... ... ... 333 

13. MARLEFIELD lies between the modern baronies of 

Eckford and Cessford property of William Ben- 
net in the middle of the 17th century ... ... 337 

14. Is the scene of the "Gentle Shepherd "laid here? ... 338 


1. Etymology thought to be the Keveronum in the 

Inquisitio Davidis ... ... ... ... 340 

2. It belonged originally to the celebrated family of 

Sulis, of Anglo-Norman race in Northamptonshire 
notices of the family family forfeited the barony 
in 1320 new grants by Robert I. to Robert, son 
of Walter Stewart notices of the barony . . . 342 

3. Chapel of Caverton ... ... ... ... 343 

4. A tumulus called the Black Dyke ... ... 344 

5. MAINHOTTSE formerly included in the territory of 

Caverton at one time belonged to the family of 
Chatto now property of Ralph. Nisbet ... 345 



1. Etymology situation description of barony be- 

longed first to Orm, the son of Eilar it became 
a surname to a family, in the end of the 13th cen- 
tury, of Ormeston it continued in the family of 
Onneston till 1573, when James Ormston was exe- 
cuted for his share in Darnley's murder . . . 346 

2. It was then granted to Ker of Cessford it after- 

wards belonged to William Elliot to William 
Mein- now to the Marquis of Lothian . . . 349 

3. Tower and town of Ormeston destroyed by Dacre 

and Hertford .. 350 


1. Etymology its situation the first person who 

appears as owner was Alan de Perci notices of 
family ... ... ... ... ... 350 

2. It belonged to the family of Colville in 1230 it re- 

mained with that family till 1509, when it passed 
to the Kers it is now property of Sir George 
Douglas and William Scott Ker of Chatto 
notices of the town of Heton . . 353 




THIS DISTRICT comprehends, on the north of the 
river Tweed, the parishes of Kelso, Makerstoun, 
Ednam, Smailholm, and Stitchel ; on the south of 
the river, that part of Kelso which formed the old 
parish of Maccuswel, and the parishes of Roxburgh, 
Sprouston, Yetholm, Morebattle, Linton, and Eck- 

Before entering upon a particular description of 
this district, it will be necessary, for the proper 
understanding of the subject, briefly to sketch its 
ancient history. As already stated in a previous 
part of this work, all the country lying along the 



Forth, and from the Tweed to the Avon, was known 
in the age of Bede as Bernicia. In the " Scoto-Irish 
Chronicle/' it is named Saxonia. After 843, the 
territory acquired from the Saxon settlers, who had 
come in on the Romanized Ottadeni and Gadeni 
the name of Lothian, which it still bore in 1020, 
when it was ceded by Eadulf-Cudel to Malcolm 
Ceanmore, the King of Scotland. About 1097, that 
part of the district lying along the Tweed, as far up as 
the confluence of the Gala and the Lamermoors came 
to be known as the MEKSE. In after times, the three 
districts, Merse, Lamer moor, and Lauderdale, were 
formed into a sheriffwic under the name of Berwick- 
shire. At the death of Edgar, in 1107, his brother 
Alexander succeeded to the throne, and, by a settle- 
ment of the deceased king, his youngest brother, 
David, had assigned to him as his appanage all the 
territory lying to the south of the Friths of Forth 
and Clyde except Lothian. While Alexander reigned 
over Scotland and the country on the north of the 
Tweed, David enjoyed all Teviotdale and Tweed dale. 
It was not till the death of Alexander, in 11 24, that 
David, after he became king, was enabled to exercise 
jurisdiction over the land to the north of the Tweed. 
Between the erection of the bishoprick of Lindis- 
farne in 635 and 1020, all the churches in Lothian 
and Teviotdale were considered as dependencies of 
the see of Lindisfarne and Durham. But when 
Lothian was ceded to the Scottish King, the Bishop 


of St. Andrews assumed the ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion of the whole churches in the district. At the 
dawn of record, many of the churches of Teviotdale 
belonged to the Bishop of Glasgow.* When the 
pious David ascended the throne, he renovated the 
bishoprick of Glasgow, and placed all the churches 
of Teviotdale under the jurisdiction of the church of 
Glasgow, and appointed John, his tutor, as the first 
bishop of the restored see. In 1 238, the bishoprick 
of Glasgow was divided into two distinct archdeacon- 
ries, of which Teviotdale was one, and from that 
time enjoyed its own archdeacon.-f- 

The river Tweed formed the boundary between 
the two episcopates of Glasgow and St. Andrews, from 
Carhain Burn to the mouth of the Gala, and from 
the Gala it ran along the ridge which separates 
Lothian from Tweeddale and Clydesdale. It will 
thus be seen that the parishes of Kelso, Stitchel, 
Ednam, Smailham, and Makerstoun, were included 
in the deanery of the Merse, and bishoprick of St. 
Andrews.^ No part of any of these parishes lay on 
the south side of the Tweed. 

Before 1020, the river Tweed was the boundary 

* Inquisitio Davidis, 1116. 

t It had its Dean during the days of Bishop Jocelin, be- 
tween 1174 and 1180. The Archdeacon regulated the clergy 
of Teviotdale, subject to the Bishop of Glasgow. 

* In 1221 there was a charter granted "in plena capitulo 
cU Mersa apud Ednham" Lib. de Calchou. 


between two hostile peoples; and there can be little 
doubt that many of the strengths which are to be 
seen on the south margins of the river were to de- 
fend the inhabitants of Teviotdale from the Pagan 
Saxons who dwelt on the north bank of the stream. 
In after times, when the English seized Teviotdale, 
and held Eoxburgh Castle for more than a hundred 
years, these forts would be occupied by them as a 
defence against the lawful owners of the soil resum- 
ing possession.* The fact that these strengths are 
mostly confined to the south bank of the Tweed, 
leads to the belief that the passages of the river re- 
quired to be guarded from an enemy advancing from 
Lothian on the north. 

The NAMES of PLACES on the north side of the 
Tweed evince that the Saxon tribes had gained the 
complete ascendancy over the KomanizedOttadenian 
people in this district. The predominance, also, of 
Saxon names on the south side of the Tweed, to the 
east of the Teviot river, show the extent of their 
colonization, and the superinduction of their lan- 
guage on the ancient British. The Saxon " Hleaw," 
as Law, appears in the names of many little hills and 
places on the east of the Teviot : e.g., Sunlaws, Gra- 
hamslaw, Blacklaws, Greenlaws, Wormeslaw, Hose- 
law, Oastlelaw, Todlaw, Lempitlaw, Lurdinlaw, Soft- 

* Several writers imagine that a number of these strengths 
are Danish, forgetting that these robbers had no permanent 
settlement here. 


laws, Spylaw, Pylelaw, in fact, every little hill in that 
locality bears either a Saxon name or a Saxon ter- 
mination. On the north side of the Tweed, the 
" law" enters into the names of many places Brox- 
law, Luntinlaw, Galalaw, Tanlaw, Sharpitlaw. The 
Saxon rig appears in several names, such as Musrig, 
Mainrig, Greatridge. The word Kaims, or Cairns, 
for a ridge, is found in several names of places be- 
tween Broxlaw and Combflat, a little to the east of 
Ednam village ; the old Saxon word ihyrn for thorn 
in Nenthorn. Holm, Home Castle, Stitchel, and 
Ham in Edenham, Smailham, etc. The word hope 
is also of frequent occurrence. Proceeding west- 
ward, the Saxon names of places become gradually 
fewer, showing that the colonization was from the 
eastward; and the rareness of Scoto-Irish names on 
the east establishes, on the other hand, that these 
people advanced on the district from the west. 

It is worthy of notice, that while Druidical remains 
abound in Teviotdale, scarcely any are to be found 
on the north of the Tweed. It is thought that the 
difference between the two sides of the river in this 
respect arises from the occupation of the country on 
the north by the Saxons, who continued all pagans 
for nearly 200 years after their first entrance on the 
land, and delighted in the destruction of every ves- 
tige of the Druid worship, or the remains of the 
native people. British remains were the object of 
their special enmity. 


KELSO, the capital of the district, makes its first 
appearance in 1128, in the charter of David to the 
Selkirk monks, on their being placed on the well- 
sheltered banks of the Tweed. In that document it 
is written in three different ways Calchou, Kel- 
chou, and Kalchu* The chronicler of Mailros, 
while recording the foundation of the abbey at Kelso 
as having taken place on May 3, 1128, enters the 
name Kelchehou,-\- and in various other entries in 
that work recording events between 1128 and 1255 
it appears as Kelchou. In the Kegister of Glas- 
gow it is written Chelgho,\ Chelcho, Kekho, Kalcho, 
Kelechou; and in 1176, John the abbot writes the 
name of the place exactly as it is written at the pre- 
sent day, "Kelso." In the Book of Dryburgh it 
appears as Calcheo, Kelkou, Kelku ; and in the writ 
of protection granted by the English king to the 
abbot and convent, the name is written Kellesowe.\\ 
It is thought that the name is derived from the 
British Calch and the Saxon hou, descriptive of a 
small eminence on the margin of a river, on which 
part of the town is now built, and still bearing the 
appellation of the Chalkheugh. I have conversed with 
several old people who distinctly remembered the 
Chalkheugh before it was built upon or protected 

* Charter of David to the Monastery. Lib. de Calchou. 

t Chron. Mail, p. 69, &c. J Circa, 1150. 

Keg. of Glas., p. 40. 

|| Rotuli Scotue, vol. i. pp. 24, 25. 


from the river in 1810, and who stated that the 
face of the cliff had then the appearance of chalk, 
and which they, in their boyhood had digged for 
alabaster. The cliffs on the east bank of the river 
are also formed of the same kind of calcareous de- 
posit; and it is probable that the name of Cal- 
chou was, by the native people, intended to describe 
these cliffs as well as the eminence on the north 
side of the river. Several etymologists, however, 
take a different view, and think that the name is 
derived from the Celtic caol, caolas, a narrow chan- 
nel.* It is no doubt true, that the Tweed does flow 
through a strait for some miles above Roxburgh 
Castle, and was separated into several narrow chan- 
nels by the annas, which formerly existed near to 
Faircross and the present anna, lower down the 
river, opposite the Chalkheugh. These narrow 
channels were also in close proximity to Kelso, in the 
olden time. Indeed it might have been appropri- 
ately described as the town on the Caolas; i.e., 
narrow channels on the Tweed and Teviot. Still I 
am inclined to think that the true etymology of the 
name is to be found in the British Calch and the 
Saxon hou, the more especially as there are no other 
cliffs of the same nature in that locality. The Calch- 
hitts, on the Tweed, would be a good description of 
the place at an early period, and by which it might 

* Williamson's Etymology, p. 84. 


be easily discovered. It must also be kept in view, 
however, that the Saxon " Cealc" is very like the 
British Calch, and it may be that the whole name is 
Saxon " Cealchou."* 

The TOWN of KELSO is situated on the north side 
of the river Tweed, exactly opposite to the mouth of 
the river Teviot, on a piece of haughland, formed 
by a bend of the river. While passing Roxburgh 
Castle, the course of the Tweed is to the east, till 
turned in a northerly direction by the cliffs at Max- 
wellheugh, which are a continuation of the high 
land forming the east bank of the river Teviot. On 
the north side of the haugh is a semicircular ridge, 
which takes its rise at the river Tweed, in the 
policy of Floors, and continuing eastward, forms, at 
Sharpitlaw, the left bank of the river, and divides 
the dale through which Tweed flows from the flat 
land of Edendale. The right bank of the Teviot 
and Tweed is also semicircular. The locality is 
remarkable for scenes of great beauty. From the 
summit of the river's bank at Maxwellheugh, an 
extensive view is obtained of the surrounding scen- 
ery. The eye roams over the broad expanse of 
waters beneath, and the termination of the beauti- 
ful vale where " the silver tide of Teviot loses itself 
in Tweed's pellucid stream ;" the lovely little islet 
in the midst of the parent river; the moss-clad 

* Johnson derives the English Chalk from the Saxon Cealc. 


ruins of Koxburgh, and in the distance the cones of 
Eildon. On the left bank of the Tweed, the palace 
of the Duke of Roxburgh stands, environed by dark 
woods, while lower down are beautiful gardens ; 
houses clustered together ; a busy mill, with its 
waterfall; the Havannah, and several other sweet 
villas, overlook the beautiful sheet of water that rolls 
past; while over this scene the august pile, in all 
the solemnity of ruin, frowns majestically. On the 
right bank of the Teviot, and between it and the 
Tweed, in the midst of an extensive and well- 
wooded park, is Springwood, the seat of Sir George 
Douglas. Eastward, long reaches of the river are 
exposed to view, the margins in the highest state of 
cultivation, studded with mansions, among which 
Henderside Park occupies a prominent position. 
The country to the north has the appearance of 
rising in terraces from the back of Kelso to the 
woody heights of Stitchel, Mellerston, and of Home. 
A fine view is obtained from the second arch of the 
bridge next to Kelso, looking up the river ; but the 
view which is held in the greatest admiration by 
strangers is from the Chalkheugh, the picture in- 
cluding the meeting of the waters, the vale of Teviot, 
and the ruins of the " Towering Fortress;"* but it 

* It is said in the Kelso Records, p. 113, that Lady Hol- 
land, whose taste was so celebrated, had been heard to declare, 
that the scene here surpassed any she had met with in France 
arid Italy. 


is in vain to attempt to pourtray with the pen the 
scenery around this lovely town ; the eye must rest 
upon the luxuriant picture. Well might Leyden 

" Bosomed in -woods, where mighty rivers run, 
Kelso's fair vale expands before the sun ; 
Its rising downs in vernal beauty swell, 
And fringed with hazel winds each flowery dell; 
Green spangled plains to dimpling lawns succeed, 
And Tempe rises on the banks of Tweed. 
Blue o'er the river Kelso's shadow lies, 
And copse-clad isles amid the waters rise ; 
Where Tweed her silent way majestic holds, 
Float the thin gales in more transparent folds. 
New powers of vision on the eye descend, 
As distant mountains from their bases bend, 
Lean forward from their seats to court the view, 
While melt their softened tints in vivid blue. 
But fairer still at midnight's shadowy reign, 
When liquid silver floods the moonlight plain, 
And lawns and fields, and woods of varying hue, 
Drink the wan lustre and the pearly dew; 
While the still landscape more than noontide bright, 
Glistens with mellow tints of fairy light." 

The TOWN of KELSO is large and handsome, con- 
taining many well-built houses. In the centre of 
the town is a spacious market-place of a square form. 
ROXBURGH-STREET, the approach from the north, 
enters the square at the north-west angle. BRIDGE- 
STREET leaves the market-place in a line with Rox- 

* Leyden's Scenes of Infancy, p. 137. 


burgh-street, and leads to the Bridge over the Tweed, 
and to the country on the south and west. The 
Town Hall stands on the east side of the square, 
forming the end of a tongue, with each side a street ; 
on the north, the Horse Market; and on the north-east, 
the Wood and Coal Market-streets. The Millwynd 
runs from the south side of the market-place to the 
mill on the Tweed. Besides these streets there are 
a number of smaller wynds and lanes, forming the 
means of communication between various parts of 
the town to the river and to the country. 

The HALL was erected in 1816, chiefly by the 
munificence of James, Duke of Eoxburgh, aided by 
subscriptions of the inhabitants. It is a building 
with a pediment in front, supported by four Ionic 
columns, surmounted by a turret or belfry. In the 
court-room hangs a whole-length portrait of his 
Grace, placed there at the expense of the inhabitants, 
to evince the gratitude felt for the benefits which 
his Grace conferred on the town. The Hall stands 
upon the site of an old house, which answered the 
purposes of a council-room and tolbooth, taken 
down about the beginning of the century. It was 
raised upon four pillars of stone, and had a high 
steeple, with a clock. In August, 1764, the light- 
ning struck the steeple, and carried the weather- 
cock into the churchyard.* With the exception of 

* Kelso Records, p. 124. 


the tenement occupied by Stephen Balmer, the 
whole of the square seems to have been rebuilt since 
1790.* Within the recollection of aged inhabitants, 
the square which now boasts of so many fine build- 
ings was a quadrangle of straw-covered houses, with 
their high, pointed gables to the front, which led 
the celebrated traveller Pennant to remark that 
Kelso resembled a Flemish town. A huge and 
unseemly pantwell, surmounted by a lamp, stood 
in one corner. To a saddler's apprentice breaking 
this pant and its lamp, the inhabitants of Kelso 
were, in after years, indebted for many improve- 
ments, and one of its most handsome buildings. 
The boy, fearing the wrath of the civic functionaries 
for demolishing the lamp, fled to London, where he 
succeeded in making his fortune as a navy agent ; 
and on returning to Kelso, when his youthful ex- 
ploit was forgotten, purchased part of the estate of 
Ednam from the old family of Edmonstone, built 
the Havannah, now called Ednam House, and the 
present commodious Cross Keys Hotel. The old 
Cross Keys stood on the site of Lindores' House, 
lately used as a post-office. Where the Commercial 
Bank now is, formerly stood an old tavern, with a 
peculiar sign suspended from its front. Pillars and 
piazzas stretched from the Millwynd in the direc- 

* An old painting of the market-place, taken about 1790, 
for Horsenden, of the Cross Keys Hotel, a copy of which is 
in the possession of Mr. William Smith, Kelso. 


tion of Bridge-street. The shop windows, like 
deeply-seated eyes, afforded a dry promenade, and a 
play-ground to the youth of the town. The en- 
trance into Beaumont-street from the square was 
by a low pend. The crockery market was on the 
opposite side of the entrance into this street. 

BRIDGE-STREET owes its existence to the im- 
proved communication by the bridge over the 
Tweed. The access originally was by the Abbey 
gardens and glebe, the old highway running straight 
down Maxwellheugh path, beyond the bridge end, 
across the site of Mr. Brown's cottage, past the 
Episcopal Chapel, and up to the great west door of 
the Abbey. Bridge-street was mostly occupied by 
tombs. There exists to this day Hardie's crypt, 
underneath the Spread Eagle; and in excavating, 
about three years ago, in the cellar of the Mail 
Office, dead men's bones were turned up by the 
workmen. Many wealthy men gave largely to the 
Abbey, for leave to lay their bones within its sacred 
precincts, in the vain imagination that they would 
lie undisturbed for ever. The handsome gateway 
into Ednam House was not then in Belmont-place, 
but between the Weigh-house and Forest's shop. 
The house now occupied by the National Bank and 
Messrs. Lugton and Porteous, existed at the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century. It is erected over 
many very spacious, massy, and arched stone cellars, 
a peculiarity which gave rise to the mistaken no- 


tion, that it occupies the site, and was reared upon 
the old underground foundations, of the Abbot's 
House.* These subjects were the property of a 
family of Ormiston ; and in the cess books, at the 
close of the reign of Queen Anne, it is entered as 
liable in duty for thirty windows. -f- Charles Ormi- 
ston was then the owner. He was a merchant, and 
carried on an extensive trade with Holland, through 
the port of Berwick-on-Tweed. In 1721 he was 
merchant-treasurer, and, on his own behalf and that 
of the company of merchants, applied for and ob- 
tained a decree, restraining, under a penalty of 
twenty pounds Scots, one John Ord, a fisherman 
from Old Cambus, and his father, from retailing 
brandy in Kelso.j In an upper room of that house, 
with an ornamented roof, the fire-place being lined 
with pictured Dutch tiles, the ancient religious wor- 
ship of the abbots of the monastery, was, in Ormis- 
ton's day, unobtrusively practised by his wife. 
Though the son of a Quaker, he had contracted an 
attachment for a Catholic lady, and, being at first 
impeded by the rules of the Friends, he threatened 

* Tradition has it, that the Abbot's Stead occupied a stance 
above the Pipewell Brae, in a field adjoining that of Mr. 
Williamson, recently the property of Mr. Jordan, now that 
of Mr. Waldie of Henderside. 

t At that time there seems to have been only seven houses 
in Kelso liable in window duty. 

+ This was a kind of smuggling more directed against the 
trade of royal burghs than the revenue of the crown. 


to run off to the Plantations. One morning a scrap 
of paper was found by him lying on his dressing- 
table, with these laconic but significant words : 
"Thy sister married without my consent, and I did 
not disown her." It was his father's hand. The 
heretic bride was brought home, and while the trade 
of Hollands was conducted below, the mysteries of 
the mass were celebrated in the room with the Dutch 
tiles above, though no doubt sorely against the will, 
but yet without molestation from the old Quaker, 
whose sect was beyond others tolerant of religious 
differences. The sister above referred to, who mar- 
ried out of the pale of her party, but without re- 
nouncing her peculiarities, was the fine, liberal old 
Quakeress, to whom the boy Walter Scott was in- 
debted for the use of her library, afterwards the 
grandmother of the owner of the best preserved 
books and paintings in the district.* The Queen's 
Head Inn was one of the houses rated for window 
duty. It came to be occupied by Waldie of Hender- 
side, who succeeded to it through the Quakeress, 
who was an Ormiston, and through her certain 
parts of her lands. The arms of the two families 
are now quartered as the armorial bearings of the 
house of Henderside. The large apartment adjoin- 
ing Lauder's ball-room, and interposing between it 
and the churchyard, was that in which ducal and 

* Mr. Waldie of Henderside. 


baronial visitors were received, and is a modern 
addition. The house of Andrew Johnston, Horse 
Market, from its architecture, seems to be one of 
the seven houses entered in the cess books of 1721, 
and the tenement modernized for the shops of 
Messrs. Rutherfurd, booksellers, and Mr. Moore, 
draper, which then bounded the HYDE MARKET on 
the north, was another of these houses. The Ha- 
vannah, or Ednam House, noticed above, is compa- 
ratively modern. It was erected after the middle of 
the last century, by James Dickson, the runaway 
saddler's apprentice, on his return to his native 
district* It is a prominent object in Pennant's 
sketch of Kelso, taken in 1772.-J* The mansion is 
elegant, built of square hewn stone, and stands in 
the midst of a garden opening on the river. It is 
ornamented by a Gothic temple ; and when the 
learned Hutchieson visited the locality in 1776, 
" statues were disposed on the grass plots, which 
were intersected with gravel walks and flower 
knots." Dickson was owner of part of the old barony 
of Ednam, in the neighbourhood of Kelso, and of 
Broughton in Peebleshire. For some time he repre- 
sented the Peebles district of burghs in Parliament. 
In conjunction with Sir Alexander Don, and others, 

* The house was named the Havannah, from its owner hav- 
ing amassed a considerable sum by purchasing, while a navy 
agent, the shares due to the captors of the Havannah. 

t Pennant's Tour, vol. iii. p. 278. 


he formed the society of the Bowmen of the Border, 
and re-established Kelso races. John Mason, m 
his Eecords of Kelso, is studious to tell that Dickson, 
" at these races, run over Caverton Edge, in the year 
1765, ran his gray horse Cheviot," and won. Mr. 
Dickson was also the projector of a canal between 
Berwick and Kelso, but which was given up at the 
time for want of support. 

The ABBEY CLOSE joins the present Bridge-street 
opposite the ruined abbey. During the existence of 
the old bridge, it was one of the principal approaches 
to the town. On the east of Bridge-street is the parish 
church, erected in 1773. It is in the shape of an 
octagon, with an immense roof, tapering to a point 
like a marquee, and supported by eight inner pillars. 
In 1823, an attempt was made by the principal 
heritors to improve the appearance of this inelegant 
structure, but the proposal was rejected by the 
smaller heritors, and Kelso continues to be disfigured 
by one of the ugliest edifices that ever was reared. 
Between 164-9 and 1771, part of the ruins of the 
Abbey was formed into a parish church, by arching 
over the transept and head of the cross, with a wing 
taken from the ruined choir.* The church was de- 
serted at the period mentioned, in consequence of 

* Engraving of the Abbey and adjoining subjects, in 
Hutchinson's Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 263, date, 1776; also, 
view taken by Grose in 1787, vol. i. p. 115. 



some fragments of plaster falling from the ceiling 
during divine worship, the congregation believing 
that a prophecy of Thomas the Rhymer, to the effect 
that the kirk was to fall at the fullest, was about to 
be fulfilled; and although the alarm proved ground- 
less, the congregation could not be induced to as- 
semble again within the walls of the ruin, a result 
not to be regretted, as it ultimately led to the open- 
ing up of the beautiful structure to public view. 
A tier of arches thrown over those under which the 
Protestant people assembled to worship formed the 
prison of the town, and was the original from whence 
the Author of Waverley sketched the Tolbooth, to 
which the celebrated Border Bluegown was con- 
signed, on his being carried away from the sports of 
the adjacent BUTTS.* According to old Bluegown, 
it " wasna sae dooms bad a place as it was ca'd ; 
ye had aye a gude roof ower your head to fend aff 
the weather ; and if the windows werena glazed, it 
was the mair airy and pleasant for the summer 
season, and there were fock enow to crack wi', and 
he had bread eneuch to eat, and what need he fash 
himsell about the rest o't?"-f- The BUTTS is supposed 
to be the place, where "the young men, availing 
themselves of the fine evening, were engaged in the 
sport of long bowls on a patch of common, while 

* The ashes of Andrew Gemmels, the original of Edie 
Ochiltree, lie in Eoxburgh grave-yard, 
t Antiqiiary, voL ii p. 213. 


the women and elders looked on."* Scott was a 
frequent inmate of the cottage situated at the south- 
east corner of the KNOWES, or Butts, occupied by 
his aunt, who had been his patient preceptress at 
Sandyknowe; and no doubt he had often enjoyed 
the sight of the games on the patch of common 
hard by. The church and grave-yard are enclosed 
by a high wall; but when Hutchinson (1776) and 
Grose (1787) visited Kelso, the Knowes and yard 
were open and intersected with roads in every direc- 
tion. The entrance at the KIKK-STYLE, between 
Grey and Balmer's house, was formerly a massive 
flight of steps, with a solid landing-place in the 
centre, and the Style at the Butts as it is now ; and 
the path that winds so crookedly on the east side 
of the manse to the river, taking off from the old 
school-house, and the whole extensive space had its 
only entrance for funerals by an iron gate into the 
abbey north door from the Abbey Close. There 
was formerly no carriage way between the houses 
and grave-yard. 

The MILL of Kelso is thought to have been 
erected shortly after the foundation of the Abbey. 
It is certain that it existed at the end of the 12th 
century. During the reign of King William, he 
granted liberty to the monks of Kelso " to grind, 
free of multure, for three or four days, at his mill of 

* Antiquary, vol. ii. p. 105. 


Edinham, when their mill of Kelso should be stopped 
by floods or frost."* Next to the abbey, it is the 
greatest monument of the mechanical skill and en- 
terprise of its monastic proprietors. Tradition has 
it that the cauld of the mill was run away with every 
flood, and that the present dam-head was erected by 
the familiar spirits of the great wizard, Michael Scott. 
It would seem that, in the early days, the weirs 
were erected something like a stake and rice fence 
of the present day. During the 13th century, 
Thomas de Gordon, amongst many other favours, 
conferred on the monks of Kelso, on their agreeing 
to bury him in the grave-yard of the monastery, 
granted them " the free use of his woods, both stock 
and branches, to build their mill-dam."^ In this 
locality is the beautiful islet in the Tweed, appear- 
ing, in the language of the minister of Kelso, as " a 
basket of flowers in the flood. "\ A glimpse of this 
Anna, as it appeared to the tourist Pennant in 1772, 
is obtained through one of the arches of the bridge, 
in his picture of the town, taken from the right bank 
of the river, between the present bridge and Max- 
wellheugh. The river seems to have been flooded at 
the. time the drawing was executed; and the islet 
appears as a cluster of foliage resting on the waters. 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 18, 19, 303, 304. 

t Ib. " Stock et ramail ad edificandum stagnum suum." 

+ tatistical Account. 


In 1755, a dispute occurred between the feuars of 
Kelso and the Duke of Roxburgh e as to this anna; 
the inhabitants claiming a right to wash and dry 
their linen on it, as they had been immemorially ac- 
customed to do ; and the Duke, as proprietor of the 
land on both sides of the river, claimed as his own 
the anna in the middle of the stream. The Court held 
that, as the inhabitants had been in the constant use 
of whitening and drying their linen on the island, they 
were entitled to continue the possession thereof as 
formerly, but decided that the mill was the property 
of the superior. Another mill once existed at a 
place called the CUCKOLD'S LANE, propelled by water 
from the site of the present Poors-house, and past 
the Dispensary, into the Tweed. 

ROXBUEGH-STEEET is a modern name imposed 
by a person of the name of Matheson, about sixty 
or seventy years ago. This part of the town for- 
merly consisted of four divisions : the Cunzie-nook, 
the Horse-shoe, the Chalkheugh, and the Windy 
Goul. The Cunzie-nook is supposed by some to 
have obtained its name from being the site of a 
mint, " Cunzie" coin, although no coins have been 
found inscribed with the name of Kelso ; yet Kelso 
may have been at one time a place of coinage, and 
that the coin bore the name of the King's burgh of 
Roxburgh; but certainly no coin yet discovered 
bears the impress "Kelso." During the siege of 
Roxburgh by James II, in 1460, there was a coin- 


age, and the coin bore on the interior circle the in- 
scription, " villa Roxburgh;" but how the coinage 
could have been in the town of Roxburgh at that 
time, is not clear. From 1346 to the siege in 1460, 
when James II. lost his life, Roxburgh had remained 
in the hands of the English king, and could not, 
during that time, have been a place of coinage. It is 
probable that, while the siege was proceeding, the 
coin was executed at Kelso, and impressed with the 
name of Roxburgh, the King's town. It is not easy 
to get over the name of the town on the coin, but it 
is certainly as difficult to reconcile the fact of a coin- 
age existing in a town that remained in possession 
of the English king during the life of James II. 
Though not attaching much importance to the name 
of Cunzie-nook, as the same name is to be found in 
many places of the county, yet it certainly is an ele- 
ment in support of the view, that the name was in- 
tended to describe the place where money was coined. 
The only thing tending to throw a doubt over the 
etymology is, that the coinage may have been in the 
town of Roxburgh, as the coin itself testifies, while the 
English held the Castle. The origin of the name of 
the HORSE-SHOE is also involved in difficulty. A short 
way up Roxburgh-street, a horse-shoe is firmly fixed 
in the middle of the street, and when one is worn 
out, a new one is substituted ; but there exists no 
tradition or document to tell the object of the shoe 
being placed in the street. I have made the most 


careful inquiries from persons who have lived to an 
old age without having left the place, and searched 
every document accessible to me, without getting 
any light on the subject. It is certain, however, 
that it has long formed a well-known boundary in 
the town, and many houses in its locality are de- 
scribed as being bounded by the Horse-shoe. Were 
I to hazard a conjecture, it would be that the horse- 
shoe is descriptive of some noted hostelry that stood 
in that locality, or that it received its name from 
being occupied by stables, or smiths' shops. In 
almost every town of importance was to be found, 
in times bygone, a hostelry with the sign of the 
horse-shoe. But the puzzle here is, that the Horse- 
shoe is evidently descriptive of a locality or a divi- 
sion, and not a single tenement. 

After the streets, the APPROACHES to the town 
naturally suggest themselves for consideration. Be- 
fore the erection of the old Bridge in 1754, which 
fell a victim to the autumn floods of 1797, the only 
access from the south and west was by ford or ferry. 
In the Theatrum Scotice, published near the begin- 
ning of the 18th century, the ferry-boats are seen in 
full operation. A flat-bottomed boat is engaged con- 
veying the horse-loads, and two small boats trans- 
porting the foot-passengers at the ferry at the Mill- 
wynd. There was also a cobble at the head of the 
town opposite St. James' Green, and another plying 


on Maxwell.* All these ferries were, previous to 
the dissolution of the monastic establishments, in 
the hands of the friars of Roxburgh. -j- In 1754, a 
bridge of stone was thrown over the Tweed, of which 
the stone piers are still to be seen at a short distance 
above the present bridge. In Pennant's engraving 
of the town and river, this bridge is in the fore- 
ground, consisting of six arches, the third and fourth 
of which appear to be higher than the others. Pen- 
nant says it was an " elegant bridge of six arches," 
and Hutchinson, that he had access to the town " by 
a fine stone bridge of six arches." At the time this 
bridge was erected, it is believed that no other bridge 
existed on the Tweed between Berwick and Peebles. 
Coldstream Bridge was opened for traffic in the 
autumn of 1766, and the elegant bridge at the con- 
fluence of the Leader with the Tweed, in the begin- 
ning of the present century. All the old bridges 

* Retours, No. 282. 

t All the passages on the river seem to have been in the 
hands of the clergy. In 1199, when the Bridge of Berwick 
was carried away by the flood, a dispute arose between the 
King and the Bishop of Durham as to rebuilding it, as it 
abutted on his land. The bridge which they erected only 
lasted nine years. In 1334, the bishop got a grant of the 
passage. Ayloff Cal. 147. 

J The present bridge at Berwick, of 16 arches, was built 
of stone in the reign of Elizabeth. Wallis' Northumberland, 
vol. ii. p. 41. It is said that it is founded upon wool packs, 
from the sources whence the expenses of building were drawn. 

Vol. i. pp. 75-77. 


which existed during the days of the Romans, and 
in the period of Border contention, had fallen into 
decay or been destroyed. Perhaps no bridge on the 
river was the scene of greater strife than the Bridge 
of Roxburgh. It is a pity there is no evidence to mark 
the exact situation of this well-contested access. 
In Patten's Narrative of Somerset's expedition, it 
is stated that between Kelso and Roxburgh there 
had been a great stone bridge with arches, which the 
Scots had broken down to prevent the English cross- 
ing over to them.* In 1370, Edward III. granted the 
burgesses of Roxburgh forty merks for the repair of 
this bridge.f In 1398, Sir Philip Stanley, the Cap- 
tain of Roxburgh Castle, claimed for the King of 
England ^2000, against the Earl of Douglas' son 
and others, for having broken the bridge, burnt the 
burgh, and destroyed a great quantity of hay and 
fuel.! In 1410 the bridge was again broken down 
by the Earl of March and others. In the burgh 
books of Kelso, there is an entry under March, 1718, 
bearing that Sir William Kerr of Greenhead's house 
and offices at Bridgend were burned, with all his 

* Patten says that the Tweed at Kelso was of great depth 
and swiftness, running thence eastward into the sea at Ber- 
wick, and was notable and famous for two commodities, 
especially salmon and whetstones. 

t " Pro reparatione et emendatione pontes ultra aquam de 
Twede." Eotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 937. 

J Border History, p. 365. Ib. p. 380. 


furniture and goods. This place was situated in 
the policy of Spring-wood Park, a little way to the 
south of the old graveyard, and at a place where 
the river Teviot was forded before the erection of 
the present bridge. In the map of Timothy Pont, 
drawn by him in the beginning of the 17th century, 
published after his death in Blaeu's Atlas Scotise in 
1655, Si fort is seen near the mouth of the Teviot; 
and in Stobie's map of 1772, a considerable num- 
ber of houses are shown on the right bank of the 
Teviot, a short way above Maxwellheugh Mill. 
This place could not have got its name from the 
old bridge which was carried away by the floods, 
because it was only erected in 1754, and the 
name existed long before that date. There must 
have been a bridge here in early times, either 
over the Teviot or on the Tweed, which imposed a 
name upon the place, although the bridge over 
the Tweed, connecting Roxburgh with Kelso, has 
always been looked for higher up the river, yet 
it may have been in this locality. The pre- 
sent bridge was begun in 1800, and finished in 
1803, at a cost, including approaches, of about 
.18,000. It is, in length, 494 feet, breadth 
of roadway, 25 feet, and its height from the foun- 
dation is about 57 feet. There are five ellipti- 
cal arches, the span of each being 72 feet, and 
the piers 14 feet. The late Mr. Rennie was the 
architect; and it is said that Waterloo Bridge over 


the Thames in London was built after the same 
plan. The structure is very elegant, and is worthy 
of the lovely locality in which it is placed. There 
is a fine painting of Kelso by Macculloch, in which 
the bridge is a prominent object.* "Few scenes," 

* In addition to what is stated in vol. i. p. 73, as to the 
river Tweed, I may further refer to an earthquake which 
happened in April 27, 1656, and which followed the course 
of the Tweed from its source to the ocean. The shock was 
felt only in the river and places adjacent, but in no other 
part of the kingdom. Balfour's Annals, vol. iv. p. 8. In 
the Newcastle Journal, March 19, 1748, is a letter from a 
gentleman in Scotland, stating that, on the 25th of January 
previous, the river Teviot, for two miles before it joins the 
river Tweed, had stopped its current, and its channel became 
dry, leaving the fishes on dry ground, many of which were 
taken up by the country people, and sold at Langton and 
other places. It continued in that condition for the space of 
nine hours ; and when it resumed its course, it did so gradu- 
ally, till it ran as usual, but in no greater quantity. On the 
19th February of the same year, the river Kirtle was dry for 
six hours, leaving fishes at the bottom, which alarmed the 
country so much, that Sir William Maxwell, who lived within 
500 yards of it, and many of the country people, rode along 
the banks of the river, and found it dry for six miles, but 
could not find out the cause of the water stopping. Four 
days afterwards, the river Esk itself stopped its course, and 
the channel became quite dry, except some deep holes, for 
the space of six hours. The strangeness of the facts com- 
municated, and the doubtfulness of the public concerning 
them, induced the proprietors of the journal to make inquiries 
on the subject from persons living on the spot, and they re- 
ceived a report from a gentleman of whose veracity they had 
faith, and who was in part an eye-witness. He stated that 


says the writer of the New Statistical Account of 
the Parish, "are more imposing than that which 
opens to the tourist, as he descends from the oppo- 
site village of Maxwellheugh, with the prospect 
beneath him of this fine architectural object, the 

he observed the Esk sink several inches perpendicularly that 
day, and at first attributed it to frost, or the dryness of the 
times, but he considered that the greatest frosts, nor the 
greatest drought in summer, never had such effect. The 
rivers Sark and Liddell stopped their course, and the shallows 
became dry, on Saturday the 20th of February ; Sark, near 
Philipstown, in the parish of Kirk Andrews ; Esk and Tine 
were both dry on the 25th ; Esk, at a place called the Row, 
about a mile below Langton ; as also above Langholm and 
Tine near West Linton; Kirtle was dry some days before, 
near Springhill. There was some little water running among 
the small stones, but several persons passed through without 
wetting their feet. The places where Esk and Liddell were dry 
are seldom under sixteen or eighteen inches deep in the driest 
times. There was very little frost on the Esk that day. 
There was no swell of the water as if stopped by frost, but a 
general sink or lessening of the water. Liddell was dry in 
the afternoon, and the other rivers in the morning, and con- 
tinued so till ten o'clock, when they began to flow again 
gently, and rose to the usual height in a short time. The 
reporter concludes by saying that "this account is not disputed 
here any more than that the sun shines in the clearest day." 
In the same journal, March 5, 1753, it is stated "that some 
years ago the river Tweed was dried up near Peebles, from 
six in the morning till six at night, the current being sus- 
pended during that time, of which many persons were eye- 
witnesses." Since the first volume of this work was pub- 
lished, a stoppage of the river Tweed was observed about 
Innerleithen, and which was attributed to frost. 


majestic Tweed, the picturesque town and abbey, 
and the noble background of the castle, woods, and 
surrounding heights of Floors.* 

The TOWN, while the property of the monks, 
formed part of the regality of the Abbey. Soon 
after the Eeformation, it was granted to Francis, 
Earl of Bothwell, but returned to the Crown at his 
forfeiture in 1594. In 1605, it was bestowed on 
Sir Robert Ker, of Cessford, the ancestor of the pre- 
sent Duke of Roxburghe. In 1634, Kelso, which 
was previously included in the barony of Holydean, 
was separated and erected into a free burgh of 
barony, with powers to the baron and his male heirs 
in all time to receive and admit new burgesses, to 
appoint baillies, clerk, officers, and other members 
necessary for the government of the burgh, to hold 
weekly public markets, and two free fairs yearly 
for the space of eight days, to receive and uplift 
the customs and duties thereof, and to apply the 
same to the common good of the burgh, and to 
establish regulations for the general good of the 
town, advancement of trade, and encouragement of 
manufactures. The town was incorporated after the 
passing of the act, but the sett in existence is dated 
1757, and under it the town is governed by a baillie 
appointed by the Duke of Roxburghe, and fifteen 

* New Statistical Account, p. 321. 


stentmasters. The corporate bodies are seven : viz., 
the merchant company, skinners, weavers, tailors, 
shoemakers, hammermen, and fleshers. These bodies 
admit freemen, and enforce obedience to the regula- 
tions of the burgh. Each trade elects its preses and 
deacons. The baillie judges in all disputes as to ad- 
mission to the trades, and holds courts for the deci- 
sion of cases falling under his jurisdiction. The 
inhabitants having some years ago adopted the 
Police Act, the town may now be said to be almost 
entirely under the management of the Commissioners 
of Police, elected by the ten-pound householders. 
The Records of the Burgh Court commence in 1647, 
Andrew Ker of Maison Dieu, baillie of the regality. 
The earliest date in the convenery trade books is in 
1658. The Merchant Company's Record, so far as 
yet discovered, does not go back farther than 1771. 
The power of the baillie, as well as the customs of 
the inhabitants of the town, may be illustrated by a 
few excerpts from the burgh books previous to the 
passing of the Heritable Jurisdiction Act in 1749. 
In 1641, certain acts were passed by the baillie of 
the regality PATEICK DON with the view of keep- 
ing good neighbourhood among the neighbours of 
the nether fields at Kelso, with consent of the hail 
neighbours and persons concerned, viz., " That no 
person whatsoever presume to lift or take away any 
march stones betwixt neighbours' lands, under a 


penalty of fifty shillings to the Burlaw men/'* No 
person presume to gather other men's pease, or to 
gleane the same, without leave asked and given by 
the owners thereof, "under pain of five pounds to the 
baillie, and fifty shillings to the Burlaw men for ilk 
fault. No persons whatsoever offer to lead away 
stones, or clay, or pick broom off other persons' 
lands or dykes, without leave asked and given by the 
owners of said lands, under penalty of forty shillings ; 
that no person gather thistles or weeds from among 
the corn without leave asked and given. No person 
in the time of harvest to bring in any shorn corn, 
either peas, oats, or other corn, into town after eight 
o'clock at night, though the corn be their own. In 
1711, "the whilk day the baillie (Gilbert Ker) un- 
derstanding that there are several prentices, journey- 
men, and other persons molests and troubles the 
boys at the Grammar School in the Churchyard 
whyle at their innocent dyvertione, and that to the 
effusion of their blood, and hazard of their lives; 
and considering the laudable custom of this place 
for crushing fresh abuses, does ratify and approve 
thereof; and farder, whatever damage is done to the 

* Each barony had its Burlaw men, for the settlement of 
disputes between neighbours, as to any loss or injury sustained 
by the cattle belonging to each other. They met forthwith 
on the ground, and administered summary justice. The word 
itself means short law, or speedy justice. 


scholars, it is hereby declared, that parents shall be 
liable for their children, and masters for their ser- 
vants, prentices, and journeymen, as guilty of blood 
wyt, and in case of not in a condition to pay the 
fine, ordains application to be made to the justices 
of the peace for delivering them over as knaves or 
other public pests and vagabonds, and ane extract 
hereof to be given to the next district meeting of 
the justices of the peace here/' In 1716, the same 
authority endeavoured to prevent football from being 
played within his jurisdiction : " Forasmuch as there 
were several unallowable abuses, tumults, and riots 
committed the last year at the football, and that the 
same did create feud and enmity amongst several of 
the neighbours and inhabitants, and also consider- 
ing, by divers old laws and acts of Parliament, the 
football is discharged: these do therefore prohibit 
and discharge the football from being played by any 
of this jurisdiction, either within the town or the 
precincts thereof/' In 1 71 7, Baillie CHATTO passed 
the following enactment, which shows the rudeness 
of a comparatively modern age :"" The baillie, in ane 
lawful fenced court this day, having considered of 
ane evil custom and practice of the feuars' servants, 
and others who possess the land, and labours the 
same in Kelso, that they compel their neighbour 
servants at their entry to serve any master in this 
place, to give money or ale to them under the notion 
of brothering the said men servants, and, in case of 


refusal, abuses their masters by taking away their 
pleugh and other labouring graith, to the great dis- 
turbance of the peace in this town and incorporation, 
which ought to be prevented in .time to come. 
Therefore, and for remeid thereof, the baillie, by the 
force of this act, prohibits and discharges all the 
servants within the burgh, and commonly called 
Whipmen* frae craving, forcing, or exacting frae 

* The society or brotherhood against which the law was 
directed consisted of farmers' servants, ploughmen, and car- 
ters, commonly called whipmen. The regulations of the 
society were secret. Once a-year a public meeting was held, 
for the purpose of amusement, at which the members were 
dressed in their best clothes, and heads adorned with bunches 
of ribbons, hanging over their shoulders. The members 
assembled in the market-place about eleven o'clock forenoon, 
mounted on horses, armed with clubs and wooden hammers, 
in military form, from whence they marched, with drums beat- 
ing, music playing, and flags waving, to the common, about 
half-a-mile from the town, the place of rendezvous, to their 
sports. The first part of the performance, which was called 
the cat in barrel, consisted in putting a cat into a barrel 
stuffed with soot, and hung up upon a beam fixed upon two 
high poles, under which the members rode in succession, 
striking the barrel as they passed with their clubs or ham- 
mers. On the barrel being broken, the cat jumped down 
from the sooty prison, when it soon fell a victim to the whip- 
men and the crowd of townspeople assembled to witness 
the sports. A goose was next hung up by the feet on the 
beam, and the members then rode one after another under it, 
each trying to catch hold of the head in passing, till some 
lucky brother plucks off the head, and carries it away in 
triumph. Horse-races followed, after which the brotherhood 


any other servant, new or old, any money or ale, 
coming under the notion of their right frae tenantry 
or brotherhood, or molesting or troubling them or 
their masters' pleugh graith, on the head foresaid, 
with certification, he or they who shall transgress 
this act shall ilk ane of them pay a fine to the Pro- 
curator-fiscal of the soume often groats toties quoties; 
and further, that there has been a base custom 
among the said whipmen of electing and choosing 
of ane of their ain number to be their lord or baillie, 
and ane other to be their officer, whereby they, to 
the disturbing of the peace, make laws and orders 
among themselves, contrare to the laws of the king- 
dom, and their masters' prejudice, such as the dis- 
charging any of their number to work, when any of 
them are convened before the magistrate for misde- 
meanours and offences, so that they turn to a party, 
and mob, and threatens, and dares the magistracy 
and authority itself, which ought to be prevented in 
time coming. Wherefore, for preventing the like 

returned to Kelso, and ended the day in feasting and drink- 
ing. These cruel sports contimied to be practised down to 
the beginning of the present century, when they ceased, and 
the sports confined to running races, chiefly in consequence 
of strictures written by Robert Mason, a native of Kelso, 
published in 1789 by James Palmer, the founder of the news- 
paper press in Kelso. It is thought that the strong arm of 
authority was directed against the whipmen, not only on 
account of the practices mentioned in the proclamation, but 
also that the society was secret, and at that period deemed 


in time coming, the baillie discharges the said ser- 
vants, called whipmen, from choosing any baillie or 
lord officer amongst themselves, or to convene them- 
selves as formerly, under any pretence whatsoever, 
and that with certification, the contravener thereof, 
by choosing or being choosed, or meeting as above, 
shall pay a fine, ilk person guilty, of 10 Scots toties 
quoties; and discharges the whole inhabitants of the 
town from giving the said whipmen shelter for such 
meetings, or selling ale to them on such occasions, and 
that under the penalty and certification aforesaid." 

markets of Kelso appear at a very early period. 
By a charter of William the Lion, the monks of 
Kelso were allowed right of market under certain 
restrictions. The men of the monks living in the 
town were allowed to buy in the town fuel, materials 
for building, and provisions, on any day of the week 
excepting the day of the king's statute market at 
Eoxburgh ; they might expose in their own windows, 
bread, ale, and flesh; any fish which they had car- 
ried to Eoxburgh, either on horseback or in wains, 
and which remained unsold, might also be exposed 
in their windows for sale ; dealers passing through 
the town with wains should not unload or sell, but 
pass on to the king's market at Roxburgh. On the 
day of the statute market at Roxburgh, it was de- 
clared unlawful to sell or buy anything in Kelso ; 


and the inhabitants of that place were enjoined on 
that day to go to the king's market, and buy what 
they wanted in common with his burgesses of Box- 
burgh, according to their customs.* 

The weekly market of the town is held on Fridays, 
and is attended by a great number of people, at 
which grain of every kind is sold by sample, both 
in the market-place and in the Corn Exchange a 
large, elegant, and commodious building, erected by 
subscription in 1856. There are also two market 
days for hiring servants, before each term of Mar- 
tinmas and Whitsunday. In March, there are good 
markets for horses ; and, during the winter season, 
monthly markets for sheep and cattle. The butchers 
used to offer flesh for sale in a public market, but for 
many years they have followed the regulations laid 
down in the charter of William the Lion, and exposed 
it in their shop windows. The foundation of the 
Abbey was the epoch of trade in Kelso. The monks 
and their men in early days were skilled as artisans. 
Between 1165 and 1171, William the Dyer lived in 
Kelso.-f- The various dealings in this town were 
greatly promoted by the establishment of a branch 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 15, 305. 

t Ib. Dyers were forbidden to be drapers, and the wool* 
of Scotknd were, during the 14th and 15th centuries, draped 
in Flanders. The nation was supplied with mer eerie and 
liaberdasherie out of the low countries. 


of the Bank of Scotland in 1774 At present there 
are five bank agencies in the town. 

LITEKATTJKE. Under this head the libraries of 
the town may be first noticed. The Kelso library 
was founded in 1750, and contains about 6000 
volumes. It is kept in a commodious building at 
the Chalkheugh, the property of the shareholders. 
In the library is a manuscript copy of Archbishop 
Spottiswoode's History of the Church of Scotland. 
The date of the copy is supposed to have been after 
1625, as it contains an unsigned "Epistle Dedica- 
torie" to Charles I. The volume bears the word 
" Lander dale," and it is thought to have been one 
of two MSS. of the work possessed by the Duke of 
Lauderdale, and disposed of at a sale by auction of 
his Grace's books, in " Tom's Coffee-house, Ludgate- 
hill," in 1692, by a friend of Evelyn's to whom they 
had been pawned. The catalogue of the sale con- 
tains two MSS. of Spottiswoode's work, Nos. 1 1 and 
12. The Duke of Lauderdale died in 1682. This 
MS. is said, by Bishop Russell, to be an exact copy, 
with the exception of a few verbal alterations, of a 
manuscript marked "Ex bibliotheca apud Spottis- 
woode," which was put into his hands by the present 
representative of the Primate's family.* The New 

* Preface, by Bishop Russell, to a new edition of 
woode's History of the Church of Scotland, p. 3. 


Library, founded in 1778, and the Modern Library 
in 1800, were united in 1858, and consist of about 
4000 volumes. There are also libraries in connec- 
tion with the churches of the town. The "Physical 
and Antiquarian Society" was founded in 1834. 
A suitable building has been erected in Roxburgh- 
street, adjoining the Chalkheugh Library, and in 
which is an extensive collection of rare and valuable 
specimens of natural history and antiquities. Sir 
T. M. Brisbane is President. The Society was for- 
tunate in securing the services, as Secretary, for 
many years, of the accomplished Dr. Charles Wil- 
son, late of Kelso, while the skill exhibited by Mr. 
Heckford in the preservation of the animals is not 
surpassed by the best artists in London. The first 
newspaper started in Kelso was the British Chro- 
nicle, or Union Gazette, in 1783, by a person of the 
name of James Palmer. It was published every 
Friday morning in Bridge-street, and adjoined the 
Bank of Scotland. The Chronicle advocated liberal 
principles, which gave offence to those who held 
different opinions, and the result was the establish- 
ment of the Kelso Mail, under the superintendence 
of James Ballantyne, which still continues to be the 
organ of conservatism. At this press the first edi- 
tion of the Border Minstrelsy was printed. In 
March, 1823, the Border Courier was brought out 
by the late John Mason, in opposition to the Mail, 
but failed to gain sufficient support, and the last 


number was published in the October following. In 
1832, the Kelso Chronicle was set on foot by the 
Whigs of the district, for the purpose of advocating 
the principles of the party, and is still in existence. 
About three years ago, a reading-roomwas erected by 
shareholders, and is well supplied with newspapers. 

The SCHOOLS of Kelso have long been famed for 
eminent masters. In the Grammar School the Latin 
and Greek classics are taught, with French, geogra- 
phy, and mathematics. The rector has the maxi- 
mum salary and the statutory accommodation. 
The fees charged are, for classics, 10s. per quarter, 
and for mathematics, 10s. 6d. The late Dr. Dymock, 
one of the rectors of the Grammar School of Glas- 
gow, was master of this school from 1791 till 1808, 
and during that period attracted to the seminary 
sons of the most eminent scholars of the day. It 
was at this school that the great novelist Scott re- 
ceived part of his education. The master of the 
English School has a salary of ^5, lls. Id., paid 
equally by the heritors of the landward part of the 
parish and the burgh, and the interest of < J 240 of 
money mortified for teaching poor scholars recom- 
mended by the kirk-session. The fees charged are, 
for reading, 3s. 6d., for writing, 4s. 6d., arithmetic, 
6s. 6d. There are also a number of excellent pri- 
vate schools in the town, and boarding-schools for 
young ladies. Besides the week-day schools, there 


are Sabbath schools connected with the Established 
Church and dissenting congregations in the town. 

The town of Kelso has long been famed for its 
Races. The original course was on Caverton Edge, 
and afterwards, for a few years, on Blakelaw Edge. 
In 1822, James, late Duke of Roxburghe, converted 
the Berry Moss into one of the finest race-courses 
in the kingdom. It is a mile and a quarter round, 
sixty feet broad, and from there being no rising 
ground, the horses are seen distinctly from the 
starting till the termination of the race. On the west 
of the course is an elegant stand, with suitable ac- 
commodation. There is a spring and an autumn 
meeting, the latter often enhanced by the presence 
of the Caledonian Hunt. The first race run on the 
new course was in September, 1822. 

the first intimation of Kelso is to be found in the 
charter of David L, there can be little doubt that a 
town and church existed there at an earlier period. 
At the date of the charter, a church, dedicated to St. 
Mary, was planted in that situation ; but the state 
of the country may be inferred from Edenham being 
described as a waste in the days of King Edgar, who 
reigned between 1097 and 1107. At that period 
the manor of Kelso was the property of the King, 
and remained so till 1128, when it was granted by 
David to the monks of the order of St. Benedict, 


whom he had settled in the desert at Selkirk, in 
1113.* There is no information existing to point 
out the exact boundaries of the manor of Kelso, but 
it is thought to have comprehended the whole parish 
of Kelso lying on the north of the river Tweed, if 
not all the land lying between Brocsmouth and the 
influx of the Eden. When Malcolm IV. confirmed 
the grant of his grandfather David, he described it 
as " the town of Kelcho, with its due bounds in land 
and water, discharged quit and free from every bur- 
den; also the lands which Gerold gave me near the 
confines of the said town, which lands came down 
to the road which goes to Naythanthyrn." At the 
date of this charter there was only one town of 
Kelso; but in the reign of Kobert I., two towns 
appear in the records. The wester town seems to 
have been incorporated at an early period, and 
governed by a provost, between 1165 and 1214. 
During the reign of William, Arnold the son of 
Peter of Kelso granted a messuage and some land, 
with a toft and croft in Kelso, and three shillings of 
annual rent paid by Ralph, the provost of the 
burgh. In 1323, the burgesses of wester Kelso 
appeared in the court of the abbot, and acknow- 
ledged that they had done wrong in making a new 
burgess without his consent. In an old rent-roll of 
the abbey, supposed to have been made up about 

* Foundation Charter of Kelso. Chron. Mail. p. 64. 


the beginning of the 14th century, easier Kalchou 
is entered as being in their own hands, and the mill 
of the easier town is said to be rented at , J 22. It 
is impossible to say, with any degree of certainty, 
the distinct boundaries of these two towns, but I 
think it may be fairly inferred, that the principal 
or wester town of Kelso lay along the river's bank, 
beyond the Duke of Roxburghe's old garden. The 
garden wall runs across what was of old the market- 
place of Kelso. The feuars of the third generation 
by-gone could point out to their children their for- 
mer steadings in the burgh. The market cross of 
this town stood, it is said, north of the Coblehole, 
from whence it was removed to the Bang's Tree. 
During the night the cross was abstracted from this 
place, and all trace of it has as yet been lost. A little 
to the west, and nearly opposite to St. James Fair- 
stead is the FAIB-CKOSS, which appears to have been 
in former times a village ; and after the erection of 
Broxfield into a barony, it was one of the seats of 
the baronial court. In the valuation-book of the 
county of Roxburgh, made up in 1791, and cor- 
rected to 1811, is entered as belonging to Isabella 
Trotter, " a small piece of ground surrounded by the 
pleasure-grounds of Floors;" and " lands in Fair- 
er oss" are stated as having formerly belonged to 
Richard Learmonth.* The abbot's seat or stead was 

* Valuation Book, p. 43. 


at the Pipewell-brae, or ground which now forms a 
part of the estate of Henderside. In the valuation- 
book already referred to, there are a number of fields 
entered as being situated in this locality. Baillie 
John Jerdone was possessed of " one enclosure in 
Abbotseat." Charles Williamson has two enclos- 
ures there, and the- heirs of Robert Happer three 
enclosures in Abbotseat.* In the Retour of the 
service of John Duke of Roxburghe, in 1696, the 
manor of Kelso is described as comprehending the 
lands called Almirielands and bakehouses of Kelso, 
the mills thereof, the fishings on the Tweed, and 
four ferry boats on the river, "the lands called 
Westercrofts ; the lands of Broombalks and Hoitt ; 
Broomlands; lands of Angreflat; the lands of 
Broomcroft ; the lands of Towncrofts ; lands of 
Blackbalks and west meadows; the lands of Eshie- 
heugh, and all other moors and mosses lying near to 
the town of Kelso, and which were of old possessed 
by the abbots of Kelso and their tenants."-f- There 
can be no doubt, however, that nearly all the pre- 
sent town of Kelso, built on the haugh, including 
the market-place, is erected upon what was for- 
merly the gardens and domestic buildings of the 
abbey. In the rent-roll given up by the Earl of 
Roxburghe, in 1630, there were twenty-seven 
feuars of the lands in the town and territory of 

* Valuation Book, pp.41-43. t Retours, No. 318. 


Kelso ; twenty-one feuars of Willands and crofts in 

The colony was settled in Selkirk by David, to 
be near his castle and hunting-seat in the forest, 
where he often lived while Earl of Cumberland. 
While the abbey was erected near to the earl's castle 
and village, the men of the monks soon reared a 
town, which became known in after times as the 
Abbot's Selkirk, to distinguish it from the town of 
the king. KADULPHUS was the first abbot of this 
fraternity, and who became abbot of Tyrone on the 
death of Bernardus in 1115.* The second abbot, 
WILLIAM, remained at Selkirk till the death of 
Radulphus, whom he succeeded as abbot of Tyrone 
in lllS.f The third abbot of Selkirk, and the first 
of Kelso, was HEEBEET, who afterwards rose to be 
Bishop of Glasgow at the death of John in 11 47.+ 
But on Roxburgh being chosen as a royal residence, 
Selkirk became inconvenient for both king and monks. 
It is probable that between 1124 when David as- 
cended the throne and 1128, preparations had been 
made at Kelso for the reception of the monks, and the 
charter only granted when the accommodation was 
sufficient for the fraternity. While these works were 
proceeding, there can be little doubt that the monks 

* Chron. Mail. p. 65. t Ib. p. 66. 

$ Ib. p. 66, " Et illi successit Herbertus Monachus postea 
primus abbas de Kelchou." Ib. 73, " Obiit Johannes Glas- 
guensis Episcopus et Herbertus abbas de Calchou successit ei." 


were lodged at Roxburgh by their pious founder. 
Sir James Balfour positively states that, " in May, 
1125, David translated the Abbey of Selkirk to 
Roxburgh ;" but it is more likely that the complete 
removal of the fraternity did not take place till 1 1 28, 
the date of the charter, although the great body of 
the monks and their men might be engaged in the 
erection of the house from the time David became 
king. Considering the character of David, a proper 
location for his favourite monks would be one of his 
earliest cares on being raised to the throne. It is 
hardly possible at this day to appreciate the great 
benefits conferred on a district by the foundation of 
an abbey or religious house within its bounds. 
The inmates of these houses carried not only the 
gospel into the wilds and waste places of the 
land, but peace and civilization followed in their 
footsteps ; they stood between the oppressed poor, 
the serf, and slave, and the feudal tyrant and mili- 
tary spoilers of those benighted times. The abbeys 
were the sole depositaries of learning and the arts 
through many centuries of ignorance. The monks 
collected manuscripts, and made copies of valuable 
works. In the Scriptorum silent monks were con- 
stantly employed making copies of the Bible, which 
were sometimes sold, but were oftener "bestowed 
as precious gifts, which brought a blessing equally 

* Bit-Hour's Annals, vol. i. p. 10. 


to those who gave and those who received." To 
these Benedictines are we indebted for nearly the 
whole of the works of Pliny, Sallust, and Cicero. 
They were the earliest painters, and the fathers of 
Gothic architecture, the inventors of the gamut, and 
the first who instituted a school of music was Guido 
d'Arizzo, a monk. They were the greatest farmers 
of the early times, and the first agriculturists who 
brought intellect and science to bear on the cultiva- 
tion of the soil. Wherever they carried the cross, 
the plough also appeared. In the number of their 
flocks they rivalled kings and nobles. " The extra- 
ordinary benefit which they conferred on society by 
colonizing waste places places chosen because they 
were waste and solitary, and such as could be re- 
claimed only by the incessant labour of those who 
were willing to work hard and live hard lands often 
given because they were not worth keeping lands 
which, for a long time, left their cultivators half- 
starved and dependent on the charity of those who 
admired what we must too often call fanatical 
zeal even the extraordinary benefit, I say, which 
they conferred upon mankind by thus clearing 
and cultivating, was small in comparison with the 
advantages derived from them by society, after 
they had become large proprietors, landlords, with 
more benevolence, and farmers with more intelli- 
gence and capital than any others."* Take the 

* Maitland's Dark Ages. 


House of Kelso as an illustration. When David 
placed the community at Selkirk, the district was 
overgrown with woods, nearly uninhabited, except 
by the beasts of the forest. But in a short time a 
town was built and peopled ; churches were raised ; 
the waste was converted into fruitful fields; the 
rose was seen to blossom where the bramble formerly 
grew. On the sources of the Beaumont and the 
Cayle, numerous herds of cattle and flocks of sheep 
covered the sides of the mountains, and corn waved 
on the summits of many of the hills. Mills were 
erected in the granges to grind the corn belonging 
to the monks, as well as the produce of their neigh- 
bours' lands. The deserts of Liddesdale were colo- 
nized by them at a time when it was dangerous for 
a Christian to be found in that wild region. For 
many years a monk of Kelso lived in the waste near 
to Hermitage Castle, preaching to the rude men of 
the district. So early as the days of William the 
Lion, the monks had converted the morasses on the 
upper parts of the Ale into arable lands. Where- 
ever they had a grange, they built cottages for the 
persons employed in labouring on the land, or tend- 
ing the flocks of sheep, or herds of cattle and swine. 
They built bridges and made roads throughout the 
whole country. In the Abbey the sons of the nobi- 
lity were boarded and educated.* To qualify the 

* In 1260, Matilda of Moll granted her thirds in the lands 
Moll to the abbots and monks of Kelso, on condition that of 


monks for being instructors of youth, one or more 
of them were generally in England studying the 
liberal faculties and sciences.* 

While an examination of the Chartulaiy tells of 
the wealth of the Monastery in its lands and houses, 
studs, flocks, and herds, it also exhibits an interest- 
ing picture of the social condition of the people 
during the 12th and 13th centuries. At first the 
lands were cultivated by the bondsmen and villeyns 
belonging to the Abbey ,-j- but in the progress of time 
the hamlets to which a district of land was attached 
gradually came to be occupied by the free tenants, 
who rented each a husbandland, and the cattle and 
swine of all the husbandmen or tenants pastured on 

they should board and educate her son with the best boys 
who were entrusted to their care. Lib. de Calchou. 

* In the Book of Kelso there is the form of a license to 
enable a monk to go to England to study. 

t These men might all be bought and sold with the land. 
In 1144, David granted to the abbot of Kelso the church of 
Lesmahago, and all Lesmahago, with the men cum Iwmini- 
bus. In 1116, Waldeve, the Earl, gave to the same monks 
Halden and William, his brother, and all their children 
and their posterity. Andrew, the son of Gilbert Fraser, gave 
the monks some lands in the lordship of Gordon, with Ada, 
the son of Henry del Hoga my vikyn and all his issue : 
" Native meo cum iota sequla sua." All the prisoners not- 
ransomed remained in bondage, and on the Borders they got 
the name of Cumerlach, from their constant wailing while 
working in the field. In the charters they are styled 


the common of the hamlet.* There were also a 
number of cottages in the hamlet in which labourers 
lived, who possessed with each house a croft of 
about an acre of land, and the right of pasturing 
their cows and swine on' the common, which con- 
sisted of pasture-land and woodland. When the hamlet 
increased to the size of a village, a mill, malt-kiln, 
and brewhouse appeared. Each of these husband- 
lands -f- used to rent in Eoxburghshire on an average 
of 6s. 8d. yearly, and services, such as the husband- 
man shearing for four days with his wife and whole 
family ; carrying a wainload of peats to the stable- 
yard, and one cart-load of peats to the abbey in 
summer ; travelling to Berwick with one horse-cart 
once in the year ; finding a man to wash the sheep, 
and another man to shear them, and assisting to 
carry the wool of the Grange to the abbey. While 
performing these services, the husbandmen generally 
got their victuals at the abbey; but those who 

* In 1160, John, the abbot of Kelso, granted to Osbern, 
his man, half-a-carrucate of land in Midleni, he becoming a 
freeman, and paying yearly a rent of 8s. A earrucate of land 
was as much land as could be tilled by a plough with eight 
oxen. The same abbot granted to his man Walden the eighth 
part of Currokis for half-a-merk yearly, and the third part of 
Auchenlee, paying for it 2s. 3d. yearly. 

t A husbandland was generally equal in extent to a bovate 
or oxgate, consisting of six, thirteen, and occasionally nine- 
teen acres. The extent depended on the number of oxgates 
granted to the husbandmen. 



washed and sheared the sheep often did so without 
victuals. To supply the want of capital, every hus- 
bandman was in use to lease with his land two oxen, 
one horse, three chalders of oats, six bolls of barley, 
and three bolls of meal ; a practice which is thought 
to be the origin of Steelbow* The cottages rented 
at about eighteen pence yearly; six days' labour 
in autumn; to assist at the washing and shearing 
the sheep of the Grange; and weeding the corn of 
the abbot. -f- The abbot was entitled to take from 
every house in every hamlet before Christmas a cock 
for a penny. A brewhouse usually rented for about 
6s. 8d. yearly, with this condition, that the brewer 
was bound to sell the abbot a lagen and a half of 
ale equal to about seven quarts for a penny. A 

* Steelbow is supposed to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon 
ftcel, signifying the state of the thing, its condition ; and bod 
in the British, bo in the Irish, and bye in the Saxon, mean 
habitation ; steelbow, the condition of the habitation. On the 
tenant entering into the subject, an inventory was taken of 
the goods belonging to the lord, and declared in the language 
of the lease of the 14th century, " Alle this to leve and to 
delivere to the said William Skrene or to his heyres at the 
termes ende." Madox, p. 144. The leases were for fifty 
years, or for life, and the widow of the tenant enjoyed 
the subjects during life. The monks were liberal landlords 
and indulgent masters. Stellnet seems to have the same 
meaning as steelbow, a fixed net at a particular place for 

t The cottages were formed of wood and turf, and of the 
value of about 20s. Houses were deemed of little import- 
ance, the value was attached to the land. 


great quantity of malt was used during the 12th 
century, and it is supposed that the mill of Ednam 
alone ground not less than 1000 quarters of malt 
yearly.* All these services were, about 1 297, com- 
muted into a payment in money. The monastery 
acquired from the kings general grants of the 
use of their forests for pasturage, panage, and for 
cutting wood for building and burning, and for all 
other purposes. Earl David granted such a right to 
the abbot and convent of Selkirk, and on his 
ascending the throne, he renewed the grant in favour 
of the house of Kelso. David II. conferred on them 
a special grant of wood out of Jed forest to repair 
the abbey. Besides these royal grants, they en- 
joyed special grants from barons of the same privi- 
leges in particular forests, which extended not only 
to the monks, but to their men, all who were 
engaged in the cultivation of their lands, and to 
their shepherds. In these forests vast herds of 

* Oat malt was generally used ; malt of barley appears sel- 
dom. Oat malt sold at 3s. 6d. per quarter, and barley at 4s. 
4d., during the 12th and 13th centuries. An acre of oats was 
valued at 6s. Oats and wheat were the grain chiefly culti- 
vated at that period. Wheat sold at from 7s. to 8s. per 
quarter ; flour, 6s. per quarter ; oats, 3s. 6d. ; barley, 4s. 4d. ; 
pease, 2s. 9d. ; beans, 5s. ; salt, 5s. ; the carcase of an ox, 
from 5s. to 6s. 8d. ; fat hogs, 2s. 2d. to 3s. 9d. Wardrobe 
account. The multure paid for grinding at the mills was 
fixed by King William at the sixteenth vessel for a freeman, 
and a firlot out of 20 bolls as Knaveship. 


cattle and swine were reared, and in them their 
breeding inares ran in a wild state. From many 
barons they had grants of a tenth of the young 
stock bred in the forests. Gilbert de Umfraville 
granted to the monks the tenth of the foals of his 
breeding mares in the forest of Cottenshope, and the 
foals were allowed to follow their dam till they were 
two years old.* A grant of lands often contained 
a right of Scalengas, in the mountains to which the 
cattle and flocks were taken to pasture during sum- 
mer, and returned to the low-lying grounds at the 
approach of winter. Gospatric, the Earl of Dunbar, 
bestowed such a privilege of pasturage on the abbey 
in the lands of Bothkel.-^ During the reign of 
William the Lion, Patrick, another Earl of Dunbar, 
granted the monks the same rights. William de 
Veterepont granted to them the scalengas in Lam- 
bermore, which belonged to Hornerdene.\ The same 
practice is described by Cambden as existing in the 
wastes of Cumberland and Northumberland so late 
as 1594. He says, "The herdsmen were a sort 
of nomades, who lived in huts dispersed from each 
other, which were called Scheales or Schaelings." 
In all the mountain districts of Roxburghshire the 

* Lib. de Calchou. 

t Ib. " Scalingas de Bothkel per rectas suas divisas." 
+ Lib. de Calchou. 

Scalingas signifies a mountain pasture, the herdsmen's 
huts, and secondarily, a hamlet. 


word shiel or shieling is to be found in the names of 

In addition to the grants of WOOD for burning, 
which seems to have been the earliest fuel, the 
monks obtained grants of turves and pelts. The 
principal PEATRIES of the monastery appear to have 
been in the territory of Gordon. Thomas de Gordon 
granted to the monks a right to take peats from 
that part of his peatry called Brun Moss, in the 
' territory of Gordon, with land, for the conveniency 
of working the moss ; and also the liberty of pulling 
heath wherever they could in the territories of 
Thornditch and Gordon, and timber from his woods, 
on their agreeing to allow his bones to repose in the 
cemetery of Kelso. In carting the peats from this 
peatry, the men of the monks required to cross the 
rivulet of Blackburn on the lands of Melochstane, 
which being at times attended with danger, William 
de Hetely, the owner of the lands during the ISth 
century, granted leave to them to build a bridge 
over the stream, and to carry their peats and goods 
through his grounds beyond the bridge.* 

The monks were also the owners of a number of 
FISHERIES. Earl David granted to the monks of 
Selkirk and their men the right to fish in the waters 
around Selkirk, in the same manner and as fully as 
his own men. As king, he conferred the same right 

* Lib. de Calchou. 


on the monks of Kelso, and added the fishings in 
the Tweed from Broxmouth to the confluence of the 
Eden. Malcolm IV. issued a precept to his sheriffs 
and other officers in Lothian, and in his whole land, 
to allow the monks the half of the fat of the royal 
fishes which might be stranded on either shore of 
the Forth.* In the reign of David I., Bernard de 
Baliol granted to the monks at Kelso a fishing in 
the Tweed at Berwick, called Wudehorn Stell, and 
which was confirmed to them by the king. They 
had another fishing at the same place called North- 
Yare, and a fishing at Upsettlington.-f* In the 12th 
century John de Huntingdon, rector of Durisdeer, 
conferred on them a fishing on the Tweed called the 
Folestream. They had also a fishing in Renfrew. 
The monks were also possessed of Saltworks. David 
I. bestowed upon them a saltwork in the carse on 
the upper shore of the Forth. They had another 
saltwork at Lochkendeloch on the Solway, granted 
by Roland the constable, with sufficient easements 
from his woods to sustain the pans. 

The monks had a right from David I. to the tenth 
of all the bucks and does which his huntsmen and 
hounds should take. They had also a right to a 
certain portion of the cows, swine, and skins of 
beasts, which he received from Nithsdale ; the skins 
and fat of beasts from Carrie ; the half of the skins 

* Lib. de Calchou. t Ib. 


and fat of the beasts slaughtered for his use on the 
north side of the Forth, with all the skins of the 
sheep and lambs ; the tenth of the deer skins ; and 
the tenth of the cheeses he was in use to receive 
from his estates in Tweeddale. The exercise of this 
right became in after times so inconvenient, that 
Alexander II., with the view of freeing his kitchen 
from the intrusion of -the monks, granted to the 
monastery, in commutation thereof, one hundred 
shillings yearly out of the firms of Roxburgh.* 

* The monks were not always safe visitants of a kitchen. 
In the neighbouring county of Northumberland, there exists 
a tradition of a monk, who, strolling abroad, arrived at the 
ancient house of Delavel, while the chief was absent on a 
hunting expedition, but expected back to dinner. Among 
the dishes preparing in the kitchen, was a pig, ordered 
expressly for Delavel's own eating, which suiting the palate 
of the monk, he cut off its head, reckoned by epicures the 
most delicious part of the animal, and, putting it into a bag, 
made the best of his way to the monastery. Delavel being 
informed at his return of the doings of the monk, which he 
looked upon as a personal affront, and being young and fiery, 
remounted his horse and set out in search of the stealer of 
his pig's head, whom overtaking, he so belaboured with his 
hunting gad that he was hardly able to crawl to his cell. 
The monk dying within a year and a day, although not 
from the beating, his brethren made it a handle to charge 
Delavel with his murder, who, before he got absolved, was 
obliged to make over to the monastery, in expiation of the 
deed, the manor of Elsig in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, 
with several other valuable estates ; and by way of an 
amende honorable, to set up an obelisk on the spot where he 
corrected the monk Elsig afterwards became the summer 


While princes and barons borrowed money from 
the monks " in their great need," and gave land in 
security, it was customary for many men to resign 
their lands into the hands of the monks, on obtain- 
ing an obligation for a decent provision in the abbey, 
where they were sure of amusement, instruction, and 
pardon. In 1311, Adam de Dowan, the elder, 
resigned his lands in Greenrig to the abbots and 
monks, and they obliged themselves to support him 
in victuals in their monastery, and to give him 
yearly a robe, or one merk sterling.* The abbot, 
in consideration of Reginald de Curroch's resigning 
his lands of Fincurrochs, granted to him the lands of 
Little Kype, with decent maintenance in victuals for 
him and a boy within the monastery. The abbot 
granted to "William Forman, during life, a corody of 
meat and drink, such as a monk received, with a 
chamber, bed, and clothes, and grass for a cow. 
Andrew, the son of the foresaid Reginald, got a 
pension of four merks a-year from the abbot, on his 
resigning to the monastery his tenement of Little 
Kype. The great of the land were anxious that 
their ashes should rest in the burial-ground of the 
abbey. Adam de Gordon granted important 

retreat of the monks. The obelisk is said to have been ten 
feet high, and on the pedestal, the inscription, " horror, to 
kill a man for a piggis head." The obelisk bears the name 
of the Monk's Stone. 

* Lib. de CalchoiL 


privileges for interment in the cemetery; and 
Margaret, the natural daughter of William the 
Lion, who married Eustace de Vesci, gave lands in 
Moll to the monks, to be received with her husband 
and their heirs into the fraternity of the monks.* 
In 1203, William de Vetrepont relinquished every 
claim he had against the monks, in consideration of 
their services in bringing his father's bones out of 
England, and burying them in the cemetery. Earl 
Henry, David's son, lies in this graveyard.-f- The 
abbots enjoyed the wardship of the heirs of their vas- 
sals, which was the source of great patronage and 
profit. Hugh, the abbot of Kelso, from 1 236 to 1 248, 
granted to Emma, the widow of Thomas de Bosco, 
the custody of her son and heir till he should come of 
age, "cum maritagu" of her son, she paying L.20.^: 
The monks exported their skins, wool, and corn 
at Berwick, with the horse and carts of their 
husbandmen and cottagers, who brought in return 
coals, salt, and wine, &c. for the use of the monastery. 
When Berwick was in the hands of the English 
king in 1369, David II. erected Dunbar into a port, 
and declared it to be co-extensive with the Earldom 

* Lib. de Calchou. 

t Noticed in charter of William de Vetrepont to the abbey. 

t Lib. de Calchou. 

The usual mode of packing wool in Teviotdale during 
the period alluded to, was by the sack, which contained 
twenty-six stones. By a statute of David II. each sack of 
wool paid a duty of one penny. 


of March, and to be the port for Teviotdale so long 
as Berwick remained in the power of the English. 
Edward I. was anxious that the men of Teviotdale 
should use the port of Berwick, and granted protec- 
tion to them, and all the rights and privileges which 
they had previously enjoyed. 

Besides the granges, farms, and other possessions 
in Roxburghshire, which will be found under the 
localities in which they were situated, they had pro- 
perty spread over the shires of Selkirk, Berwick, 
Peebles, Lanark, Dumfries, Ayr, and Edinburgh. In 
SELKIEKSHIEE, David granted to the monks whom 
he had placed at Selkirk the church of his castle, on 
the condition that the abbot and his successors should 
be chaplains to him and his successors. The king 
also granted to the abbey many parcels of land in 
the forest, but, being inconveniently situated, Mal- 
colm IV. conjoined the whole, and excambed them 
with lands lying near the town. All the lands 
of the abbot were let in husbandlands of a 
bovate each, with right of common pasturage for a 
certain number of beasts. He had also many cot- 
tages with crofts, containing each nearly an acre of 
land. About the end of the 13th century, the monks 
had at Selkirk, in demesne, a carrucate and a-half of 
land, which rented for ten merks, fifteen husband- 
lands, each containing an oxgate, which rented 
for 4s., and the usual services sixteen cottages, 
with ten acres of land, one of which rented for 2s., 


and the other fifteen for Is. and services. The 
abbot had three brewhouses, which rented at 6s. 8d. 
each, and a corn mill, which rented at Jive merks 
yearly. Out of their demesne, they had thirty acres 
separately rented at 5s., and four acres at 6s. yearly. 
Alexander II. granted to the abbot of Kelso sixteen 
acres of land on both sides of the Ettrick, for the 
perpetual repair of the bridge of Ettrick. These 
lands are known by the name of the Briglands at the 
present day. The abbot held his court at the bridge 
over the Ettrick. In BERWICKSHIRE, in the terri- 
tory of Waderley, the monks had, during the 12th 
century, five acres of tofts and crofts and five acres of 
arable land, with common of pasture for 100 sheep 
and forty cattle, with their lambs and calves, till 
three years old, granted to them by Gilbert, the son of 
Adam of Home. During the 1 3th century, Andrew, 
the son of the late Gilbert, granted to the monks a 
carrucate of land, which he had bought in the terri- 
tory of Wester Gordon, and three acres of meadow 
in the lordship of Gordon, with common of pasture 
for five score of young cattle and 400 wedders, 
wheresoever the cattle or sheep of the lord of the 
manor pastured without the corn and meadowland.* 
During the days of David I., Richard de Gordon 
granted to the monks of Kelso and to the church of 

* The carrucate of land and privileges rented for two 


St. Michael at Gordon, in free alms, a piece of land 
adjacent to the churchyard at Gordon; an acre of 
land in Todlaw; an acre of meadow in Hundley- 
strother; and whatever chaplain the monks placed 
in the church should have the pleasure of pasturage 
within his territory of Gordon, as his own men 
enjoyed the same. In the state furnished by the 
abbey to Robert I., they valued the church at L.20, 
and added that they had at that place half-a-carrucate 
of land pertaining to the church, with pasture for 
1 00 young cattle and 400 sheep, and a toft whereon 
to build a mansion-house for the chaplain. In 
Greenlaw, Earl Gospatrick granted in 1147, to the 
monks of Kelso, the church of Greenlaw, with 
the chapel of Lambdene. Patrick, brother of Earl 
Waldave, while he confirmed the munificence of his 
father, gave them the right of pasture within the 
manor of Greenlaw for 100 sheep and oxen, 4 cows, 
and 1 work-horse. William, his son, added two tofts 
and crofts in the town, with other lands ; and in con- 
sideration of these grants, leave was given for the 
erection of a private chapel in Greenlaw, on assur- 
ance being given that the mother church should not 
suffer thereby. At Mellerstones, they had a carrucate 
of land, with common of pasture, and other easements, 
within the territory. In Halyburton, David, the son of 
Truck, gave them, in 1176, within his vill, the church 
with two bovates of land, and some tofts and crofts, 
which was confirmed by his son Walter, and, in the 


reign of Alexander III., by his great-grandson Philip. 
This Philip was the first who was called de Halyburg- 
ton. At Fogo, the monks got the church of that place 
from Gospatrick, in 1147, with a earrucate of 
land, confirmed by Malcolm IV., William the Lion, 
and approved of by Eoger, the Bishop of St. An- 
drews. William, his grandson, added the mansion 
possessed by John the Dean within the adjacent 
croft and contiguous land, reaching southward to 
Greenrig, besides the lands which John the Dean 
enjoyed with the church. During the days of David 
I., the church of Langton was bestowed on the monks 
by Eoger de Ow, a follower of Earl Henry, which 
was confirmed by his successor, William de Vetre- 
pont, who added the lands of Coleman's-flat, in the 
same parish. Allan the constable gave them five 
ploughgates of land in Oxton, with easements, as a 
composition for revenues which they had out of Gal- 
way. In Horndean, Vetrepont gave them two acres 
of meadow, called Hollenmedu. In the time of 
Robert I., their property had increased to half-a- 
ploughgate, with pasture for 100 ewes, 6 oxen, 2 
cows, and 2 horses, along with the lord's cattle. 
In Symprine, they got from Hye of that place the 
church with a toft and croft, and eighteen acres of 
land, under reservation of Thor the archdeacon's 
liferent. At Spertildon, they had a grange which 
they laboured with two ploughs; they had pasture 
for fifty score of ewes, twenty score of wedders, 


forty plough cattle, and great herds of swine. On 
this grange they had sixteen cottages for their herds- 
men, labourers, and their families. They had here a 
brewhouse to supply the wants of the villagers, which 
rented at 6s. At Bondington, they had two carru- 
cates of land, with two tofts and common rights, 
all which rented at six merks. In 1370, Nicholas 
Moyses gave them his right in his cottages, with 
a garden, which Tyoch, the wife of Andrew, held of 
him. In Tweedmou, they had three acres of land, 
and a house with a spring, for which they got 20s. 
yearly. In HADDINGTONSHIEE, Allan, the son of 
Walter the steward, confirmed by a charter a lease by 
his men of Innerwick to the monks of Kelso for 33 
years, from Martinmas, 1290, of certain woods and 
pastures in that place for 20s., free of all services, 
" inward or de outward." In Humbie, Sir Robert 
de Keith, the Marshal of Scotland, granted to the 
monks leave to build a mill on the lands, with a 
right for their work oxen, ploughs, and carts, to pass 
and repass over his lands. During the reign of 
William the Lion, the monks obtained the advowson 
of the church of Pencaiihland from Everard de 
Pencaithland. In the time of Malcolm IV., Simon 
Fraser granted to the monks the church of Keith, 
with the whole wood from the southern side of the 
rivulet which runs near the church, with pertinents 
and other privileges. A dispute arose between the 
monks and the marshal as to the tribute he was 


bound to pay for the church of Keith Hervie, and 
so serious did it become, that the Pope delegated 
Joceline, Bishop of Glasgow, and the Abbot of 
Paisley, to settle the controversy, which they did 
by fixing the tribute at 20s. yearly out of the living, 
the marshal obliging himself to part with the church 
only to the monks. In the reign of William the 
Lion, they had a toft and other lands in Haddington, 
at a rent of IGd. yearly. In EDINBURGHSHIKE, the 
monks acquired the church and lands of Dodinston 
during the reign of William the Lion; but the 
charter does not mention the name of the person 
whose bounty added so largely to the possessions of 
the abbey. The lands were erected into a barony, 
and the abbots appointed their baron baillie, who 
administered justice within the boundaries. Owing 
to the distance of the lands from Kelso, they were 
usually let on lease. About the beginning of the 
13th century, the lands of Easter Duddingston, 
with the half of the peatry of Camberun, were let to 
Reginald de Bosco for 10 merks yearly. Thomas, 
the son of Reginald, held the lands for the same 
rent. In the reign of Robert I., the abbot let the 
half of the manor of Wester Duddingston to Sir 
William de Tushelaw for 12 merks of yearly rent. 
In 1466, Cuthbert Knightson held part of the lands 
of Duddingston in fee for the yearly rent of 4 merks. 
This barony remained with the monks till the 
Reformation, and, after successive changes, it was 


purchased by James, Earl of Abercorn, in 1745, 
from the Duke of Argyle. In the city of Edin- 
burgh, the monks held a toft, situated between the 
West Port and the Castle, on the left of the entrance 
to the city. They had a tenement in the town, 
which rented at 1 6d. per annum, but as to its situa- 
tion, the rent-roll is silent. They had also a piece 
of ground, which lay beside the Abbey of Holy- 
rood, let to John Clerk* in 1492. In PEEBLESHIEE, 
King William confirmed to them the church of the 
Castle of Peebles, " capellum Castelle de Peebles " 
with a carrucate of land adjacent to it, and ten 
shillings yearly granted by his grandfather out of 
the firms of the burgh, to found a chapel in which 
to say mass for the soul of his son, Earl Henry. 
The church of Innerleithen was given to them by 
David I., to which Malcolm IV. added a toft, and 
because the body of his son rested there the first 
night after his decease, he commanded that the 
church should have the same power of sanctuary as 
was enjoyed by Wedale and Tyningham. In 1232, 
William, the Bishop of Glasgow, confirmed the 
grant of the church to the monks. They had also a 
carrucate of burgage lands near the church, which 
rented for 12s. per acre. At Hopecaikie, they had 
three acres of land, which rented at Is. per acre. 
Ealph de Clerc gave the monks the church of St. 

* Acta. Dom. Con. p. 204. 


Cuthbert of Caledoure: Caldour, with the tithes of 
the mill, on payment of ten merks annually to the 
vicar. King William confirmed to them the church 
of Cambusnethan in Clydesdale, together with the 
tithes of the profits of his mills. Dunsyre church 
was granted by Helias, the brother of Josceline, 
Bishop of Glasgow. Wicius gave the monks the 
church of Wiston, of which the church of Symington 
was a dependency. Thankerton was conferred by 
Anneis de Brus. Robert de Londonius, brother of 
King Alexander, granted to the monks a part of his 
land of Kadihu, with pasture for ten cows and ten 
oxen. The convent had also an annual pension of 
40s. from the church of Lynton, and they had 
the church of Craufurd John. Robert I. granted to 
them the church of Eglismalescho, in Clydesdale, in 
1321, as a compensation for their sufferings and 
losses during the wars of the succession.* They had 
an annual pension of 10 merks out of the living of 
Campsie. William the Lion confirmed to the monks 
the church of Gutter. Brice Douglas gave the con- 
vent the church of Birnie in the beginning of the 
13th century. In DUMFRIES they got the church 
thereof, and the church of St. Thomas, with lands, 
tofts, and tithes, from King William, and four acres 
of land. They had the church of Morton, Close- 

* Kobertson's Index, iii. 3. 


burn, Staplegorton, and the church of Wilbalding- 
ton, and the patronage of the church of Lesingibi, 
Cumberland, confirmed by Pope Innocent III. 

In 1144, David I. granted to the abbey the church 
and whole territory of Lesmahago, for founding a 
cell for monks from Kelso, and Bishop John of Glas- 
gow freed it and its monks from Episcopal dues and 
subjection. It was dedicated to the Virgin and St. 
Machutus. The festival of the saint was on the loth 
November. The cell had a right of sanctuary to 
every one who came within its four crosses to escape 
peril to life and limb.* In ]296, Alexander IL 
granted to the prior and convent to hold their lands 
in free forest. The prior had a seat in Parliament. 
In 1335, John, the brother of Edward III., burned 
the abbey while on his way to Perth by the western 

Colonies were sent from Kelso to the foundations 
of Kilwinning, Aberbrothick, and Lindores. 

The revenues of the abbey of Kelso were, at 
the Reformation, in money, 3716, Is. 2d.; 9 chal- 
ders of wheat; 106 chalders, 12 bolls, of bear ; 112 
chalders, 12 bolls, and 3 firlots of meal; 4 chalders 
and 11 bolls of oats. From these revenues it will 
be seen that the abbot of Kelso was more opulent 
than most bishops in Scotland. 

The property of the abbot and convent was not 
liable to be poinded or distrained. 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 9. 


1147, HERBERT,* the first abbot of Kelso, was raised 
to the see of Glasgow, and was succeeded in his office 
by ERNOLD, who, in 1160, was appointed bishop of 
St. Andrews.-f- JOHN, the precentor of the abbey 
a man of a very ambitious character was the next 
abbot-! In 1 1 65, he obtained a mitre from the Pope. 
He also got himself named first in the rolls of the 
Scottish Parliament. The Archbishop of York having 
claimed the supremacy of the Scottish Church, was 
opposed with spirit by the abbot, who refused to obey 
a summons to meet him at the Castle of Norham. 
In the end the question was referred to the Pope, 
who decided against Roger of York, and declared 
the Scottish Church independent of any other, save 
Rome. Flattered by the many favours conferred on 
him, the abbot claimed precedence of the other reli- 
gious houses in Scotland, which was not finally 
settled till 1420, when a decision was given in 
favour of St. Andrews. About the same time a 
dispute arose between him and the monastery of 
Tyrone, the abbot of Kelso claiming superiority 
over the abbot of that house, from which the con- 
vent of Kelso had its origin. John died in 1180, 
when OSBERT, the prior of Lesmahago, was elected 
to the office. While he was abbot, Scotland was 

* Chron. Mail,, pp. 66, 73-76, 77-79. t Ib. pp. 73, 78. 
I Ib. pp. 77, 90. Ib. pp. 99-92, 105. 


interdicted by Pope Alexander III., which was after- 
wards removed by his successor, Lucius III., who 
also conferred upon the abbey of Kelso the privilege 
of exemption from excommunication proceeding 
from any other quarter than the apostolic see ; and 
though the whole kingdom should be interdicted, 
they might worship in the church with closed doors, 
and in a low voice, without ringing of bells.* Dur- 
ing Osbert's time, a controversy arose between the 
monks of Kelso and Melrose as to the boundary be- 

* It required no ordinary resolution to withstand an inter- 
dict. The announcement of the interdict was usually made 
at midnight, by the funereal toll of the church bells ; where- 
upon the entire clergy might presently be seen issuing forth 
in silent procession, by torch-light, to put up a last prayer of 
deprecation before the altars, for the guilty community. 
Then the consecrated bread that remained over was burnt; 
the crucifixes, and other sacred images, were veiled up ; the 
relics of the saints carried down into the crypts ; every me- 
mento of holy cheerfulness and peace was withdrawn from 
view. Lastly, a papal legate ascended the steps of the altar, 
arrayed in penitential vestments, and formally proclaimed 
the interdict. From that moment divine service ceased in 
all the churches ; their doors were locked up, and only in 
the bare porch might the priest, dressed in mourning, exhort 
his flock to repentance. Rites, in their nature joyful, which 
could not be dispensed with, were invested in sorrowful attri- 
butes ; so that baptism could only be administered in secret, 
and marriage celebrated before a tomb instead of an altar. 
The administration of confession and communion was forbid- 
den. To the dying man alone might the viaticum, which the 
priest had first consecrated in the gloom and solitude of the 
morning dawn, be given ; but extreme unction and burial in 


tween the lands of the barony of Bolden and the 
property of Melrose. The matter was remitted by 
Pope Celestine to King William, who heard the 
parties at Melrose in 1202, and thereupon directed 
an inquisition to be made by the honest and ancient 
men of the district.* In 1204, the parties appeared 
again before the king, in his court at Selkirk, when 
judgment was given in favour of the monks of Kelso, 
and a charter granted by him, in which the whole 
proceedings were recited. Osbert died in 1203. 

holy ground were denied him. Moreover, the interdict, as 
may naturally be supposed, seriously affected the worldly, as 
well as religious, cares of society. (Life of Aidan, vol. iv. p, 
36.) Such was the nature of the interdict under which Scot- 
and lay for above three years, in consequence of King Wil- 
liam resisting the pope's interference in the appointment of 
a successor to Eichard, Bishop of St. Andrews. The chaplain 
elected the learned John Scott, and the king nominated Hugh, 
his own chaplain. Roger, the Archbishop of York, legatine 
of the pope, excommunicated William, and interdicted the 
kingdom. The pope supported the archbishop, but William 
remained firm, and swore, " by the arm of St. James, that, 
while he lived, John Scott should not be Bishop of St. An- 
drews." The legate then excommunicated Morville the con- 
stable, and Prebenda the secretary. The king banished every 
person who obeyed the pope and legate. During the contest, 
both pope and archbishop died. A compromise was effected 
between Pope Lucius and William; both the prelates resigned 
their claims, and the pope, with the consent of the king, ap- 
pointed Hugh to St. Andrews, and John to Dunkeld. Eng- 
land lay under an interdict from 1207 to 1213. (Hoveden, 
599; Fordun, i. vi. c. 35, 36; Chron. Mail. 89-92.) 
* " Per probos et antiques homines patria." 


GEOFFREY, the prior, was raised to the dignity of 
abbot, and filled the office for three years.* RICHARD 
DE CAVE was elected abbot, but died in two years.-f- 
HENRY, the prior, was elected by the monks in June, 
1 208.:]; Next year, the Bishop of Rochester, fright- 
ened from England by the fulminations of the Pope, 
found an asylum in Kelso Abbey; and, though he 
lived at his own expense, the King of Scotland sent 
him 80 chalders of wheat, 60 of malt, and 80 of oats 
a proof that, in that age, corn was of more value 
than money. Henry was at the general council at 
Rome in 1215, for the purpose of concocting mea- 
sures against the Waldenses, who preserved, in their 
remote habitations, the pure truths of Christianity, 
and but for the cruel measures adopted to suppress 
it, would soon have overthrown the papal tyranny. 
At this assembly there were 1283 prelates, 673 of 
whom were bishops, including the bishops of St. 
Andrews, Glasgow, and Moray. The council sat 
fifteen days, at the end of which the abbot of Kelso 
returned to his abbacy. The abbot died on October 
5, 1218. RICHARD, the prior, was called to fill the 
chair; he died in 1221. || HERBERT MAUNSEL, the 
secretary, succeeded; and, after filling the office for 

* Chron. Mail. p. 105. t Ib. pp. 106, 107. 

t Ib. pp. 107-121, 134. 

Ib. p. 109. Gilbert Glenville was at this time Bishop of 
Kochester. . 

|| Ib. pp. 134, 138. 


fifteen years, he resigned on September 2, on the 
day of the nativity of St. Mary, when HUGH DE 
MAUNSEL was installed ;* but OTHO, the Pope's 
legate, in 1239, compelled Herbert to resume the 
mitre, and Hugh being a mild, peaceable man 
quietly resigned his pastoral charge.-f- The Chroni- 
cler of Melrose has the death of Hugh recorded as 
taking place in 1248.^: About this time the abbot 
and convent, and their successors, received authority 
from the Pope to excommunicate known thieves and 
invaders of their estates, and those guilty of doing 
evil to the Church. The sentence was to be pro- 
nounced with lighted candles and ringing of bells, 
on a Sunday or holiday, and they had power to re- 
peat the sentence every year, the Thursday before 
Easter, the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed 
Virgin, and other solemn occasions. EGBERT DE 
SMALHAME, one of the monks, was appointed abbot, 

* Chron. Mail. pp. 147, 148 : " Item dompnus Herbertus 
abbas calcovensis in die Nativitates beata Maria baculum 
cum metri super magus altere possut et taliter pastorali 
cure valedixit." 

t Ib. p. 150. t Ib. p. 177. 

The form of excommunication was by the priest using the 
following words : " By authority of Almighty God, the Father, 
Sou, and Holy Ghost, and the blessed Mary, the mother of 
God, and all the saints, I excommunicate, anathematize, and 
put out of the confines of the Holy Mother Church, A. B., 
that evil-doer, with his abettors and accomplices; and unless 
they repent and make satisfaction, thus may their light be 
put out before Him that liveth for ever and ever ;" and at 


in 1248.* In 1256, Alexander, and Margaret, his 
queen, made a grand procession from Roxburgh 
Castle to the abbey of Kelso, where the King of 
England was royally entertained.^ The abbot died 
in 1258, and was succeeded by PATRICK,]: one of 
the fraternity, who retained the mitre for two years, 
when he was forced to resign in favour of the in- 
triguing HENRY DE LAMBEDEN, the chamberlain, 
whose conduct was such, that his death, in 1275, of 
apoplexy, as he sat at table, was looked upon by the 
inmates of the convent, and others connected with 
the monastery, as a punishment for his wicked ambi- 
tion. They refused to watch his corpse, and interred 
him on the same day on which he died. RICHARD 
was the next abbot. In 1285, he presided at a 
court at Reddon, when Hugh de Revedon resigned 
all the lands held by him in the baronies of Reve- 
don and Home, which had been purchased by the con- 
vent. || The abbot seems to have kept the writs and 
titles of the nobility. In 1288, William de Duglas 
gave an acknowledgment to the abbot, that he had 

the same time taking lighted torches, and trampling them 
out on the ground while the bells were ringing. Excommu- 
nication does not seem to have produced the least effect on 
the Border mosstroopers. They entertained greater fear for 
the doings of the Justiciaires at Jedburgh than any monkish 

* Chron. Mail. p. 177. t Ib. p. 181. 

J Ib. pp. 184, 185-189. Ib. p. 189. 

II Lib. de Calchou. 


received from him all his charters which were in the 
abbot's custody.* When Bruce and Baliol disputed 
the succession to the crown at the death of King 
Alexander, Richard was chosen by Baliol to support 
his pretensions. In 1296, the abbot was received 
into the peace of Edward I., and the lands and pro- 
perty belonging to the convent were restored.-f- 
About this time WALEON was abbot. In July 22, 
1301, Edward I. was at Kelso on his way north. J 
The mitre was next worn by an Englishman of the 
name of THOMAS DE DUEHAM, it is said, by usurpa- 
tion during these perilous times, till Robert Bruce 
was finally established on his throne by the fortunate 
result of the battle of Bannockburn, when WILLIAM 
DE ALYNCEOM was made abbot. In 1316, an ex- 
change was made of the church of Cranston for 
Nenthorn and chapel of Little Newton, with the 
Bishop of St. Andrews. WILLIAM DE DALGEBNOCK 
was next abbot. He was preceptor of David II., 
the young king, and when the King of England 
invaded Scotland in 1333, on the pretence of sup- 
porting Baliol, David and the abbot retired into 
Prance, whene they remained nine years, and the 
monastery was in charge of a warden. In 1333, 
Edward granted letters of protection to the abbey, || 
and when Baliol made over the counties of Roxburgh, 

* Lib. de Calchou. t Rotuli Scotiee, vol. i. p. 8. 

$ Ib. vol. i. p. 53. Lib. de Calchou. 

|| Rotuli Scotiae, voL i. p. 268. 


Berwick, and Dumfries, the abbot of Kelso was one 
of those who witnessed the degradation. In 1344, 
David II. granted leave to the monks to cut wood 
in the forests of Jedburgh and Selkirk, to repair the 
convent. He also granted to the monks that they 
should possess the town of Kelso, with its pertinents, 
the barony of Bolden and the lands of Redden, with 
their pertinents, with exclusive jurisdiction of jus- 
ticiars, sheriffs, with other privileges.* WILLIAM 
was abbot about 1354. In 1366, protection was 
granted to the abbey and convent by the English 
king.f In 1368, Edward III. granted liberty to the 
abbot and convent of Kelso to buy victuals in Eng- 
land for themselves and families, in consequence of 
the miserable state to which they were reduced by 
the war.* In 1373, the same king granted protec- 
tion to the abbot, the monks, and the lands and 
possessions of the convent. In 1378, Richard I. 
granted protection to the monks of Kelso, and their 
convent, and lands, wherever situated. PATRICK 
is seen acting as abbot from the year 1398 to 1406. 
About 1428, WILLIAM was abbot. Another WIL- 
LIAM was abbot in 1435, and continued so till 1444. 
In 1460, Roxburgh Castle and town were wrested 
from the English, after having continued for more 
than 100 years in their possession; but it was pur- 
chased by the death of the king, who was killed by 

* Reg. Mag. Sig. p. 190, No. 26. 

t Rotuli Scotise, vol. L p. 902. J Ib. vol. i. p. 924. 

Ib. vol. ii. p. 8. 


the bursting of a cannon. Immediately after the 
castle was taken, Prince James was solemnly crowned 
in the abbey church of Kelso, in the seventh year of 
his age. ALLAN appears as abbot between 1464 
and 1466. EGBERT was next abbot, and GEORGE 
filled the office in 1476. After James III. was slain 
at Bannockburn-mill, his son James was crowned 
in the abbey of Kelso in 1488. In 1 490, Henry VI. 
granted special letters of protection and license from 
the abbot and convent of Kelso, including the town 
of Kelso, the town of Redden, Sprouston, Wester 
Softlaw, and the barony of Bolden, and all their 
lands and tenements, servants, corn, and cattle, and 
all their goods, moveable and immoveable. License 
was also granted to one or two monks to go with 
their servants into England, and buy lead, wax, wine, 
and other merchandise, for the use of the convent, 
and also to go to the wardens or lieutenants of the 
borders, and demand restitution of their goods.* In 
1 493, EGBERT, the abbot of this house, was appointed 
by the Three Estates one of the auditors of causes and 
complaints. Henry, the prior, was famed for his 
great learning. In 1 5 1 1 , ANDREW STEWART, bishop, 
had the abbey granted to him in trast.f Four years 
after, the famous Dand Ker of Fernieherst marched 
to Kelso, assaulted the abbey, took it, and turned the 
superior, one of the Cessford family, out of doors. 

* Kotuli Scotise, vol. ii. p. 494. 

+ About this time the kings were beginning to encroach 
on the privileges of the Church. 


It is said that this assault took place the night after 
the battle of Flodden. THOMAS KEE, the brother of 
Dand Ker, was the next abbot. In 1520, commis- 
sion was given to the abbot to meet with Dacre, 
warden of the marches, at Heppethgate-head, on the 
Colledge-water, and a truce was concluded till Janu- 
ary following; at that time the abbot and KEE of 
Cessford met the English warden at Redden, when 
they agreed to prorogate the truce till the last day of 
June. The Governor of Scotland was then anxious 
to conclude a truce, but Henry rejected all offers of 
peace, and prepared to march into Scotland. He 
also ordered all the French and Scots to be im- 
prisoned, their goods seized, themselves marked 
with a cross and sent home to Scotland. In the 
end of July, 1522, two of Shrewsbury's captains, the 
Lords Ross and Dacre, pillaged and burnt the town. 
The men of Teviotdale flew to arms, and amply re- 
venged the loss they had sustained. Next year, 
Dacre, one of Surrey's captains, paid a visit to Kelso, 
and reduced the monastery and town to ashes. The 
monks were forced to leave Kelso and take shelter 
in the neighbouring villages. In 1526, the abbot 
assisted in concluding a truce for three years. At 
the death of Thomas Ker, JAMES STEWAET, an ille- 
gitimate son of James V. by Elizabeth Schaw, was, 
while in minority, made commendator of the abbey. 
The abbot was a pupil of George Buchanan. In 
1542, the Duke of Norfolk entered Scotland by the 


river Tweed, burning and destroying everything that 
fell in his way. No place was held sacred. The 
town of Kelso and the abbey, which had been par- 
tially repaired since Dacre's inroad, were again re- 
duced to ashes. Two years later, an inroad was 
made by Bowes and Laiton, and in 1545, the Earl of 
Hertford attacked the abbey. Three hundred men 
retired into it, and made an obstinate resistance, but 
were forced to yield, and were nearly all slain or 
taken prisoners. Next year, the abbey was defended 
by thirty footmen against Eurie, but taken. In the 
report of Eurie to the English king, two " bastille 
houses" are referred to as being in the town. In 
June following, when the garrison of Wark made an 
incursion into the town, the church was defended by 
sixteen men, who had builded them a strength in 
the old walls of the steeple. The abbey afforded a 
shelter to a few monks till 1560, when they were 
expelled by the fanatical mob, the images broken, 
and all its internal furniture and decorations de- 
stroyed. In 1558, Mary of Lorraine gave the com- 
mendatorship of Kelso and Melrose to her brother 
the Duke of Guise, on the abbot being slain by his 
own relation, one of the Kers of Cessford. Sir 
JOHN MAITLAND was temporarily commendator. 
BOTHWELL next got the abbey in trust, by ex- 
changing Coldingham for Kelso with Maitland. On 
the 9th of November, Queen Mary arrived at Kelso 
from Jedburgh. Next day she held a council, and 


on the llth left with the design of viewing Berwick, 
attended by her court and about 1000 horsemen, 
belonging to the border shires. She travelled by 
Langton and Wedderburn, and on the loth looked 
upon Berwick from Halidon-hill.* On the 6th of 
April, 1569, a remarkable bond was agreed to and 
subscribed at Kelso by the inhabitants of the sheriff- 
doms of Berwick, Eoxburgh, Selkirk, and Peebles, and 
provosts and baillies of burghs and towns within the 
bounds, whereby the parties bound and obliged 
themselves to the king's majesty and his dear cousin 
James, Earl of Murray, Lord Abernethie, regent, to 
concur together to resist the rebellious people of the 
country of Liddesdale, and other thieves inhabiting 
Ewisdale, Anandale, and especially persons of the 
surnames of "Armestrong, Eliot, Niksoun, Croser, 
Littell, Batesoun, Thomsoun, Irwing, Bell, Johnnes- 
toun, Glendonyng, Eoutlaige, Hendersoun, and 
Scottis, of Ewisdaill," and other notorious thieves, 
wherever they dwell, and their wives, bairns, tenants, 
and servants, that none of them would at any time 
thereafter reset, supply, or intercommune with any 
of the said thieves, their wives, bairns, or servants, 
or give them meat, drink, house, or harbour, or 
suffer any meat, drink, or victuals, to be brought, 
had, or carried to them, forth or through the lands, 
baillieries, towns, and bounds, where they could 

* Life of the Scottish Queen, voL L p. 193. 


hinder; nor should they tryst or have intelligence 
with them in private or apart, without knowledge or 
leave of the warden obtained to that effect : or suffer 
them to resort to markets or trysts through the 
bounds : nor permit them, their wives, bairns, 
tenants, or servants, to dwell, remain, or abide, or 
to pasture their flocks of sheep or cattle upon any 
lands outwith Liddesdale, except such as within 
eight days of the date of the bond found responsible 
sureties to the wardens of the marches and their 
clerks, that they would reform all enormities com- 
mitted by them in time bypast, and keep good rule 
in time coming, and be obedient to the laws when 
called upon : All others not finding the said se- 
curity within the said space were to be pursued to 
the death with fire and sword, and all other kind of 
hostility, and exposed in prey and all things in their 
possession to the men of war, as open and known 
enemies to God, the king, and the common good, 
without favour, assurance, or friendship : all kind- 
ness, bonds, promises, assurances, and conditions 
that had been entered into with any of them in time 
bygone, before the date of the bond, were to be re- 
nounced, as the subscribers should answer to God, 
and on their duty and allegiance to the king and 
regent. In case any of the parties to the bond failed 
in any part of the premises, or revealed not the con- 
traveners thereof, if known, they were to be punished 
in terms of the general bond and pains contained 


therein. As also, in case in the resistance or pur- 
suit of any of the said thieves it should happen 
that any of them be slain and burnt, they should 
ever esteem the quarrel and deadly feud equal to all, 
and should never agree with the said thieves, but 
with one consent and advice. In the meantime, the 
subscribers bound themselves to take a sincere and 
true part ilk ane with the other, and specially should 
assist the laird of Buccleuch and other lairds nearest 
to the said thieves. There are three columns of 
signatures to the bond. The first contains the names 
of " Sir Nicholas Eutherfurd of Hundoley, knyt. ; 
Jhone Kutherfurd of Hunthill; John Mow of yt Ilk; 
Eichard Eutherford, provost of Jedbur 1 ; James 
Scott, baillie of Selkirk; James Gledstanes of Cok- 
law; Wat Scot, in Bellhauch ; Wat Scot of Tusche- 
law; Hector Turnbull, tutor of Mynto; Cuthbert 
Cranstoun of Thirlestan Manis; Eobert Scot, baillie 
of Hawyke." The second column " Andrew Ker ; 
Gilbert Ker of Prinsydeloch ; John Edmonstoune of 
yat Ilk, Knyt; William Douglas of Cavers; Jhone 
Haldane ; Thomas Turnbull of Bederowll ; Eichard 
Eutherford of Edgerstone; Alexander Cokburn; 
Eobert Scot of Edilstane; Thomas Makdowell/' 
The signatures on the two first columns are auto- 
graphs, but the third column is all written in the 
same hand " Alex 1 L. Home ; Walter Ker of Cess- 
ford ; Bukclewch, Knyt ; Thomas Ker of Fernhirst ; 
William Ker; Patrick Murray of Faulahill; Walter 


Ker of Dolphinstone ; Andro x X X ; Andro Ker 
of Fa x X X ; T. Cranstoune of yt Ilk ; Thomas 
Ker of Nether Howdane.* 

This bond certainly discloses a sad state of 
Roxburghshire in the beginning of the reign of 
James VI. Without the aid of the powerful barons, 
the king and his lieutenants could do little to 
maintain rule on the Borders, as the clans, by means 
of their signal-fires, could gather the country in an 
incredibly short space, rendering success on the part 
of the royal troops impossible. The king had often 
to resort to stratagem to secure the persons of some 
of the leading clans before entering on an expedi- 
tion to the Border land, to enforce the law among 
his unruly subjects. By means of such bonds, the 
clans were kept in some degree of control, although 
the numerous entries in the criminal records show 
that the obligations in the bonds were seldom 
faithfully implemented. In 1569, the Regent 
Murray obtained from the boy Francis Steuart, his 
nephew, and William Lumisden, the rector of Cleish, 
his administrator, a grant to him and his heirs, in 
fee-firm, of the whole estates of the abbey of Kelso, 
comprehending the town of Kelso, and many lands, 
mills, fishings, and other property in the four shires of 

* The original of this document is deposited in the General 
Begister House, but a copy of it is given in Pitcairn's Trials, 
vol. iii. pp. 394-396. 



Roxburgh, Berwick, Dumfries and Peebles, which 
was confirmed by a charter under the Great Seal, 
on the 10th December following.* In October, 1585, 
the Earls of Angus and Marr, the Master of Glammis, 
and others their associates, banished to England, came 
to Kelso, and were received at Floors, the laird of 
Cessford's house. } Here they were joined by 
Bothwell and Home, the lairds of Cessford and 
Coldingknowes, and many of the barons of Teviot- 
dale and Merse. The inhabitants of Kelso seem to 
have assisted Bothwell, for in May, 1593, they, with 
the exception of William Lauder, came in his 
Majesty's will for the treasonable reset of the Earl, 
and found security that they would satisfy his 
Majesty in " siluer" provided the sum did not 
exceed 2000 merks. The king's will was, that he 
freely pardoned the "haill inhabitants" and their 
posterity, but ordained the town to make payment 
to the treasurer of 1700 merks money, and to find 
caution, acted in the books of Secret Council, that 
they should not intercommune with Bothwell, or his 
accomplices, in time coming, under a penalty of two 
thousand pounds.^ On Bothwell being attainted 
in 1592, the abbey of Kelso and the priory of Cold- 
ingham were annexed to the Crown. The whole 
property of the abbey was then conferred on Sir 

* Privy Seal, Reg. xxxviiL 106. 

+ Memoires of Scotland, p. 101. 

J Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. pp. 291-2. 


Robert Ker of Cessford, a great favourite at court, 
and who had, in 1590, been created a peer, with the 
title of Lord Roxburghe. Twenty of the churches 
and advowsons thereof were surrendered to the 
king in 1639. These estates are now enjoyed by 
the Duke of Roxburghe. In the spring of 1645, 
Kelso was almost wholly consumed by an accidental 
fire, by which the inhabitants were reduced to such 
a state of distress as to render it necessary for the 
neighbourhood to furnish supplies of victuals for 
their support, which was done with a liberal hand. 
In the months of April and May, 227 bolls of corn 
were sent, " to relieve the honest and poor distressed 
householders in Kelso." Of this supply, Teviotdale 
sent 184 bolls, the Merse 45 bolls; to the supplies 
of corn were added 34 horse-loads of bread, 43 
hogsheads of ale, six loads of salt-herrings, eight 
stones butter, money 4>l4s Scots. No apology, it 
is thought, is needed for giving the names of the 
chief contributors. The first name on the list is 
that of Robert Pringle of Stitchel, who gave 11 
bolls of oatmeal ; Lady Linton, 1 boll 2 firlots ; next 
follow the names but not the donations of Sir 
William Scott of Mertoun ; John Ker of Hadden ; 
Sir William Douglas of Cavers ; the laird of Hunt- 
hill ; the laird of Gateshaw ; the laird of Fairning- 
ton ; Mr James Mather; Sir James Ker of Gateside ; 
Sir Walter Riddell ; Earl of Lothian ; town of 
Jedburgh; George Pringle of Craigs, Carchester; 


Sir William Ker of Cavers ; the laird of Greenhead ; 
Sir Andrew Ker of Primside; the four Bells of 
Plenderleath ; Sir William Elliot of Stobs ; town of 
Dunse ; John Hume of Ninewells ; the laird of Tofts ; 
John Hume of Crumstains; laird of Wedderburn.* 
This fire seems to have dwelt long in the memories 
of the inhabitants, as occasional entries in the court- 
books show. In November, 1723, the baillie issued 
the following prohibition : " These are to advertise 
all the inhabitants who are concerned in making 
malt, or carrying on their affairs in malt-kilns, that 
they no way presume to kindle fires after gloamin, 
or under night at any time, nor in the day-time, 
when the wind blows high, under pain of being 
summarily imprisoned." 

In September, 1645, Montrose was at Kelso, on the 
invitations of the Earls Roxburghe and Home, but 
when he had arrived within about twelve miles 
of them, they surrendered their houses and them- 
selves to General Leslie, who, on hearing of the 
battle of Kilsythe, left the Scottish army before 
Hereford, and, at the head of 5000 men, marched 
northward by Berwick and Tranent, with the view of 
intercepting Montrose at the passages of the Forth ; 
but on arriving at Tranent, he got information that 
the Royalist troops were in the forest of Selkirk, on 

* From a paper deposited in the museum of Kelso, 
extracted by Mr John Steuart, surgeon, from the original in 
the charter-chest of the Duke of Roxburghe. 


which he turned southward, and marched to Melrose 
by the river Gala. In the meantime, Montrose, 
although obliged to dismiss his Highlanders, and, 
deserted by those who had promised him assistance, 
resolved to pursue Leslie, and prevent him from 
gathering additional forces. On the 12th, the 
Koyalist general left Kelso, and marched to Selkirk 
forest, in which he encamped his infantry, between the 
Ettrick and Yarrow, close to the junction of these 
rivers, the cavalry and himself taking up their 
quarters in Selkirk. Next morning the camp was 
surprised by the Covenanting general, and after a 
desperate struggle, the Royalist troops were routed 
with great slaughter. 

In 1715, the Scottish rebels met those from 
Northumberland and Nithsdale at Kelso. The 
Highlanders were met by the Scots' horse at Ednam 
Bridge, and conducted into the town, in compliment 
to the bravery displayed by them in passing the 
Firth. Next day Mr Paton preached in the abbey 
church to the soldiers, from Deut. xxi. 17, " The 
right of the first-born is his." A great number- 
attended. In the afternoon a sermon was preached 
by a Mr William Irving, full of exhortations to his 
hearers to be zealous and steady in the course in 
which they were engaged. On the Monday the 
troops were drawn up in the market-place, while the 
proclamation was read, and a manifesto of the Earl 
of Marr, on which all the people assembled and 


shouted "No union; no malt-tax; no salt-tax." 
The Highland army remained in Kelso till the 
Thursday following, during which time they drew 
the public revenues, excise customs, and taxes. 
While at Kelso, word was brought that General 
Carpenter had arrived at Wooler, intending to give 
them battle at Kelso next day. A council of war 
was held, at which the Earl of Winton urged the 
council to march to the west of Scotland, but the 
English leaders prevailed, and the army set out for 
England by way of Roxburgh. In 1718, the com- 
missioners of Oyer and Terminer sat at Kelso, to 
inquire into the treasons committed in 1715. 
Lawyers were sent from London to assist on an 
occasion so new in Scotland as trials for high 
treason, but all the artifices of the judges and 
lawyers could not overcome the firmness of the 
grand-jurors, and the presentments were negatived. 
On 4th November, 1745, Prince Charles arrived at 
Kelso, with a division of his army, consisting of 
4000 foot and 1000 horse, and on the 6th he left 
the town and marched for Jedburgh. 

Several persons have borne the surname of Kelso. 
Richard of Kelso is mentioned in a charter of Robert 
I. to Fergus of Ardrossan.* Thomas of Kelso was, 
in 1365, admitted to the peace of Edward III., and 
license granted to him to dwell in any part of 

* Keg. Mag. Sig. p. 10, No. 61. 


England.* Allan of Kelso, and several other 

O f 

merchants, got a safe-conduct in 1367 to go to 
England and trade.-)- 

FLOWRIS.J FLOOES. FLEURS.|| The palace of 
the Duke of Roxburghe occupies a lovely situation on 
the left bank of the river Tweed. The view, though 
limited, is beautiful, taking in the ruins of Roxburgh 
Castle, part of Teviot's fair vale, and all the lovely 
scenery where Tweed and Teviot meet. Sir Walter 
Scott, in writing of this locality, says that "the 
modern mansion of Fleurs, with its terrace, its 
woods, and its extensive lawn, forms altogether a 
kingdom for Oberon or Titania to dwell in, or any 
spirit who, before their time, might love scenery, of 
which the majesty, and even the beauty, impress the 
mind with a sense of awe, mingled with pleasure. "^[ 
The palace was built in 1718, upon the site of an 
older house, greatly enlarged and beautified by the 
present possessor of the rich domain. The earliest, 
notice of the house under the name of " Flowris " 
that I have met with is in ] 545, but it must have 
existed long before that time, and occupied by the 
monks of Kelso or some of their kindly tenants. A 
plan of the locality in 1739 shows three islets, com- 

Eotuli Scotiae, vol. L p. 894. t Ib. p. 919. 

J Circa, 1545. Ib. 1585. || Ib. 1772. 

H Demonology, p. 119. 


prehending a considerable space, formed by the 
Tweed, in front of the palace. In Stobie's map of 
the county, executed in 1772, only one of these 
appear, about half-a-mile in length. Near the lower 
end of that anna is the site of a cross called the Fair- 
cross, and which gave a name to these islets. This 
Fair-cross is near the spot where, according to tra- 
dition, King James was killed while besieging Rox- 
burgh Castle in 1460. The writer of the old 
statistical account of the parish of Kelso, while 
treating of this locality, remarks,* " A holly-tree is 
said to stand on the spot where this happened, 
a little below Fleurs House. Near this tree stood a 
large village, which, from a cross that remained 
within these few years, was generally called the Fair- 
cross. But the probable origin of the name, as it 
has been handed down, though not generally known, 
is this : James II. 's Queen having very soon reached 
the spot where the lifeless body of her husband lay, 
is reported to have exclaimed, " There lies the fair 
corse; " whereupon it received the name of the fair 
corpse or corse, and in process of time the change 
from corse to cross was easily effected/' I doubt this 
derivation of the name of Fair-cross, and am inclined 
to think that the cross owes its origin to the erection 
of Broxfield into a barony, with right of market 
cross, in 1642. The name may receive further illus- 

* VoL x. p. 582. Article written by the late Dr Douglas. 


tration from the fact, that about this time the people 
of Kelso were anxious to have James' Fair held on 
the north side of the water, and many attempts were 
made to hold the fair at this place. The records of 
Jedburgh contain many acts ordering the burgesses 
to attend the fair of St. James in force, to support 
the authority of the magistrates, and to bring the 
bestial from the north to the south side of the river. 
Occasionally the flooded state of the river prevented 
persons and cattle passing to the south side, and the 
fair or market was held at Fair-cross, opposite to St. 
James' Fair-stead. In 1713, the fair, owing to the 
flood, was held for two days Saturday and Monday 
on the north side of the river, at this cross.* It 
may safely be inferred that Fair-cross derived its 
name from being the place where the market or fair 
was held, in the same way as the haugh on the south 
side of the river gets the name of Fair-green at the 
present day. 

The woods around Fleurs are extensive and valu- 
able. A considerable portion of the wood, however, 
is not older than the end of the seventeenth century. 
In 1717, the baillie of the regality passed an act 
forbidding " the plucking of the haws from the 
thorns that defended the young plantations at 
Fleurs." On the forfeiture of Bothwell, his estates 
were divided among Buccleuch, Home, and Sir 

* Burgh Court-Books. 


Eobert Ker of Cessford. Buccleuch got Crichton 
and Liddesdale; Home, Coldingham; and Cessford, 
the abbey of Kelso, with its lands and possessions. 
Sir Robert was distinguished for talent and courage, 
and while warden of the marches, did good service 
to his country. 

The peerage writers say that John Ker, of the 
forest of Selkirk, who lived about 1358, was the 
founder of the house of Cessford and Roxburgh; 
that Henry, his son, was living about three years 
after; and Robert, supposed to be the son of Henry, 
got a charter of the lands of Auldtonburn, from 
Archibald, the fourth Earl of Douglas. Chalmers 
is of opinion that Andrew Ker of Altonburn, who 
married a daughter of Sir W. Douglas, the heritable 
sheriff of Teviotdale, was the founder, and died 
before 1450. It seems to me that these views are 
not well founded. Before 1385, John Ker was the 
owner of Altonburn and Nisbet in Teviotdale; at 
that date these lands were granted by Richard II. of 
England to John Boraille.* It is probable that the 
Andrew Ker alluded to by Chalmers was the grand- 
son of John Ker of Altonburn and Nisbet, and son 
of the first owner of Cessford ; but he is wrong in 
supposing that the Andrew Ker who married the 
sheriff's daughter died before 1450. It was his 
father who obtained a confirmatory charter from the 

* Rotuli Scotise, vol. ii. p. 75. 


Earl of Douglas of the lands of Cessford, which for- 
merly belonged to the families of Oliphant and Cock- 
burn. In 1451, James II. granted Andrew Ker of 
Altonburn " all and each his lands of the barony 
of Auldroxburgh, with pertinents," for payment of 
one silver penny at Whitsunday, in name of blench 
farme, if demanded. * It was this Andrew who 
accompanied Douglas to Borne in 1451. In 1474, 
during the minority of James III., Andrew Ker of 
Cessford resigned to him the baronies of Auld 
Roxburgh and Cessford, on which a charter was 
granted by Lord James Hamilton of the same to 
Walter Ker, his son and heir, under reservation of 
the terce for life of Margaret Tweedy, his wife. In 
1478, Walter Ker appears as proprietor of Caver- 
ton, -f- On the king attaining his majority, the same 
lands were again resigned to him by the same 
Walter Ker, in 1481, to whom he again granted 
them, with the remainder, in succession, to his 
brothers Thomas, William, and Ralphe, and the true 
and lawful heirs whomsoever of the said Andrew 
Ker. In 1488, James IV. granted to Walter Ker 
the place and messuage of Roxburgh, with per- 
tinents, castle, and the patronage of the Maisondieu, 
for payment of a red rose at the castle, at the Feast 
of John the Baptist.^: In 1500, the grant was con- 

*Keg. Mag. Sig., Lib. iv. No. 3. t Acta Dom. Con. p. 69. 
Eeg. Mag. Sig., Lib. xiL No. 16. 


In 1509 the demesne lands of Auld Roxburgh, 
with mill, mount, and Castlestead, and the town and 
lands of Auld Roxburgh, were resigned by Andrew 
Ker, the son of Walter Ker, into the hands of James 
IV., who granted them anew to him and his wife, 
Agnes Crichton, for the usual services. Andrew 
Ker was one of the border barons who bound them- 
selves to assist the Earl of Angus against the Liddes- 
dale men, and others dwelling within the bounds of 
Teviotdale and Ettrick forest, in putting them out of 
the same.* In 1526, while James V. was returning 
from Jedburgh, accompanied by Angus, with a body 
of his kindred, they were attacked by Buccleuch 
with 1000 men, but the result was in favour of 
Angus. Cessford pursuing too eagerly, was slain 
by a domestic of Buccleuch, which produced a deadly 
feud between the families of Ker and Scott, which 
raged for many years upon the Borders. To recon- 
cile this quarrel, an agreement was entered into at 
Ancrum, in March, 1529, between the clans of Scot 
and Ker, whereby each clan was to forgive the other, 
but it was stipulated that Sir Walter Scott of 
Branxholm should go to the four head pilgrimages 
of Scotland, and say a mass for the souls of the 
deceased Andrew of Cessford, and those who were 
slain in his company, and cause a chaplain to say a 
mass daily, wherever Sir Walter Ker and his friends 

* Pitcairn, vol. i. pp. 126-7-9. 


pleased, for the space of five years ; Ker of Dolphin- 
ston, and Ker of Gradon should also go to the four 
head pilgrimages, and make a mass to be said for the 
souls of the Scots and their friends who were slain 
on the same field, and get a chaplain to say a mass 
daily for three years, at any place Sir Walter Scott 
might fix upon ; that the son and heir of Branx- 
holm was to marry one of the sisters of Ker of 
Cessford, and the marriage portion to be paid by Sir 
Walter Scott at the sight of friends ; any difference 
that might arise in future between the clans was to 
be settled by six arbiters. But this agreement, 
which both parties bound and obliged " ilk ane to 
others be the faith and troth of their bodies, but 
fraud or guile, under the pain of perjury, man- 
swearing, defalcation, and breaking of the bond of 
deadly," seems to have been of brief endurance. 
In 1535, Buccleuch was imprisoned for levying war 
against the Kers, but in 1542 his estates were 
restored by Parliament. In 1552, Sir Walter Scott 
was slain by Ker of Cessford in the streets of Edin- 
burgh. With the view of stanching this feud, a 
contract was entered into in 1564 between Sir 
Walter Scott of Branxholm, with the consent of his 
curators, and Sir Walter Ker of Cessford. In that 
curious document, Sir Walter Ker takes burden 
upon him for his children, and for his brother Mark 
of Newbattle. and his children ; Hume of Cowden- 
knowes, and his children ; Andrew Ker of Faldon- 


side, and his children and brother ; Ker of Messing- 
ton, his father's brother and their children ; Ker of 
Linton, and his children and grand-children, and 
brother's bairns ; Richard Ker of Gateshaw, his 
children and brother ; Andrew, William, and John 
Ker, brothers, of Fernieherst ; Ker of Kippeshaw, 
and his son Robert Ker of Both town ; Robert Ker, 
burgess of Edinburgh, and all their children ; brother 
kyn, friends, men, tenants, and servants. * And Sir 
Walter Scott of Branxholm and Buccleuch, with 
consent of his curators, took burden upon him for 
his haill surname, and the relict and bairns of the 
deceased Sir Walter Scott, his grandfather, and also 
for Cranstoun of that Ilk ;-f- the laird of Chisholme, 
Gladstones of that Ilk ; Langlands of that Ilk ; Veitch 
of Sinton, and Ormstone of that Ilk. On the one 

* Sir Thomas Ker of Fernieherst ; Sir Andrew Ker of 
Hirsel ; Robert Ker of Woodhead ; John Haldane of that 
Ilk ; Gilbert Ker of Primisideloch ; James Ker of Tarbet ; 
Robert Ker of Gradene and Andrew Ker, and their children, 
servants, and all others, were excluded from this bond, in 
consequence of their having refused to join in the contract 
when asked by the laird of Cessford, brother-in-law of 

t Celebrated in the "Lay of the Last Minstrel" as "Margaret 
of Branksome's Choice," and the substitute of William of 
Delorain in the duel with dark Musgrave. The minstrel 
celebrates the marriage at Branksome Castle in presence of 
the wardens on each side of the Border; but Wood and 
Crauford give " Teviot's Flower" to Sir John Johnstone of that 


part, the laird of Buccleuch bound himself and all 
his clan not to pursue the laird of Cessford, or any 
other person for whom he was bound criminally or 
civilly, for any slaughter or blood committed in time 
past, nor bear hatred, grudge, or displeasure there- 
fore, but bury and put the same under perpetual 
silence and oblivion, and to live in perfect amity and 
Christian neighbourhood in time coming. And on 
the other part, the laird of Cessford became bound 
that neither he nor any one for whom he took 
burden should in any way pursue the laird of 
Buccleuch, or any of his surname, or others for 
whom he was bound criminally or civilly. And 
for the better removing of all feud and enmity 
between the parties through the unhappy slaughter 
of Sir Walter Scott, it was agreed that Sir Walter 
Ker should, upon the 23rd day of March instant, go 
to the parish kirk of Edinburgh, and there, before 
noon in the sight of the people, reverently and 
upon his knees ask God's mercy for the slaughter, 
and forgiveness of the same from the laird of 
Buccleuch and his friends, promising, in the name 
and fear of God, that he and his friends would truly 
keep their part of the contract, which being done, 
Buccleuch should reverently accept, and receive, and 
promise, in the fear of God, to remit his grudge, 
and never remember the same. It was farther 
agreed that Thomas Ker, the second son of Cess- 
ford, was to marry a sister of the laird of Buccleuch, 


between the date of the contract and the last day of 
May next, without any tocher to be paid by her 
brother and her friends, the laird of Cessford being 
bound to provide them an honest and reasonable 
living, effeiring to their condition ; and also to infeft 
her in her virginity, in conjunct fee and liferent 
with her future spouse, and their heirs, in lands or 
annual-rent of the amount of one hundred merks 
yearly;* that George Ker, the eldest son of Ker of 
Faldonside, should marry Janet Scott, the aunt of 
the laird of Buccleuch, as soon as he became of per- 
fect age, without tocher; and in the event of George 
dying, the next son was to marry her, and so long as 
there were sons of Ker to marry; in the event of Janet 
Scott dying before the marriage, George Ker was to 
marry the next sister, so on as long as Ker had a 
son, and Janet a sister, to marry. The bond next 
provided for the settlement of any dispute that might 
arise between the parties by arbitration, and failing 
their agreeing upon a proper person, the Queen 
and Council were to appoint an oversman. The 
contract was subscribed by " Janet Setoune," relict 
of the deceased Sir Walter Scott, with her own hand, 
" in signe of hir consent to the premisses," and in 
manner following : " Walter Ker of Cessford, Walter 

* It seems that this arrangement did not take place, as 
Janet the eldest sister married Sir Thomas Ker of Fernie- 
herst five years afterwards ; she was the mother of the too 
celebrated Viscount Rochester. 


Scott of Bukleuch, Janet Betoune, Lady of Buk- 
cleuch ;* James ; Thomas Scott of Hanyng ; Mr 
Johne Spens, curator, above written ; Johne Max- 
well ; J. Bellendine, as curator ; Robert Scot of 
Thirlestane, with my hand at the pen led by David 
Laute, notarie publict."-f- 

At the same time, the king granted a remission 
tinder seal to Sir Walter Ker, for his share in the 
slaughter of the Knight of Branxholm. In 1574, 
James VI, with consent of Regent Morton, granted 
the lands and barony of Auld Roxburghe, with their 
pertinents, to Robert Ker, the son and apparent heir 
of William Ker, younger of Cessford, with remainder 
in succession to his heirs; to the heirs male of 
William Ker; to the heirs of Sir Walter Ker of 
Cessford ; to Mark Ker, the commendator of New- 
battle, brother of Sir Walter Ker, and his heirs ; to 
Andrew Ker of Faldonside and his heirs; to Thomas 
Ker of Mersington and his heirs ; to George Ker of 
Linton and his heirs ; to Ker of Gateshaw and his 
heirs; to the heirs male whomsoever of the said 
William Ker, younger of Cessford, bearing the name 

* This lady was a daughter of Beatoun of Creich, and 
possessed so much ability that the country people attributed 
her knowledge to magic. She has been rendered immortal 
by Sir Walter Scott in the " Lay of the Last Minstrel." She 
rode at the head of the clan after the murder of her husband. 

t This gentleman was the ancestor of Lord Napier. Few 
even among the great men were at that period good clerks. 


of Ker and the Cessford arms, reserving the freehold 
and liferent to Sir Walter Ker, and the terce to 
Isabel his wife, and after their death, the same to 
William Ker and his wife Janet Douglas.* On the 
death of Sir Walter Ker, WILLIAM, his son, succeed- 
ed. For many years he was warden of the middle 
marches. His son EGBERT, afterwards the first Earl 
of Roxburghe, was one of the most noted spirits on 
the Border. He acted as depute-warden of the 
middle marches during the life of his father. While 
differences existed between the two houses of Cess- 
ford and Fernieherst, Sir Robert was guilty of the 
slaughter of William Ker of Ancrum, one of the 
clan of the latter family. It is said by Spottis- 
woode,-f- that the young chief was instigated to the 
murder by his mother, for which he obtained a 
remission the following year. Having met Both- 
well near Humbie in Haddingtonshire, the two 
engaged in single combat for two hours, and parted 
from pure fatigue, without either having sustained 
any serious injury. One of the Rutherfurds accom- 
panied Cessford, and was wounded in the cheek by 
Bothwell's attendant. Of Ker, Sir Robert Carey, 
who was deputy warden of the east marches, says, 

* Reg. Mag. Sig. lib. xxxiv. No. 67. Sir Walter was mar- 
ried to Isabel, daughter of Ker of Fernieherst, and William, 
his son, to Janet Douglas, daughter of Sir William Douglas 
of Drumlanrig, and widow of Tweedie of Drumelzier. 

+ Page 383. 


that he was opposite warden, and a brave, active 
officer. By the laws of the Border, it was provided 
that the wardens of each kingdom should deliver up 
offenders till satisfaction was made, and the warden 
failing to do so, was bound to deliver himself up to 
the opposite warden, and be detained till the judg- 
ment of the commissioners of the Border was 
obeyed. The Lord of Buccleuch and Sir Robert 
Ker having failed to deliver offenders on the day 
fixed, were complained of, on which Buccleuch 
entered himself prisoner to Sir William Selby, 
master of the ordnance in Berwick, and the Lord 
Home, by the king's command, delivered up Cess- 
ford a prisoner at Berwick, who was at his own 
request placed under the charge of Sir Robert Carey, 
who says, in his Memoirs, " I lodged him as well as 
I could, and tooke order for his diet and men to 
attend on him, and sent him word that (although 
by his harsh carriage toward me ever since I had 
that charge, he could not expect any favour yet) 
hearing so much goodness of him that he never 
broke his worde, if he should give me his hand and 
credit to be a true prisoner, he would have no guard 
sett upon him, but have free liberty for his friends 
in Scotland to have ingresse and regresse to him as 
oft as he pleased. He took this very kindly at my 
hands, accepted of my offer, and sent me thankes. 
Some four days passed: all which time his friends 
came in to him and hee kept his chamber. Then he 


sent to mee and desired mee I would come and 
speak with him, which I did, and after long dis- 
course, charging and recharging one another with 
wrongs and injuries, at last, before our parting, wee 
became good friends, and great protestation on his 
side never to give mee occasion of unkindness 
again. After our reconciliation, he kept his chamber 
no longer, but dined and supped with me. I took 
him abroad with mee at least thrice a-week a-hunt- 
ing, and every day we got better friends. Buc- 
cleuch in a few days after had his pledges delivered, 
and was sett at liberty. But Sir Robert Ker could 
not get his, so that I was commanded to carry him to 
York, and there to deliver him to the Archbishop, 
which I accordingly did. At our parting, he pro- 
fessed great love unto me for the kind usage I had 
shown him, and that I would find the effects of it 
upon his delivery, which he hoped would be shortly. 
After his return home, I found him as good as his 
word. We met oft at days of truce, and I had as 
good justice as I could desire, and so we continued 
very kind and good friends all the time I staid in 
that march." The Archbishop of York says he 
" found him wise and valiant, but somewhat 
haughty and resolute." On the 29th December, 
1599, six days after the baptism of the infant 
Prince Charles, the king created Sir Robert Earl of 
Roxburghe.* In 1601 he was appointed a commis- 

* Balfour's Annals, vol. 1 p. 409. 


sioner of Justiciary " for the torture, trial, and exe- 
cution of Mr Peter Nairne," charged with having 
conspired the murder of several Englishmen whom 
he had induced to enter Scotland on the pretence 
that he would obtain them employment from the 
king, and when he got them to Kelso, attempted to 
murder them.* In 1606 he was made Baron Ker 
of Cessford and Caverton, and Earl of Roxburghe. 
He was privy seal in the reign of Charles I. He 
married, first, Mary, daughter of Sir William Malt- 
land, by whom he had a son, William, who died in 
infancy, and three daughters. He next married 
Jane, daughter of Lord Drummond, by whom he 
had an only son, Harry, Lord Ker, who predeceased 
himself, leaving four daughters. The earl, seeing 
that by the death of his son his honours would die 
with himself, obtained a power to institute a new 
series of heirs to his titles and estates. On the 17th 
July, 1643, he resigned his dignities and estates into 
the hands of the king, for the purpose of obtaining 
a new grant thereof, to himself and the heirs male 
of his body, and whom failing, to his heirs and 
assignees, to be nominated and constituted by him 
during his lifetime by any writing under his hand. 
Next year he executed a deed of nomination, by 
which he called to the succession several near rela- 
tions, on the condition that they should marry one 
of his grand-daughters, the children of Harry, Lord 

* Pitcairn, vol. ii p. 351-2. 


Ker; but this nomination being considered ineffec- 
tual, he obtained a new charter from the crown, 
under which he was infeft, and in 1648 executed a 
new destination of his dignities and estates. Fail- 
ing heirs male of his own body, he nominated Sir 
William Drummond, fourth son of his daughter 
Jean, Countess of Perth, and the second son of his 
grand-daughter Jean, Countess of Wigton, in their 
order, all of whom, and the heirs male lawfully 
begotten of their bodies, with their spouses, he con- 
stituted heirs of tailzie and successors to his titles 
and estates, under certain restrictions. One of these 
was the appointment of his heir to marry one of the 
grand-daughters, offering himself first to the eldest, 
and so on, and to bear the arms and name of Ker. 
In the event of the above appointment failing by 
death, or the not observing the said restrictions and 
conditions, the right of the said estate was to per- 
tain and belong to the eldest daughter of the said 
deceased Harry, Lord Ker, without division, and the 
heirs male she always marrying or being married 
to a gentleman of honour, who would obey the con- 
ditions of the deed: which all failing, to their heirs 
male, and the nearest heir male of the Earl of Rox- 
burghe. This entail was ratified by Parliament. 

At the death of Earl Robert in 1650, Sir William 
Drummond succeeded under the entail, and married 
Lady Jean, the eldest daughter of Harry, Lord Ker. 
The earl was distinguished for military genius in 


Holland; but joining the Royalists, was fined ,6000 
by Cromwell. His son Robert was the third earl, 
and was lost in the Gloucester frigate, in the Yar- 
mouth Roads, in 1682. His son Robert dying un- 
married, his younger brother, John, succeeded to 
the earldom, and for his services in bringing about 
the union between Scotland and England, was 
created Duke of Roxburghe in 1707. He was privy 
seal in Scotland in 1714, and secretary of state in 
1716, but lost office in 1725, in consequence of 
opposing Sir Robert Walpole. He died at Fleurs 
in 1741. Robert, his son and successor, died in 
1755, and was succeeded by John, his son and heir, 
who was a great book-collector. He rose high in 
the favour of George III. He died, unmarried, in 
March, 1804. It is said that his not marrying was 
caused by an attachment that " had been formed 
between his Grace, when on his travels, and Chris- 
tina Sophia Albertina, eldest daughter of the Duke of 
Mecklenburgh Strelitz, and that their nuptials would 
have taken place, had not her sister, the Princess 
Charlotte, just at that time been espoused to King 
George III. Etiquette then interfered, it being 
deemed not proper that the elder should be a sub- 
ject of the younger sister ; but both parties evinced 
the strength of their attachment by devoting their 
after-lives to celibacy/'* He was succeeded by 

* Sharpe's Peerage, vol. iii., and papers of the day. 


Lord Bellendean, descended from William, second 
son of William Ker of Cessford, and brother of 
Robert, first Earl of Roxburghe. On the 18th of 
June, 1804, Duke William executed a trust dispo- 
sition in favour of Henry Gawler and John Seton 
Kerr, of the estate of Roxburghe, for the purpose of 
paying certain legacies. He also executed a deed of 
entail in favour of himself and the heirs of his body : 
whom failing, to John Gawler and certain other 
heirs. In the same year he conveyed the lands of 
Byrecleuch and others to the same trustees, and 
granted sixteen feu dispositions, whereby the whole 
estate, with the exception of the mansion-house of 
Floors, and a few acres of ground around it, was 
disponed to John Gawler and his heirs and disponees, 
for payment of certain feu duties. He died in 
October, 1805, without issue, and in him failed all 
the descendants of Sir William Drummond. 

Brigadier-General Walter Ker, of Littledean, 
claimed to succeed as heir male general of Lady 
Jean Ker, the eldest daughter of Harry, Lord Ker, 
the son of the first Earl Robert, and also to Henry 
Lord Ker. 

Sir James Norcliffe Innes claimed, under the same 
clause of the deed, as heir male of the body of Lady 
Margaret, the third daughter of Harry, Lord Ker, 
who married his great- grandfather, Sir James Innes, 
in 1666, to the exclusion of General Ker, the trus- 
tees, and Mr. Gawler. After a long litigation, it 


was ultimately decided in May 11, 1812, that, as 
Lady Margaret was the eldest daughter at the time 
the succession opened, Sir James was entitled to be 
preferred to the honours and estates. 

The house of INNES owes its foundation to a Fle- 
ming who settled in Scotland duringthe 12th century. 
During the reigns of William Rufus and Henry I, the 
Flemings migrated in great numbers to England, 
and were settled in the waste lands of Northumber- 
land and Cumberland, where their language may 
still be traced in the names of places. In the civil 
wars of Stephen, the Flemings aided as stipendiaries 
in his armies ; but on Henry II. ascending the throne, 
he banished them out of England. The Flemings 
then repaired to Scotland, where they easily obtained 
settlements ; and in the course of a few years they 
were to be found in every town and hamlet in the 
kingdom, carrying on trade in the country, cultivat- 
ing the wastes, and raising villages on their farms ; 
on the sea coast they settled as fishers. In the 13th 
century, the trade of the country was nearly all in 
their hands. Berwick was then governed by Adam 
Flandrensis, and a body of that people defended the 
Redhall of that place against the English in 1296, 
till every man perished in the flames. Under David 
I., a Fleming was Provost of St. Andrews, and in 
Perth they appear as goldsmiths and saddlers. 
Jordan, a Fleming, got a grant from David I. of lands 
on the Tweed; and in 11 44 witnessed a charter by 


the king to the monks of Kelso. It was this Jordan 
who granted lands in the territory of Orde to the 
same monks. This eminent man was taken prisoner 
with William the Lion at the siege of Alnwick. 
Amongst the earliest immigrants were many Flem- 
ings, who had distinguished themselves in the armies 
of England, and who were received by the King of 
Scotland into his army, getting payment for their 
services in land. In every district, from the Tweed 
and Solway to the Clyde and Moray Frith, the 
Flemings obtained settlements; and so powerful did 
they become, that they obtained right to be governed 
by their own laws.* When the Flemings settled 
among the Celts of the district of Moray, and intro- 
duced new customs and laws, the men of Moray 
raised the standard of revolt in support of their 
ancient principles and laws. But Malcolm IV., with 
the aid of his Flemish stipendiaries, put down the 
revolt, after a violent struggle. At the suppression 
of this revolt, a Flandrekin obtained from the king, 
as a reward for his services, a grant of the lands 
of INNES, which he afterwards adopted as his sur- 
name, and transmitted to the successful claimant of 
the dignities and estates of Roxburghe, and many 
other respectable families descended from the same 
stock. A number of remarkable men sprung from 

* David II. granted a charter to John Marr, canon of 
Aberdeen, for the lands of Cruterstoun, in the Gariach. 
"Una cum lege Fleminga dicitur Fleming-Latiche." 


'Berowald, and filled high offices in both church and 
state. In the end of the 14th century, George Innes 
was a Cardinal and Primate of England. In 1406, 
John was Bishop of Moray, and John, sprung from 
the marriage of Sir Walter Innes with Lady Eraser 
of Lovat, was Bishop of Caithness. Duncan Forbes, 
the compiler of the pedigree in Douglas' Peerage, 
says that " there are three things wherein the family 
are either notable or happy: first, that their inheri- 
tance never went to a woman; second, that none of 
them ever married an ill wife; and, thirdly, that no 
friend ever suffered for their debt." Sir James Innes, 
who succeeded as fifth Duke of Eoxburghe, assumed 
the name of Ker, and married, in 1807, Harriet, 
daughter of Benjamin Charleswood, of Windlesham, 
and died in July, 1823, aged eighty-seven, leaving 
issue, the present duke, who was born in July, 1816, 
being the thirtieth in descent from Berowaldus. 

EDNAHAM ; EDENHAM ; EDNAM. This part of the 
district is entitled to be mentioned next, on account 
of its being one of the earliest settlements to be 
found on record. It derives its name from the British 
Eden, the gliding stream, and the Saxon ham, a 
dwelling Edenham, the dwelling on the Eden. In 
one of the first of the genuine charters, there exists 
a grant from King Edgar to Thorlongus* i.e., Thor 

* Thorlongus was a Saxon or Danish colonist from the 
north of England. There was a Thor in Jed forest, and it is 


the Long to distinguish him from other Thors of 
Ednaham, described in the grant as a desert which, 
with the help of the king, he peopled, and built a 
church in honour of Cuthbert, the Tweedside saint. 
In the grant by Thorlongus, transferring this church 
to the monks of Durham, Ednam is called a waste. 
This curious document is still preserved in the 
treasury of Durham, and is as follows: "To the 
sons of Holy Mother Church, Thor the Long 
greeting in the Lord: Know that Edgar, my lord 
King of the Scots, gave me Ednaham, a waste ; that 
with his help and my own means I peopled it, and 
have built a church in honour of St. Cuthbert and 
his monks, to be possessed by them evermore. This 
gift I have made for the soul of my lord King Edgar, 
and for the souls of his father and mother, and for 
the weal of his brothers and sisters, and for the 
redemption of my dearest brother Lefwin, and for 
the weal of myself, both my body and my soul. 
And if any one by force or fraud presume to take 
away this my gift from the Saint aforesaid, and the 
monks his servants, may God Almighty take away 

probable that he obtained a grant of the lands from Earl 
Henry. Swan, his son, obtained the manor of Buthven and 
other lands in Perthshire. It was his grandson Walter who 
took the surname of Ruthven, and who married a daughter 
of the Earl of Strathern in the reign of Alexander II. Their 
descendants became Earls of Gowrie in 1581. In 1297, Sir 
William Euthven was governor of Jedburgh. 


from him the life of the heavenly kingdom, and may 
he suffer everlasting pains with the devil and his 
angels. Amen.* Although the locality is at the 
present time a fruitful field, it does not require a 
stretch of imagination to realize the picture drawn 
of it by Thor the Long. It would not only be a 
desert in his time, but a watery waste, extending 
from the Eden westward, to Broxlaw near the 
Tweed, as the names of places as well as the nature 
of the ground evince. A number of high gravel 
ridges are to be seen here, and are called comb- 
knowes, and the flat land between them comb-flat. 
These ridges have all been formed by water, and 
there can be little doubt that the flat lands between 
these combs were covered with water, and it is pro- 
bable that the name of " combs" was imposed by the 
Saxon followers of Thorlongus. David I. granted 
to the monks of Coldingham a toft with houses in 
Edenham.-f- The king had a large mill here, from 
which he granted to the monks of Kelso, in 1128, 
twelve chalders of malt, with right to dig turf for 
fuel in the moor of Edenham. King William gave 
the monks the mill itself, and three carrucates of land 
in the town, as Erkenbald the abbot of Dimfermline 
had laid them out in terms of the king's writ, in 
exchange for the grant of 20 chalders of meal and 

* Smith's Bede, 763-4. North Durham Appendix, p. 38, 
N. cxl 

t Chart of Coldingham, 3. 


wheat which they had from the mills of Roxburgh, 
and 40s. from the customs of the same, with power 
to prevent the erection of any other mill in the 
parish, and a right to the same services from the 
inhabitants, which the latter were bound to yield to 
the proprietors of the mill. Two-and-a-half of these 
carrucates are described as lying on the north side 
of the peatry of Ednarn, reaching thence along the 
boundary of the parishes to the southern bounds of 
Newton, and thence to the river Eden, and along 
the Eden to the bridge on the west side of Ednam, 
thence to the road leading to the hospital at the 
forking of the road which comes from the north side 
of the peatry, and along the road to the place first 
mentioned, with pasturage of a piece of ground 
lying between the peatry and the bounds of Kelso; 
the other half-carrucate lay on the east side of the 
quarry belonging to the abbey, and on the side of 
the road leading to Sprouston Ford.* The same 
king granted the monks of Dryburgh two-and-a- 
half merks yearly out of a carrucate of laud in 
Ednam.-f- During the 1 2th century, the church of 
Edenham had two dependent chapels, one at Newton, 
and the other at Nathansthorn. Before 1158, 
Robert, Bishop of St. Andrews, confirmed the con- 
nection between the mother church and the chapel 
at Newton.^ Before 1162, Bishop Arnold confirmed 

* Lib. de Calchou. t Lib. of Dryburgh. 

Chart, Coldingham, p. 41. 


both chapels to the church of Ednara. In 1221, 
there was a charter granted in a full chapter of 
the Merse at Ednara : " in pleno capitulo de Mersce 
apud Edenham." There was also an hospital at 
Edenham, dedicated to St. Leonard. In 1349, 
Edward III. issued a writ for restoring the hospital 
of St. Mary at Berwick and of Edenham to Robert 
de Buston, who is said to have been a busy agent of 
the English king on the Border.* The lands of 
Edenham seem to have been the property of the 
crown at the end of the war .of independence. At 
that time Robert I. granted, inter alia, the barony 
of Edenham, which appears to have been co-extensive 
with the parish, in marriage, with his daughter Mar- 
jery. Robert the Stewart confirmed these lands, 
with the churches and hospital, to Robert Erskine 
and Christian his spouse, but on becoming king, he 
granted to Sir Robert Erskine and his wife < J 100 
sterling out of his firms in Aberdeen, in exchange 
for the lands of Ednam and Nisbet. In 1333, 
letters of protection were granted by Edward III. to 
William of Edenham and others. In 1335, the same 
king gave the property in Berwick which formerly 
belonged to Robert of Edenham, to Henry of Bain- 
borough. In 1358, a safe-conduct was granted to 
Fergus of Edenham, a merchant, to travel in Eng- 
land.-f- The old family of Edmonstone possessed 

* Eotuli Scotiae, voL i. t Ib. pp. 255, 384, 822. 


tliis property for a long period. The first settlement 
of the family was in Mid-Lothian, during the reign 
of David I. Edmund is a witness to several 
charters by that king. The estate of Edmunston in 
Mid-Lothian went off at an early period with an 
heiress, but the heirs male retained the barony 
of Edenham. In 1593, Andrew Edmonstone of that 
Ilk obtained from James VI. all and hail the lands 
of Barningtoun, Barleis, and Berryloch, with their 
pertinents, which formerly pertained in feu farm to 
Francis, Earl Bothwell, and his sons, John and 
Francis Stewart, held immediately from the abbey 
of Kelso, and then in his Majesty's hands, by reason 
of BothwelTs forfeiture.* The barony was in the 
progress of time gradually diminished by partial 
sales ; amongst others, Henderside and Newton-don 
were slices from it. Still, a good estate remained 
behind, but so burdened, that James Edmonstone, 
the last laird, was obliged to dispose of it to James 
Ramsay Cuthbert, about 65 years ago. It is now 
the property of Lord Ward. With the reversion, 
Edmonstone purchased the property of Corehouse, 
on the Clyde, which he left to his sisters, the last of 
whom was involved in many law-suits. George 
Cranstoun was her counsel, to whom she ultimately, 
left her property, and when made a judge, he took 
the title of Lord Corehouse. She died at the age of 

* Acta ParL voL iv. p. 37. 


105, and on her death-bed, she charged Cranstoun 
to see that she was laid in the graveyard of Ednam 
by her own relations, of whom she gave him a list. 
The ashes of the last of the race were laid in the 
cemetery of Ednam, in accordance with her desire. 
One of the lairds of Ednam married a princess of 
Scotland, in memory of which they added the 
tressure to their arms. When James Dickson 
became proprietor of part of Edenham, he enclosed 
the lands, built a neat village, and attempted to 
establish woollen manufactures for cloth, particularly 
English blankets.* He built an extensive brewery, 
which is still successfully carried on. In the garden 
of the brewery is a wych elm, which measures in 
girth 23 feet; at the height of 10 feet, where the 
first large branch springs, 10 feet; and at the height 
of 25 feet, where the second large branch leaves the 
trunk, 9 feet. It is about 60 feet high, and the 
branches cover a space of 23 yards in circumference. 
The trunk is sculptured with deep ridges like a cork- 
tree, -f- 

Edenham is said to be the birthplace of the father 
of the famous Captain Cook. The tradition of the 
family is, that the father of the captain was born 
here, from which he went to Ayton, in Berwickshire, 

* Old Statistical Account, vol. ii. p. 305. 
t Johnstone's Natural History of the Eastern Borders, 
vol. i. p. 177. 



and from that place to Martin Cleveland, in 
England, where the great captain was born. In 
confirmation of this tradition, the parish record 
bears: "Dec. 24, 1692, John Cooke, in this parish, 
and Jean Duncane, in the parish of Smailhume, gave 
up their names for proclamation in order to mar- 
riage. A certificate produced of her good behaviour. 
John Cooke and Jean Duncane were married, Jan. 
19, 1693." "1694, John Cook had a son baptized, 
called James, March the 4th day." The same 
register also bears that John Cuke, the grandfather 
of the captain, was an elder of the parish in 1692, 
during the incumbency of Thomas Thomson, father 
of the poet of the Seasons. 

It has generally been believed that James Thom- 
son^ the poet, was born in the manse of Edenham, 
on the llth of September, 1700, about a month 
before his father's translation to Southdean; and 
although satisfied myself, that the poet was born at 
Edenham, I think it right to notice, that there has 
always existed a tradition on the Cayle water, that 
the poet was born at a place called Wideopen, which 
stood on the hill to the south of Lintonloch, the 
property of his mother, Beatrix Trotter. It is said 
that Mrs Thomson gave birth rather unexpectedly 
to the poet, while on a visit to her mountain home ; 
but if there be any truth in the tradition that 
Wideopen was the place of the poet's birth, it is 
probable that his mother had gone to that place for 


the purpose of having the child on her own land, as 
was customary in the time in which she lived, the 
more especially as the family was about to leave 
Edenharn. The writer of the " Old Statistical Ac- 
count" of the parish, published in the end of the 
last century, states, that " a proposal was made, some 
years before that time, to erect a monument to the 
poet, but it had not been accomplished." Several 
noblemen and gentlemen, with a laudable zeal for 
the literary fame of their country, were in the habit 
of meeting annually at Edenham, to celebrate the 
poet's birthday, as well as with the view of for- 
warding the execution of that design. The design 
was not carried out till 1820, when an obelisk, fifty- 
two feet high, was raised to his memory, on a rising 
ground on the estate of Henderside. The expense 
of the erection was defrayed by the members of the 
club, who held their last meeting in September, 

William Dawson, the distinguished agriculturist, 
was born at Harpertoun on this manor, and is said 
to have introduced, in 1753, a regular system of 
turnip husbandry in this part of Scotland, although 
Dr. John Kutherford, Melrose, had begun the sowing 
of turnips in the field in 1747. In Haddington- 
shire, turnips had been sown in the fields in 1736. 
Like every other place lying near the border, Eden- 
ham had its full share of the miseries of war. In 
July, J 544, the captain of Norham Castle, the Walk 


garrison, and Henry Eure, burnt the village, made 
many prisoners, took a bastille house, strongly built, 
and got a booty of forty nolt and thirty horses, 
besides those on which the prisoners were mounted, 
each on a horse. In 1558, Edenham, with other 
villages, was destroyed by the Earl of Northumber- 

HENDEESIDE. This estate lies between Ednam, 
on the north, and the Tweed, on the south, a little 
to the east of Kelso. The greater portion of it was 
comprehended in the barony of Edenham. The 
mansion-house called Henderside Park, stands on a 
considerable eminence, and commands a beautiful 
view of the valley of the Tweed, the rich country on 
the opposite bank of the river, with the ruined towers 
of the abbey rising above Kelso. The house was 
erected in 1803, in front of a wood planted in 1775, 
by William Ormiston, then proprietor of the estate, 
with the view of building a mansion at the place. 
It has been greatly enlarged and improved by the 
present proprietor, John Waldie, in 1829 and 1840. 
The policy is laid out with taste and skill, and the 
approaches are judiciously formed. The house con- 
tains a library of 18,000 volumes, classified and 
arranged according to the subjects. In this library 
is incorporated a smaller library, formerly in the 
house of Mr. Waldie's grandmother, Jane Waldie or 
Ormston, which was used constantly by Sir Waltc 


Scott, when quite a youth, at Kelso school, and where 
he spent much time with Mrs. Waldie, who was an 
intimate friend of his parents. Besides the library, 
which is peculiarly rich in valuable works relative 
to the fine arts, is a large and very valuable collec- 
tion of paintings, chiefly of the old masters, and a 
fine collection of antique marble columns supporting 
busts, for the most part modern copies. The busts 
of the Four Seasons, lately brought from Eome, are 
the chefs-d'oeuvres of Benzoni, the Italian sculptor. 
They are said to have been much admired during 
the winter of 1856-7, at Rome, by the Empress and 
Grand Duchess Olga, the Dowager Queen of Spain, 
the King of Bavaria, and Pope Pius IX., who often 
visited the studio of Benzoni. 

The estate was acquired by one of the Ormstones 
of Kelso about 1 600, and was greatly added to by 
that family till it went with Jane Ormstone, in 
marriage to John Waldie of Berryhill, which was at 
one time the property of the Earl of Bothwell. By 
the death of her father, and other members of her 
family, Jane Ormstone became vested in all the 
property which belonged to them, and which she 
conveyed to her eldest and only surviving son, 
George Waldie, father of the present proprietor of 
the Ormstone and Waldie estates, both in Roxburgh- 
shire and Northumberland. The first of the name 
of "Waldo" is said to have been a follower of 
William of Normandy, and who settled in Sussex. 


One of the descendants of this Waldo was 
secretary to an abbot of Kelso, and his offspring 
acquired lands in and around Kelso. John Waldie 
of Kelso married Elizabeth, niece of Sir Alexander 
Don of Newton. The heir-apparent of the present 
John Waldie is the only son of Sir Eichard Griffith. 

Newton and Nenthorn were, during the 12th cen- 
tury, the property of the Morvilles, the hereditary 
constables of Scotland, who were also proprietors 
of Bemersyde, Dryburgh, and Merton, on the same 
bank of the Tweed. At the death of William 
Morville in 1196, without lawful issue, his estates 
and offices passed to his only sister, Elena, and her 
husband, the lord of Galloway. They were suc- 
ceeded by their only child, Allan, who was one of 
the most opulent barons in Britain. He died in 
] 234, leaving, by his wife Margaret, a daughter of 
David, Earl of Huntingdon, three daughters, Elena, 
(Christian, and Dervorgil. Elena married Eoger de 
Quincey, Earl of Winchester, and her daughter 
Margaret became Countess of Derby; Christian, 
William de Fortibus, son of the Earl of Albemarle ; 
and the youngest, John Baliol, the lord of Bernard 
Castle, father of the Baliol who competed for the 
crown of Scotland. On the accession of the Bruce, 
lie conferred the property on his favourite warrior, 


Sir James Douglas. The territory was held by 
vassals under the Morvilles, their descendants, 
and the Douglas. It was served by two chapels 
named after the manors, both dependant on the 
mother- church at Edenham. Hugh, the first 
Morville, gave the monks of Dryburgh the tenth of 
the multure of his mills of Naythansthyrn and 
Newton, with half-a-earrucate of land in Newton, 
with pasture for nine oxen and one work-horse.* 
About 1162, Roger Bertram gave the tenth of the 
mills of Naythansthorn to the monks of Dryburgh, 
for the salvation of the soul of Hugh Morville, for 
his own soul, and the soul of his wife Ada.*f* 
Between 1212 and 1281, these grants were confirmed 
by William, Bishop of St. Andrews.]: About 1388, 
Richard de Hanganside, a vassal of the Douglas, gave 
to the monks of Kelso all his land in the territory 
of Little Newton, in the constabulary of Lauder. 
These subjects are called Comflat, with portions of 
land and meadows, and described as " bounded by 
the parish of Kelso on the south, and on the north 
by the morass of Kanmuir, through which the 
causeway and highway runs." In the end of the 
12th century, Arnold, the diocesan of St. Andrews, 
confirmed to the monks of Coldingham, the church 
of Edenham, and both chapels of Newton and Nay- 
thansthorn. In 1204, these monks compounded 

* Lib. of Dryburgh, p. 145. t Ib. p. 106. Ib. p. 107. 


with William, the Bishop of St. Andrews, for their 
rights, and conceded to him both chapels. Before the 
year 131 6, the parishes of Naythansthirn and Newton 
were erected into a parish, when the former was 
made a parochial church, and Newton a dependent 
chapel.* On the 17th of March, 1316, William de 
Lamburton, the Bishop of St. Andrews, gave to Wil- 
liam de Alyncrombe, the abbot of Kelso, the'parish 
church of Nay than thirn, and the chapel of Little 
Newton, in exchange for the church of Cranstoun, 
and the land of Preston, in Midlothian, which lay 
contiguous to the bishop's property, as the former 
did to the lands of Kelso. The bishop, at the same 
time, agreed to pay for ten years, from and after the 
Feast of Pentecost, 1317, the sum of 25 merles a- 
year, under deduction of the salary of the chaplain 
of said church, unless the revenues of Nenthorn and 
Neuton should in any year amount to 25 rnerks. 
The proceeds of the fruits and tithes beyond the 
chaplain's salary were to be placed to the account of 
the bishop and his successors, as payment of part of 
that sum which the bishop bound himself to pay. 
The reason of making this yearly payment, was in 
consideration of the two chapels being reduced in 
value by the war.-f- In June, 1317, a precept was 

* The conjoined parish is only about two and a-half miles 
long, by one and a-half broad, 
t " Et quod dicta ecclesia nostra de Naythanthirn et ca- 


issued by the diocesan to his Stewart in Lothian, to 
give the monks of Kelso seisin of the church of 
Naythanthirn, and two days after, the stewart 
issued his precept to Henry Stulp, the baillie of 
Wedale, ordering him to give the seisin as com- 
manded.* In the end of the 16th century, the 
master of Roxburgh possessed parts of the lands of 
Little Newton, and was succeeded by Lady Mary 
Ker, and Lady Carnegie, his sister, in 1634.-f- In 
1669, Mark Pringle was proprietor of the lands of 
Nenthorn as heir of his father, Andrew Pringle.J 
Nenthorn became the property of General Ker of 
Littledean, the claimant of the Roxburgh honours 
and estates, and sold by him to meet the costs of the 
litigation. The lands are now owned by a family 
of the name of Roy. Newton passed from the 
Edmonstones to the family of Don, and is now pos- 
sessed by a son of the late Balfour of Wittingham. 
The mansion of NEWTON-DON was built by Sir 
Alexander Don. It stands on the site of the old 
chapel, and commands an extensive view in every 
direction. The park is well wooded, and contains a 
number of fine trees. On the north of the garden 
is a beautiful weeping birch, fourteen feet in girth; 
at four feet from the ground it divides itself into two 

pella de Newton sunt exiles et per conmmnem guerram des- 
tructe et devastate." 

* Stow, on the Gala, was the baillie's residence, and one of 
the palaces of the bishops of St. Andrews. 

t Eetours, No. 199. J Ib. No. 355. 


branches, one of which is eight feet seven inches in 
girth, the other seven feet ; and the height is about 
seventy-four feet. Near to it is another tree of the 
same kind, and of about the same size. In the same 
locality stands a fern-leaved beech-tree of great 
beauty. Nearer the bank of the Eden is a woolly- 
leafed poplar, having a trunk of about eight feet 
in circumference, of considerable height, and its 
limbs entwined with ivy. The ivy is three feet 
thick, and for eight feet from the ground is distinct 
from the tree ; at that height a part of it enters the 
trunk of the poplar, from which it seems to have 
derived nourishment, and the effect of the poplar's 
nursing has been to convert the trunk of the ivy into 
poplar wood. About two feet higher up, the ivy 
assumes its natural appearance. Several yew-trees 
are fully four feet in girth, and shade an area of 
nearly forty feet diameter. A chestnut-tree, near the 
east end of the house, is fourteen and a-half feet in 
circumference, and rises to the height of nearly 
eighty feet. At a short distance from the chestnut 
are several magnificent wych elms, fifteen feet in 
girth, and fully eighty feet high. The policy is 
studded with remarkable hawthorn-trees. About 
150 yards east from the house, a thorn-tree measures 
nine feet at its base ; at twelve feet from the ground 
its trunk is five feet and a-half, and the branches 
cover an area of forty-three feet diameter. Within 
a few hundred yards of this place may be seen six 


other thorns, of nearly equal dimensions with the one 
described. The Eden forms the northern boundary 
of the park, and at a place nearly opposite to the 
mansion, the river throws itself over a trap dyke 
about thirty-five feet of perpendicular height. The 
spot is called Stitchel Linn. Forty years ago the 
Linn was the scene of a very melancholy incident. 
Two sisters of the late Sir Alexander Don, and a 
lady guest, were drowned in the pool. They left 
the mansion to walk in the woods, and had strayed 
to this romantic scene. Not returning to dinner, a 
search was made, and their bodies were found in the 
Linn. No one could tell how the accident hap- 
pened ; but it was conjectured that one of the ladies 
had slipped from the rock, and the other two were 
drowned in endeavouring to save their companion. 

The name is thought to be derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon, and means a steep hill ; but it may be that 
the name is rather intended to describe the situation 
of the town at two peculiar hills, stuck, as it were, 
on the top of the ridge on which the town stands. 
The village cannot be said to be placed on the top 
of a steep hill. On the west and east, the approach 
is nearly level, and on the south only there is a con- 
siderable rise from the Eden, but not to such an 
extent as to impose a name upon the village. The 
situation commands an extensive view of the coun- 


try to the south and west, comprehending the valley 
of the Tweed and Teviot, and the whole range of 
the Cheviot mountains from the west to their eastern 
extremity, as well as the Eildon hills, Ruberslaw, 
the Dunion, Penielheugh, and Downlaw. The hills 
on the north of the town limit the vision in that 
direction. The view from the top of the hill at the 
base of which the mansion-house is situated, is well 
worth the trouble of ascending from the valley of 
the Eden. Perhaps this prospect is surpassed by the 
view from Blacklawedge on the road above Easter- 
stead. It is a lovely scene, rich and beautiful ; the 
whole of the Merse spread out as a map before the 
eye, with the palaces and mansions of the nobility 
and gentry, environed with wood. 

The barony of Sitchel, or the whole parish of that 
name, was of old part of the territory of Gordon, 
granted by David I. to an Anglo-Norman settler, 
who assumed from it the name of Gordon. During 
the reign of Malcolm IV., the lands were possessed 
by the sons of the first Gordon, Richard and Adam ; 
Richard enjoyed the greater part of the lands of 
Gordon, and Adam, the remainder, with Fanys. 
The lands were all united by the marriage of Alicia 
de Gordon with her cousin, Sir Adam Gordon. This 
Sir Adam de Gordon supported Wallace, and fell 
doing battle for the independence of his country, 
about the end of the 13th century. His widow, 
Marjory, swore fealty to Edward on the 3rd of 


September, 1296, and received restitution of her 
estates. But their son Adam followed in the foot- 
steps of his father, and mainly contributed to the 
first success of Bruce. He was warden of the 
marches in 1300, and, as such, warned the Douglas 
of the approach of the Earl of Arundel, with a 
numerous army, against his stronghold in the forest. 
In 1305, he was fined three years' rent of his estates 
by Edward I. In the same year, he was one of the 
commissioners for settling the government of Scot- 
land. In the same year, he was appointed one of 
the Justiciars of Lothian. In consequence of Robert 
I. granting to Sir Adam the estates of the faithless 
Earl of Athol, in the shires of Aberdeen and Banff, 
he and his vassals went north. He fell at the battle 
of Halydonhill, in 1333, leaving to his eldest son 
Alexander, the estates of Gordon, and the lordship 
of Strathbogie in Aberdeenshire ; to his other son, 
William, Stitchel, and Glenkins in Galloway. 

The descendants of Alexander rose to be Dukes 
of Gordon. About the end of the 13th century, 
Nicolas de Sticcanel is seen granting to the hospital 
of Soltre two sceppas of oatmeal, to be yearly received 
from his granary at Lyda.* This grant was con- 
firmed by Eustacius of Sticcenil. In April, 1358, 
Robert, the Stewart of Scotland, and Earl of Strath- 

* The sleep measure is said to have been borrowed from 
the English practice. It contained twelve bushels. 


earn, granted to William Gordon of Stitchel, the 
heritable office of keeper of the new forest of Glen- 
kins in Galloway, as fully as the Earl himself had 
got it from his uncle. David II. The family of 
Gordon possessed the estates of Stitchel till the 17th 
century. In 1604, Lord Robert Gordon of Lochinvar 
was served heir to his father in the lands of Stitchel.* 
In 1598, Robert Hopper seems to have been owner 
of part of Nether Stitchel. In that year, Robert 
Hopper was served heir male of his father, Robert 
Hopper, in two husbandlands, with pasture, in the 
town and territory of the lordship of Stitchel.^ In 
the course of the 17th century, the lands of Stitchel 
passed to Robert Pringle, whose grandson was 
created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1683. His 
eldest son, Sir John, succeeded, and married Margaret, 
a daughter of Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs and Wells, 
by whom he had four sons, one of whom was John, 
a celebrated physician. His grandson, Sir John, 
was the last Pringle of Stitchel. A family of Baird 
now possess the lands. 

The church of Stitchel appears at a very early 
period as held by the priory of Coldingham to their 
proper use. Thomas, the son of Ranulph, settled a 
chantry in the chapel of Stitchel. Several disputes 
occurred between the monks of Coldingham and 
Thomas, in regard to this chapel and its lands, which 

Eetours, No. 24 t Ib. No. 24 


required the presence of the delegates of the Pope 
to adjust. An exchange was afterwards effected 
between Sir Thomas and the same monks, of lands 
in the manor of Stitchel.* There seems to have 
been other disputes in this parish; as the register 
in 1457 contains notices of several appeals, one of 
which is at the instance of the vicar of Stitchel. In 
the reign of Alexander II., the church was rated at 
thirty-four marks. Although the church belonged 
to the monks of Coldingham, the Bishop of St. 
Andrews, and his subordinate, the Dean of the 
Merse, exercised jurisdiction over it, and the other 
churches situated in that district. 

There is now a church belonging to the United 
Presbyterian body, having a congregation of about 
three hundred individuals. 

The salary of the parochial teacher is 25, and 
the school-fees amount to about as much more. 

The Melrose Chronicle records the death of Philip 
of Stitchel in 1221.f Kobert of Stitchel succeeded 
Walter de Kirkham as Bishop of Durham, on the 
9th of August, 1260. J 

George Eedpath, who died minister of Stitchel in 
1772, collected materials for a history of Berwick- 
shire, and left in MS. a history of the Borders, which 
was published in 1776 by his brother Philip, minister 
of Hutton. 

* Chart of Coldingham, No. 72. 
t Chron. Mail. p. 138. t Ib. p. 185. 


HOLM ; HOWM ; HOME ; HUME. The name of this 
place is said by Mr Chalmers to be derived from the 
Saxon Holm, signifying a hill, and not from the 
same word, meaning a river island; but had this 
learned and laborious writer seen the locality, it is 
probable that he would have held the name as de- 
scriptive of a rocky height surrounded by marsh and 
moist meadows. It was described by Paton, who 
accompanied the Protector Somerset in ]547, as 
standing " upon a rocky crag, with a proud heith 
over all the country about it, on every syde well nie 
fencedby marrysh, allmost round in forme with thick 
walles, and, in which is a rare thing upon so hie and 
stonie a ground, a fair well within yt." The name 
would more correctly describe the situation in the 
12th and 13th centuries, as surrounded with marshes, 
meadows, and lochs. The view from the castle is 
extensive and varied, taking in, on the north, the 
Lammermuir range of hills, and on the south, the 
Cheviot mountains, with all the fine country lying 
between these mountain ranges. The MANOE of 
HOME formed a part of the territory of the powerful 
family of Dunbar before the end of the llth century. 
Before 1166, the fourth Gospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, 
granted to his younger son, Patrick, the lands of 
Greenlaw, where he fixed his abode. Patrick of 
Greenlaw was succeeded by his son William, who mar- 
ried his cousin Ada, who was a daughter of the first 
Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, by Ada, a natural daughter 


of William the Lion. Ada had been previously 
married to a Courteney, and obtained from her father, 
Earl Patrick, as a marriage gift in liberum mare- 
tagium the manor of Home. After the marriage 
with Ada, William assumed Home as a surname, 
and from this pair sprung the border clan of the 
Homes. The church of Home was dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, and was the property of Earl Gospatrick, 
who granted to it a carrucate of land, with parochial 
rights over that village and the half of Gordon. He 
afterwards confirmed the same church, with two car- 
rucates of land, and a meadow called Hawstrother, to 
the monks of Kelso. Before 1159 this monastery 
obtained a confirmation of the grant from Robert, 
the Bishop of St. Andrews. Ada, the wife of William 
of Home, gave a portion of her land and buildings 
in Home, called Pulles* on the margin of the Eden, 
" where that rivulet formed the march between Home 
and Nenthorn." Afterwards disputes arose between 
William de Home and the monastery, as to their 
rights in the territory of Home ; but in 1268 he 
granted an acknowledgment to the monks that he 
had unjustly treated them, and, according to a cus- 
tom common at that time, swore upon the holy 
Evangelists to do so no more, but protect their rights 
in future, pay 100s. as damages and expenses, and 
gave security for the payment thereof. The monks 
do not seem to have put great faith in the promises 

* Stables and other farm buildings. 


of Home, as, in addition to his own seal attached to 
the deed, the official seal of the Archdeacon of 
Lothian and the Dean of the Merse were also ap- 
pended.* He died shortly after the execution of this 
deed, and his son William bound himself to confirm 
it as soon as he had assumed military arms and 
changed his seal The lands, toft, and messuages in 
Home, which formerly belonged to Adam Long, 
were gifted to the monks of Kelso by Lord Walter 
de Laynale. On the monks obtaining the patronage 
of the church of Gordon, the territory of Gordon 
and part of Weststruther was erected into a separate 
parish by Richard, the Bishop of St. Andrews, who, 
on that occasion, gave liberty to the men of Adam 
Gordon to take the sacrament and bury their dead, 
either at the new cemetery or at the graveyard of the 
mother church of Home, so long as it pleased the 
monks of Kelso. The parish of Home is now joined 
to Stitchel, and is nearly of the same extent as it was 
on Weststruther being erected into a separate parish. 
After Home became the residence of William of 
Greenlaw, the castle rose to be a place of importance, 
and was gradually increased in strength as its lords 
grew in power in the land. It was held by the 
Homes under the Earl of March till January, 1435, 
when their chief was forfeited, and they obtained in- 

* It was the practice in that age for the parties in whose 
favour a grant was made, to request that the seals of well- 
known and respectable persons should also be appended to it. 


dependence by becoming tenants of the crown. In 
1515, the castle was taken by the Regent Albany. 
In the year following, Lord Home and his brother 
were executed. In 1517, the castle was retaken by 
the Homes, and maintained against the authority of 
King and Regent. In 1522, George Home was re- 
stored to the title and estates of his brother, which 
had become vested in the crown. In 1529, Lord 
Home was imprisoned. When Bowes, in 1542, en- 
tered Scotland, he was met by the Earl of Huntly 
and Lord Home at Haddonrig, and defeated. Lord 
Home fell in a skirmish before the battle of Pinkie, 
and his son and heir taken prisoner. The castle 
was taken by the Protector Somerset, on returning 
from his expedition. He pitched his camp at Hare- 
crags, about a mile west from the castle, on the 20th 
September, 1547, where he was visited by Lady 
Home, entreating him to take the castle into his 
protection, which he refused to do ; and on his de- 
manding the castle to be delivered up, she begged a 
respite till next day at noon, to enable her ladyship 
to consult with her son, who was in the camp, and 
other friends, keepers of the castle. A second respite 
was granted till eight at night, and safe-conduct for 
John Home of Cowdenknowes to meet with Somer- 
set. After considerable debating, it was at last ar- 
ranged that the castle was to be delivered up, and the 
inmates to leave by ten next morning, with as much 
bag and baggage as they could carry, excepting ana- 


munition and victuals. In case the keepers of the 
castle should alter their mind during the night, the 
English General caused eight pieces of ordnance, 
fenced with baskets of earth, to be placed on the 
south side of the crag next the castle. Next morn- 
ing, Lord Grey was deputed by Lord Somerset to re- 
ceive the castle from the hands of the Homes, and 
Lord Dudley to be keeper thereof. The castle was 
accordingly delivered up by Andrew Home and four 
others of the principal persons therein. Within the 
castle the English found store of victuals and wine 
and 16 pieces of ordnance. In 1549, the Scots re- 
took the castle by stratagem, and put the garrison to 
the sword. Lord Grey, the English lieutenant on 
the Borders, attempted to retake it, but failed. In 
1565, Tamworth, the English messenger, was seized 
at Dunbar by Lord Home, and carried to the castle 
of Home, where he was detained for some days. In 
November, 1566, Queen Mary was two nights at 
Home Castle, on her way north from Jedburgh. 
After the battle of Dunbar, Colonel Fenwick, on 3rd 
February, 1650, appeared before the castle of Home, 
and summoned the governor to surrender it to Crom- 
well. The governor answered, ' I know not Crom- 
well ; and as for my castle, it is built on a rock ;' 
whereupon Colonel Fenwick played upon him with 
the great guns ; but the governor still would not 
yield; Nay sent a letter couched in these singular 


' I, William of the Wastle, 
Am now in my castle, 
And a' the dogs in the town 
Shanna gar me gang down.' 

So that there remained nothing but opening the 
mortars upon this William of the Wastle, which did 
gar him gang down." 

The badge of the Homes was Kendalgreen. Their 
slogan, or war-cry, was, " A Home ! a Home !" 

name of this place signifies a small dwelling, ham- 
let, or village. The town is situated on the summit 
of a ridge, rising gradually from the margin of the 
river Tweed, consisting of a church, school-house, - 
several shops, and a number of other houses. It 
is six miles north from Kelso. The manor of 
Smailholm appears in record as early as the begin- 
ning of the twelfth century. It was granted by 
David I. to David de Olifard, his godson, who con- 
cealed the king after the battle of Winchester, and 
accompanied him to Scotland. The family of Oli- 
fard, or Oliver, is said to have sprung from a Danish 
chieftain, who gained the surname of Baruakel, or 
the Preserver of Children, from his dislike to the 
favourite amusement of his soldiers, that of tossing 

* Circa, 1160. 

t Ib. 1248; Chron. Mail pp. 177, 179; Lib. de Diyburgh, 
pp. 109, &c. 


infants on their spears.* During the reign of Mal- 
colm IV., he appears acting as Justiciary of Lothian, 
which extended to the Tweed. He held the same 
office under William the Lion. David Olifard wit- 
nessed many charters of David I., Malcolm IV., and 
William the Lion. After the death of his godfather, 
David de Olifard granted, in 1 1 60, to the monks of 
Dryburgh, a carrucate of land in Smailham, with pas- 
turage for 300 sheep, for the remission of his own 
sins, and for the souls of " my lord, who gave unto 
me the lands, and for the souls of my ancestors and 
successors. "} This grant was confirmed by Malcolm 
IV. during the same year.| Olifard also gave to 
the house of Soltre a thrave of corn from one of his 
manors of Smalham and Crailing. He left five sons, 
the eldest of whom, David, succeeded to the estates 
and offices of his father. He died at the end of the 
12th century, leaving two sons, Walter and David. 
The eldest acted as Justiciary for above twenty 
years under Alexander II., by whom he was greatly 
trusted. He granted the church of Smailholm and 

* Vol. ii. p. 319. t Lib. de Dryburgh, p. 109. 

J Ib. p. 120. 

Chart. Soltre, Nos. 16, 17. The thrave was the common 
measure of corn at that period. The word is derived from 
the British drev, signifying a tye. The Saxons used the 
word "threaf" for bundle. It is probable that the word 
threaf is from the British. The term comprehended two 
stocks of 24 sheaves each. It is still in use in various part* 
of the country. 


its pertinents to the monks of Coldingham.* Oli- 
fard died in 1242, and was buried in the abbey of 
Melrose.^ After his death, Walter of Moray is seen 
in possession of the estates of Bothwell in Clydes- 
dale and Smailholm ; and it is thought that he ob- 
tained them by marriage with the heiress of David 
Olifard. He seems to have resided at his manor of 
Bothwell, as a charter by him in favour of the monks 
of Dryburgh, exempting them from paying multure 
to his mill at Smalholm, is dated at Bothwell in the 
year 1278.J Walter died soon after, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, who swore fealty to 
Edward in 1291. Not having any issue, his brother 
Andrew succeeded to the territory of Smalhom, and 
became celebrated as the companion in arms of the 
illustrious patriot Wallace. He fell at the battle of 
Stirling in 1297- His son Andrew, by a daughter 
of John Cumyn of Badenoch, also joined the ranks 
of Wallace, followed Bruce, and was the protector of 
David II., his infant son. About 1465, Halyburton 
of Merton, and Janet, his spouse, were tenants of the 
monks of a plow of land of the Bouchicoittis, within 
the lordship of Smailholm. In the end of the 15th 
century, the lands of Smailholm seem to have been 

* The present church is supposed to have been built in 
1632. When the church was undergoing repair, a stone was 
found above one of the doors, bearing the inscription, " Sou 
DEO GLORIA, 1632." 

t Chron. Mail. p. 155. J Lib. of Dryburgh, p. 110. 


possessed by David Purves, who, in 1483, was found 
guilty of treasonable assistance given to Albany, and 
in-bringing of Englishmen, and his life and goods 
forfeited.* Before 1515, the manor passed to Sir 
William Cranston, grandfather of the first Lord 
Cranston. About the same time, the Rutherfurds ap- 
pear as owners of certain parts of the lands of Smail- 
holm. The family of Hoppringell are seen in con- 
nection with Smailholin about 1493. In 1602, 
James Hume of Coldenknowes was proprietor of 
eighteen husbaudlands in the territory of Smailholm; 
in 1605, George Hoppringell, of Wranghame, two 
husbandlands and three cottages, with the hills and 
tower of Smailholm Crags towards the west, within 
the territory of Smailholm. It is now the property 
of the Earl of Haddington. There was an hospital 
within the manor of Smailholm, the property of the 
abbey and convent of Dryburgh. j- 

In 1536, James Stewart, the abbot, feued to John 
Hume of Cowdenknowes all and haill the lands of 
Smailholm, Spittal, and pertinents, lying within the 
sheriffdom of Roxburgh, for thirty merks yearly. 
In 1630, those lands were occupied by Cairncross 
of Colmslie. 

In May, 1303, Edward L was at Smailholm, on 
his journey north. He travelled from Roxburgh to 
Lauder on the same day.]: 

* Acta Parl. voL ii. p. 160. t Lib. de Dryburgh, p. 340. 
I Eotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 53. 


Several persons have borne the surname of Smail- 
ham. About 1207, Alexander de Smalham, clerk, 
is witness to a charter of William, abbot of Paisley. 
Kobert of Smailham was abbot of Kelso from 1248 
to 1258.* Adam of Smalham was abbot of Dere 
in 1267.~f* Robert de Smalham got letters of safe- 
conduct from Edward III. in October, 1365.;J; 

Jean Duncan, the mother of Captain Cook, resided 
in the barony of Smailholm, at the time of her 
marriage with John Cook of Ednam. It is probable 
the pair were married at Smailholm. 

At a short distance to the west of the village of 
Smalham, and within the manor thereof, stands the 
ruins of a strong tower called Smailholm Crags, 
better known as Sandyknowe Tower, amidst scenery 
thus described by Sir Walter Scott : 

" It was a barren scene and wild, 
Where naked cliffs were rudely piled ; 
But ever and anon between, 
Lay velvet tufts of loveliest green. 
And well the lovely infant knew 
Eecesses where the wallflower grew, 
And honeysuckles loved to crawl 
Up the low crag and ruined wall." 

The tower is a square building about 60 feet high, 
surrounded with a stone wall, now in ruins, enclosing 
a courtyard, defended on two sides by a morass, and 

* Chron. Mail. p. 177. t Ib. p. 197. 

$ Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 53. 

Introduction to third Canto of "Marmion." 


on the third by a precipice of steep rocks, accessible 
only by the west end, and that so steep and rocky 
that the approach is exceedingly difficult. The 
apartments have been placed above each other; the 
lower apartment arched with stone, and the others 
with wood; a narrow stair winding up one side. The 
walls are nine feet thick. On the outside of the wall 
of the court was the chapel. From the top of the 
tower is a magnificent view of the surrounding 

" o'er hill and dale, 

O'er Tweed's fair flood and Merton's wood, 
And all down Teviotdale." 

This tower belonged to the family of Hoppringell, 
and, by various transmissions, came at last into the 
family of Lord Polwarth. Sir Walter Scott's pater- 
nal grandfather was farmer of Smailholm Crags, 
including the barnikin and the surrounding varied 
scenery. Here Sir Walter Scott resided for some 
time while a boy, and it is believed that at the 
blazing ingle of Sandyknowe the minstrel obtained 
information which laid the foundation of his Border 
lore. One of the crags near the tower is called the 
Watchfold, and is said to have been the station of 
a balefire during the Border wars. Cromwell be- 
sieged this fort, and so obstinate was the defence of 
the last John Pringle, that the English were forced 
to batter down the chapel before the keepers of the 
fort would surrender. This ancient fortress and its 


vicinity is celebrated by Sir Walter Scott in the 
" Eve of St. John."* 

WKANGHAME. This place is now a part of the 
Merton estate, but in early times was the property 
of the monks of Dryburgh, and, during the 16th 
century, occupied by the Hoppringells. The town 
stood in the eastmost field of the farm of Brother- 
stones, which lies on the north side of the Smail- 
holm road. It is now entirely removed, a few ash- 
trees only marking the site of the hamlet. This 
village is thought to be the place where Kenspid, 
the nurse of St. Cuthbert, resided, with whom he 
lived from the age of eight years till the time he 
entered into the service of God. Bede relates, that 
one day, when the saint was invited to Wranghame by 
his nurse, " a house at the east end of the town took 
fire, and the wind blowing strongly from that quar- 
ter, increased the violence of the flames. His so- 
called mother ran to the house where he was stay- 
ing, and begged of him to pray to God to preserve 
their houses from the flames that surrounded them. 
Without the slightest fear, he charged his mother, 
saying, ' Fear nothing, for this fire will not hurt you/ 
and falling prostrate on the ground before the door, 
he prayed silently. Immediately, at his prayers, a 
strong wind arose from the west, and turned the 
fire away without doing harm to any one/'-J- Three 

* Minstrelsy, p. 433. t Bede, chap. xiv. 


large stones were taken away from Wranghame, 
and set upright upon the hill, about three quarters 
of a mile to the west of the town. 

TON. This barony lies on the left bank of the 
Tweed, and originally extended northward till it 
met the territory of Smailholm; on the west, it 
was bounded by the lands of the Morvilles ; on the 
south, the river was the boundary ; and on the east, 
the manor of Kelso. Such was the old territory of 
Mac-car; and though the domain is not now so 
wide, it still is a fair barony. The mansion is seen 
to great advantage from the south side of the river, 
especially from the North British Railway, a little 
to the east of Rutherford station. The house has 
undergone considerable enlargement and improve- 
ments in comparatively modern times. It was cast 
down by the Earl of Hertford in 1545. It is thought 
to have been rebuilt in 1590, as the weather-cock, 
which formerly stood on the top of the house, was 
taken down in the course of recent improvements, 
contains the letters T. M. M. H., and the date 1590, 
and is yet to be seen near the Observatory. When 
Hertford destroyed the house, the ground storey, 

* Circa, 1116, 1130, 1150. t Ib. 1159. I Ib. 1159. 
Ib. 1291. || Ib. 1296. 


composed of massy stone arches, must have been 
left, and on which the house of 1590 has apparently 
been erected. The lower part of the house is 
undoubtedly far older than the other parts of it. 
The policy is full of valuable wood. On the north 
of the mansion, a number of fine wych elms are to 
be seen, of about fifteen feet in girth, and rising to 
the height of at least seventy feet. A remarkable 
tree of this kind stands about 150 yards north of 
the house ; it is fully fifteen feet in circumference, 
and at a few feet high sends out a massy branch in 
a straight line from its trunk. There are also a 
number of fine beech-trees that raise their graceful 
forms to a great height. The sycamore and ash 
trees also abound, many of them ten and twelve feet 
in circumference, and rise fully sixty feet high. On 
the banks of the river, and in the park, are a few 
fine thorns mixed with the other wood, adding 
greatly to the beauty of the scenery, and affording, 
as remarked by an accomplished botanist, a favourite 
concealment in which the thrush seeks to build her 

" Within yon milk-white hawthorn bush, 
'Mang her nestlings sits the thrush ; 
Her faithfu' mate will share her toil, 
Or wi' his songs her care beguile." 

It is thought that the name was conferred on this 
place by some early settler of the name of Mac-car, 
but of whom no other trace exists than the name of 


this ancient baronial mansion. The earliest pro- 
prietor named in the records is Walter Corbet, who 
acquired the barony about the middle of the 12th 
century. His father was Eobert Corbet, who came 
from Shropshire in the beginning of the 12th 
century, and settled in Teviotdale under Earl David. 
In the "Inquisitio Davidis, 1116," Robert Corbet 
is a witness to the charter of Prince David to the 
monastery of Selkirk. He also witnessed a grant 
of David I. to the monks of Dunfermline. Before 
1159, Walter Corbet gave to the monks of Kelso the 
church of Malkariston, with the tithes thereof, and 
a piece of land, lying on the Tweed at Brockesford, 
which he had given to that church at the time of its 
dedication. This land he afterwards exchanged 
with them, and added, for the love of God, that 
piece of land called " Gret-riges-medow" for the 
safety of William his king. Walter, his son, made 
another grant to them of half-a-ploughgate, with 
toft and croft, and confirmed a grant by Michael, 
one of his vassals, of two acres of land, lying on the 
north side of the road from Langtoune to Roxburgh. 
He married Alice, a daughter of Philip de Valoines, 
the chamberlain who possessed the barony of King- 
wode in Teviotdale. She bare to him a son and a 
daughter; the former died in the lifetime of his 
father, and the latter, Christian, married William, 
the second son of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, carrying 
with her all the vast estates of her father. On the 


marriage taking place, Earl Patrick conveyed to his 
son William the manor of Foghou in Berwickshire. 
Christian had two sons to William, named Nicholas 
and Patrick, who assumed their mother's name of 
Corbet. Nicholas got Makerston, and Patrick 
obtained from his father the manor of Foghou. 
Foghou afterwards went to the Gordon family, still, 
holding of the Dunbars till 1400, when it was 
forfeited by Earl George. The monks of Kelso 
granted leave to Christian and her husband to 
celebrate divine worship in their own chapel at 
Malcarvistoun ; in return, William, with the consent 
of his son Nicholas, and for the safety of his wife 
Christian, granted the monks a release of all claims 
which he might have on their estate, and, in pre- 
sence of the Bishop of Dunkeld, swore to perform 
faithfully his promise. The last of the ancient race 
of the Corbets died in 1241, and was buried in the 
chapter-house of Melrose Abbey.* But her son, 
Nicholas, by Gospatric, and his heirs, inherited the 
lands. In 1263, on the feast of St. Lucia, in the 
refectory of the abbey, and in presence of the king, 
Nicholas Corbet granted to the monks of Melrose, 
for their support and recreation, all the fisheries in 
the river Tweed, from Dal Cove on the west, to 
Brockesmouth on the east, on condition that the 
produce thereof should be applied to the proper uses 

* Chron. Mail p. 153. 


of the convent. Leave was given by him to the 
men of the convent to land their cobells and nets on 
part of his grounds, with passage through his lands 
to the fisheries, and the privilege to build a fishing- 
house.* But troublous times were at hand, during 
which it is difficult to trace the fortunes of the 
family. In 1296, Alexander Corbet was detained 
captive in Windsor.-f- In 1334, Edward III. com- 
manded restitution of the lands and goods of Patrick 
Shartres, [Chartres], and Margaret Corbet, lady of 
Malkerstoun.j About 1390, Archibald M'Dowell 
got a grant from Robert III. of the lands of M'Car- 
stoune, Yhethame, and Elystoun. In 1 398, Archibald 
M'Dowell of M'Carstoune appeared at Melrose, and 
granted an obligation for the amount of his relief, 
granted by the Crown "to the new worke of the 
kirke of Melrose." || In 1478, Dougal M'Dowall 
of M'Carstoun, was ordained by the Lords of 
Council to pay to Robert, the abbot of Kelso, 
twelve chalders and a-half of victual, for the teinds 
of M'Carstoune, for the year bypast, in terms of the 
obligation by him to the abbot. ^[ In the same year, 
M'Dowell was summoned before the Lords Auditors 
for one hundred merks, by Walter Kerr of Caverton.** 
In 1480, the Lords of Council allowed Dougal a 

* Lib. de Melros. t Kotuli Scotise, vol. i. p. 45. 

I Ib. vol. i. p. 271. Robertson's Index, p. 148, No. 27. 

II Lib. de Melros, p. 490. IF Acta Dom. Con. p. 26. 
** Acta And., p. 69. 


proof that he had paid the abbot of Kelso 12 
chalders 4 bolls of meal and bear, 4 bolls of wheat, 
for the land of M'Carstoun, at the terms of St. 
Andrews and Candlemass. In 1483, the Lords 
Auditors heard Dougal M'Dowell and Walter Kerr 
of Cessford, in the cause pursued by Cessford v. 
M'Dowell, for L.I 00, being the penalty contained in 
an agreement between them, for fulfilling of a con- 
tract of marriage between Andrew M'Dowell, the 
son of M'Carstoun, and Margaret Kerr, a daughter 
of Cessford, and continued the cause, in con- 
sequence of Dougal alleging that he was possessed 
of a discharge of the same. On the 17th October, 
1493, Dougal M'Dowell pursued Alexander Craik, 
John Craik, Martine Gibsine, George Bowo, John 
Richardson, and Thomas Tailfor, Thomas Bowo, 
Thomas Donaldson, Adam Camis, James Bowo, 
Richard Bowo, John Tod, and Thomas Aitchison, 
chaplain, for the wrongous occupation of the lands 
of Rhynynlaws, and the Spittal Green, belonging to 
him, as part of the lands of M'Carstoun. The Lords 
adjourned the cause to the next Justiciare at Jed- 
burgh.* In the same year, a reference was entered 
into between the said Dougal M'Dowell and Nichol 
Ormiston, to John Edmonstone, son and apparent 
heir of the laird of Edmonstone, William Sinclair 
of Moreham, Mr. Patrick Aitkinson, and Mr. William 

* Act, Aud., p. 303. 


Scott, as arbiters, and George Douglas of Bonjed- 
worth, oversinan, and, failing him, the Laird of Ruth- 
erfurd, or Walter Ker of Cessford, in regard to the 
withholding of 100 merks claimed by the said Laird of 
M'Carstoun from Ormiston, for the gersome of Mer- 
dane ; and also as to the said Laird of M'Carstoun 
withholding a tack of the West Mains of M'Cars- 
toun from Ormiston ; parties to meet in the chapel of 
Fairningtoune on the sixth day of November next.* 
In 1536, Thomas M'Dowell of Macarestoune found 
caution of 1000 merks to underlye the law at the 
next Justiciaire at Jedburgh, for oppression and 
hamesucken done to Alexander Dunbar, dean of 
Murray, and his servants. In 1545, the army of 
Hertford visited the barony, and destroyed the town 
of Makerston, Manerhill, and Charterhouse, Luntin- 
law, and Stotherike tower. In 1564, the Laird of 
M'Carstoun was one of the prolocutors for Elliot of 
Horsleyhill, and others, for the slaughter of the Laird 
of Hassendean. Alexander M'Dougall of Stodrig 
was also one of the defenders of the pannels. The 
Laird of Makerstoune was one of the assize on the 
trial of William Sinclair of Herdmanstone, in 1565, 
for the murder of the Earl Bothwell's servant; and 
he defended James Bog, accused of the slaughter of 
George Hamilton of Pardovane.-f* In 1590, Thomas 
Makdougal rebuilt the house which had been cast 

* Act. Aud., p. 312. t Pitcairn's Trials, voL L p. 477. 


down by Hertford. In 1596, Thomas Macdougall 
of Mackarstoune was one of the assize on the trial 
of Robert Hamilton of Inchmauchane, Sir James 
Edmestoune of Duntraith, and James Lockart of 
Ley, accused of treason. In 1598, the Laird of 
Mackerstoune published an advertisement, that he 
would undertake to make land more valuable by 
sowing salt on it.* In 1604, James Macdougal 
succeeded his father, Thomas Macdougal, in the 
lands and barony of Makerstoun. In 1608, he ac- 
quired the lands and town of Danieltown, near Mel- 
rose.-f- In 1622, Sir William Macdougal and a num- 
ber of others were fined 100 merks, for being absent 
from the trial of Turnbull of Belsches, and others, 
for perjury.! In 1625, the Laird of Malkerstoun 
was a commissioner to the Parliament for the county 
of Roxburgh. In 1643, Robert, Earl of Roxburgh, 
seems to have been possessed of the lands and barony 
of M'Caristoune. About the same time, " Ettrick 
Heidis, and Ettrick Medowis," part of the lands of 
M'Caristoune, belonged to John Veitche. || Before 
1568, Captain Robert Macdougall was in possession 
of part of the estates of Makerstoune, as at that 
time Barbara Macdougal, his niece, and spouse to 
Harry Macdougal, was served heir to him in the 
lands of Lyntonlaw, the lands of Wester Meredene, 

* Birrel's Diary. t Eetours, No. 50. 

Pitcairn's Trials, vol. iii. p. 539. 

Ketours, No. 181. II Ib. No. 182. 


part of the barony of Makerstoune, and the lands of 
Townfootmains, also within said barony. In 1665, 
Harry Macdougal, and John Scott of Langshaw, were 
commissioners for the shire of Roxburgh. In 1669, 
Charles II. granted a charter of donation and con- 
cession to and in favour of Henry Makdongal of 
M'Cariston, in liferent, and of Thomas Macdougal, 
his only son, procreate of the marriage between him 
and Barbara M'Dougal, and his heirs in fee, all and 
haill the lands and barony of M'Caristoune, with the 
tower, fortalice, manor place, comprehending the 
lands of Luntonlaw, and the lands of Westermuir- 
deane, the lands of Nethermains, commonly called 
the Townfootmains, the ten-mark lands of M'Caris- 
ton, and the lands of Manorhill and Charterhouse. 
By the same charter, his Majesty annexed and erected 
said lands into a barony, to be called the barony of 
M'Caristoune, ordering the said tower and fortalice 
to be the principal messuage of the lands and barony, 
and at which sasine was to be taken for all the 
lands and barony, whether lying contiguous or not. 
In 1670, the charter was ratified by Parliament.* 
In 1678, Henry M'Dougal, and Robert Pringle of 
Stitchel, were commissioners to Parliament for the 
county of Roxburgh. In May 10, 1689, Henry 
Macdougal appeared before the Convention of Estates, 
and bound and enacted himself, on his word of 

* Acta Parl. vol. yiii. p. 41. 


honour as a gentleman, to live peaceably, and with 
submission to the present government of William 
and Mary, and appear before the Committee of 
Estates, when called upon or cited to appear.* In 
1692, he was one of the commissioners on the an- 
nexation of the four parishes of Eskdale to Roxburgh- 
shire. In the beginning of the 18th century, the 
barony of M'Caristoun was carried into the family 
of Hay, by Barbara, the heiress of Henry Macdougal, 
marrying George, brother of Sir Thomas Hay of 
Adderstone, at whose death he succeeded to the 
baronetcy and estates. Sir George was Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Royal North British Dragoons. He 
died in 1777, at the advanced age of seventy-three 
years ; and Barbara, his spouse, died in the following 
year, aged seventy-four. Sir Henry succeeded, and 
married Isabella, a daughter of Admiral Sir James 
Douglas, Bart, of Springwood Park. Sir Henry 
died in 1825, leaving three daughters, the eldest of 
whom, Anna Maria, married, in 1819, Thomas Bris- 
bane, Esq., who was created a baronet in 1836. 
On 14th August, 1826, Sir Thomas and his wife 
were authorized, by sign manual, to use the sur- 
name of Macdougal before that of Brisbane. Sir 
Thomas is a G.C.B., G.C.H., LL.D., F.R.S., President 
of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and a General in 
the army. 

* Acta ParL vol. ix. p. 17. 


In the barony of Makerstoun, the monks of Kelso 
had two carrucates of land, with pasture for 300 
lambs, which they estimated at 40s. yearly. They 
had two cottages, each having a toft and half-an- 
acre of land, with common pasture for two cows. 
Four of these cottages rented for four shillings yearly, 
and nine days' labour ; and the other four rented at 
Is. 6d. each, and nine days' work. They had also 
a brewhouse in the town, with an acre of land, which 
rented for five shillings yearly. The church belong- 
ing to the monks was " in rectorial' and stated by 
them to be usually worth 20 marks. 
On the apex of the rocky bank of the Tweed, a 
short distance above the mansion of Makerston, are 
traces of a small camp, which seems to have taken 
in a part of the face of the crag, as one of the ditches 
terminates in the precipice. This camp is exactly 
opposite to the strong fort called Eingley Hall, on 
the top of the steep cliff forming the' right bank of 
the river. From the size of the camp, it is obvious that 
it could only have been occupied by a small body 
of men, probably to watch the movements of the 
occupants on the other side of the river. 

Within the barony is CHARTERHOUSE, which was 
of old a priory inhabited by a small society of Car- 
thusians. They possessed half of the midtown and 
mains of Sprouston. 

During the reign of William the Lion, Adam de 
Malcarvestoun was vicar of Cranstoun. 


THE MANOR OF ROXBURGH. In the days of Earl 
David, the manor was of great extent ; and at the 
time he ascended the throne, the greater portion of 
it remained in his own hands. In 1147, a carru- 
cate of land is described as lying within his lordship 
of Roxburgh " dominico meo de Rokesburg."* 
During the reigns of his successors, Malcolm IV. 
and William the Lion, a considerable part of the 
territory was held by subjects; but all that land 
which was necessary for the defence of the Castle of 
Roxburgh was kept by the kings in demesne. In 
1 232, the monks of Melrose obtained from the Earl 
of Oxford a grant of " four acres of arable land in 
the territory of Old Roxburgh, upon the Tweedflat, 
as they lay in one tenement along the stones placed 
as bounds perambulated by him and other good 
men, and this grant he made in presence of the 
monks, and many of his own and other men, 
and made the oblation by placing a rod on the 
great altar of the monastery. "( In 1250, Walter 
was steward of Old Roxburgh ; and in 1264, Stephen 
the Fleming seems to have had the bailyerie under 
his charge. In 1265, Hugh de Berkeley drew from 
the bailierie < J 40, 6s. 8d. Before 1296, Nicholas de 
Soules was a tenant-in-chief of the king of lands in 
Roxburgh. In 1306, Richard Lovel and Muriel, 
his wife, obtained from the English king the lands 
and tenements in Old Roxburgh, which had belonged 

* Eeg. Glas. pp. 9, 10. t Lib. de Mailros, p. 228. 


to John de Soules. On the independence of Scot- 
land being regained, Lovel lost the manor of Rox- 
burgh, but in 1347 it was restored.* In 1403, the 
manor was granted to Henry de Percy, Earl of Nor- 
thumberland, by Henry IV. ^ In 1434, the Duchess 
of Turon was m possession, in terms of an agree- 
ment made with her brother, James I. In 1451, 
the barony was granted by James II. to Andrew 
Ker of Altonbourne, for payment of a silver penny 
at Whitsunday, in name of blenche ferine, if de- 
manded, and with whose descendants it still remains.* 
At that time the barony was nearly co-extensive 
with the parish, excepting the barony of Faiming- 
ton, which lay up to the Watling-street on the 
west. The court of the barony was held at FKIARS, 
situated between the Tweed and Teviot. In the 
remains of this religious house, the family of Rox- 
burghe occasionally resided, especially during the 
rebuilding of Floors in 1718. The gardens of the 
convent were kept up till 1780, when, it is said, 
the butler to Duke John ploughed them up, and 
destroyed several beautiful vestiges of antiquity. 
In these gardens there was a raised walk called the 
Lovers' Walk, between two rows of large elms, ter- 
minating with a remarkable wych elm, called the 
" Trysting Tree," " whither/' says the informant of 

* Rotuli Scotise, vol. i. pp. 697, 698. t Ib. p. 163. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig. lib. iv. No. 3, supra. 
Supra, vol. ii. p. 74, 


the editor of " Gilpin's Forest Scenery," " the beaux 
and belles of these old times used to resort to enjoy 
themselves on a summer evening, and to eat the fruit, 
which was always sold during the absence of the fa- 
mily. Upon these occasions, the gentlemen were often 
made to walk blindfolded in the alley; and if any 
one failed to grope his way from one end of it to the 
other, without diverging from the grass into either 
border, he was immediately fined in a treat of fruit."* 
It is said, that many a courtship came to a happy 
termination at this antiquated Vauxhall. The 
trysting tree, one of the largest wych elms on record, 
stood on the margin of the Teviot, near to where 
that river was forded before the erection of the 
bridge. It died several years ago, and its remains 
have been entirely removed from the place where it 
grew. The trunk measured thirty feet in girth. 
Mason, in his " History of Kelso/' published in 1789, 
calls it " the king of the woods and prince of the 
neighbouring trees/' Several articles of furniture 
have been made out of the timber of this tree, and 
may be seen at Floors. It exists in a young tree 
growing in Springwood Park.-f- It is said by Sir 
Thomas Dick Lauder, that Mr. Smith of Kelso in- 
formed him, " that the most plausible tradition re- 
garding the origin of the trysting tree is, that the 

* Gilpin's Forest Scenery. Edited by Sir Thomas Dick 
Lauder. 1834. 

t Postea, description of Springwood Park. 


lairds of Cessford and Feruiehirst, with a number of 
Scottish gentry, assembled there in 1547, to meet the 
Protector Somerset, during his rough courtship, and to 
swear homage to the King of England." It is, how- 
ever, obvious, that the tree could not derive its name 
from such a meeting. The name of the " Trysting 
Tree" means, that the tree was a place of constant 
meeting, where lovers told their hopes and fears : 

" When winds were still, and silent eve, 
Came stealing slowly o'er the lea." 

Tradition bears, that it was under this tree that the 
Earl of Douglas and his friends met on the night of 
Shrovetide, in 1313, and dressed themselves in the 
skins of bullocks, before proceeding to recover the 
castle of Koxburgh by stratagem, in which they 
were successful ; but while the locality was a likely 
one for the warriors of Teviotdale to assemble on 
such an occasion, it may well be doubted whether the 
trysting tree had any existence at that early period. 
About thirty acres of this peninsula, called the 
Kelso lands, are said by several authorities to be 
includedwithin the parish of Kelso, while others of 
equal claim to respect give the whole of the land 
lying between the Tw T eed and Teviot to the parish 
of Roxburgh. Before the year 1147, the churches 
of Roxburgh, with the lands belonging to them, 
were the property of the Bishop of Glasgow. On 
the death of the bishop,' the churches reverted to 
David I, who conferred them, with their pertinents, 


on the monks of Kelso. This grant was confirmed 
in 1159, by his successor, Malcolm IV. It seems 
that a part of the church lands had not been granted 
by the king; for, in 1160, Bishop Herbert restored 
to the churches of Koxburgh that part of the parish 
lying without the moat of the town, between the 
Tweed and Teviot, towards the abbey, which he 
retained in his hand under an agreement with King 
Malcolm, " as fully as Ascellin, the archdeacon, had 
these churches in the time of King David and 
Bishop John;" and granted and confirmed the same 
churches, without diminution, to the monks of Kelso.* 
William the Lion confirmed to the monks of Kelso 
the same churches and lands as held by Archdeacon 
Ascellin. In 1180, Bishop Joceline confirmed the 
previous grants, and added all casualties, with lands, 
and titles, pertinents, and rights, and patronage of 
said churches, for the proper use and maintenance of 
the monks. King William confirmed this grant 
before 1199. In 1201, at Perth, an arrangement 
was entered into in presence of the Pope's legate, 
between the bishops of St. Andrews and Glasgow 
and the monks of Kelso, regarding all the churches 
of the monks situated in the two dioceses, from 
which the churches of Roxburgh were exempted, as 
being free of all synodal aids, entertainments, and 
corroclies, under the provision that there should be 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 326. 


perpetual vicars in these churches, and who required 
to be approved of by the Bishop of Glasgow before 
being inducted. These grants and arrangements 
were confirmed by Pope Innocent IV. From this, 
it will be seen, that the monks of Kelso had the 
charge of the churches of the burgh, with the little 
district attached, till they were destroyed in the 
beginning of the 15th century. I do not see any 
grounds for holding that any part of the peninsula 
lies within the parish of Kelso. There can be no 
doubt that the territory was held by Ascellin, the 
Archdeacon of Glasgow, and included in the grant 
by Malcolm IV. to the church of Glasgow, Bishop 
Herbert, and his successors.* It is not sufficient to 
make this little district a part of the parish of Kelso, 
that it was granted to the monks of Kelso, and that 
they presented to the Bishop of Glasgow vicars for 
induction in the churches of the burgh. Whenever 
the monks ceased to take charge of the district, it 
devolved upon the mother-church of Auld Kox- 
bufgh, as lying within the original parish, and not 
upon the parson of the church of Kelso. The 
church of St. John, in the King's Castle, had an 
independent parish, as well as the churches of St. 
James, and the Holy Sepulchre; and if these two 
are to be placed within the parish of Kelso, what is 
to become of the parish of St. John? 

* Reg. of Glas. p. 14. 


The exact site of the auld church at Roxburgh 
has been disputed ;* but I am now satisfied that it 
stood within the graveyard of old Eoxburgh, at the 
east end of the present church, which was built in 
1752. The old church was nearly wholly under- 
ground, having a strong arched roof of stone, with 
an entrance-porch of the same construction, descend- 
ing by six or seven steps to the body of the church. 
The porch still exists, partly modernized, and is the 
burying-place of the family of Sunlaws.-j- The 
arched doorway into the old church is to be seen in 
the north gable of the aisle. On a stone in the 
built-up portion of the arch, are the letters raised, 
"A. K. M. H., Anno 1612." A small stone of 
about a foot square, with a pedestal, surrounded by 
a raised border, stands near to the walk running 
south from the church, bears to have been erected in 

* Supra, voL ii. p. 57. The town at the castle existed in 
the beginning of the 16th century ; and, at that time, it is 
certain that a church and graveyard existed where the 
present church now is. There were no churches in this district, 
except the mother-church, and the churches of the burgh 
and castle. If, then, a church stood at this place in the 
beginning of the 16th century, it could only be the mother- 
church of Auld Roxburgh. There is not the slightest trace of 
a church and graveyard at any other spot in the parish. Had 
there been another graveyard, the ashes of the Kers would 
not have lain in the graveyard at the parish church. 

+ It was formerly the burying-place of the Kers. The 
family of Sunlaws succeeded to part of the entailed estates of 
Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead, 


1402, to the name of Hope, but the letters are 
evidently of a later date. A stone, standing against 
the church wall, records that it was erected in ] 788, 
to a member of the family of Hogg, who had resided 
there for 600 years. Another stone bears that the 
ashes of Kandolph Ker, son of Thomas Ker of 
Altonburn, repose in the neighbourhood of the 
church. Near to the west-end of the church, an 
inscription on a stone shows that William Weymess, 
minister of the parish, was interred there in 1658. 
A little to the west of the church, a tombstone 
points out the place where sleeps the celebrated 
Blue-gown, Edie Ochiltree, who died at Koxburgh 
New-town, in 1793, aged 106. On the back of the 
stone is a full-length figure of Blue-gown, with a 
dog at his feet, a staff in one hand, and a bag in the 
other, which he is holding up, and above the figure 
are the words, " Behold the end o't ;" intended to 
represent a scene, which tradition says took place 
between Ochiltree and a recruiting-serjeant at St. 
BoswelTs Fair. When the serjeant finished a 
harangue to the rustics on the glories of war, Blue- 
gown stepped forward, held up his " meal-pock," and 
exclaimed, " Behold the end o't."* 

The present village consists of a row of houses 

* This monument was erected in 1849 to Ochiltree's 
memory, by Mr. William Thomson, farmer of Over Rox- 
burgh, who, in his boyhood, had seen Blue-gown when he 
visited his father's house. 


on the side of the road which leads to the passage 
of the river. A number of these householders are 
called cotlanders, from possessing, with their house 
and yard, about two acres of land. 

In a field adjoining the manse, are the ruins of 
a tower, formerly of considerable strength, and 
popularly known as Wallace's Tower* and Merlin's 
Cave. The writer of the "Old Statistical Account" 
says that old people " remember its having various 
apartments ; the windows and doors secured by iron 
bars and gates, and the lintels and door-posts, 
especially those of the great porch, highly orna- 
mented by grand Gothic sculpture. They speak 
also with rapture of the fine gardens, the fruit trees, 
and various works of decoration, whereby they have 
seen this mansion surrounded. "[ While an examina- 
tion of the ruins does not induce the belief that the 
tower warranted the description given by the old 
people to the minister of the parish, it shows that it 
has been a well-built strength, of the size and form 
common in the 15th and 16th centuries. The ruins 
contain no sculptured stones ; indeed, the building 

* It is said by Blind Harry, that Wallace built a tower 
within a little space of Koxburgh ; but it is probable that the 
name of Wallace's Tower was conferred upon the building on 
account of its strength. In the Borderland, everything 
strong or powerful is named after the patriot, whose fame 
will ever live in the memories of the people. In this part 
of Scotland, no monument is needed to his memory. 

t Old Statistical Account, vol. xix. p. 129. 


has not been of that kind on which much ornament 
> was expended ; but the stones forming the sides of 
the door and corners of the walls, have all been 
removed. The ground-flat still exists, about 30 feet 
in length, and 20 feet in breadth, strongly arched 
over with stone. An entrance from this apartment 
leads into a circular space in the corner, also arched 
with small slits in the wall for defence. Part of the 
stair is still to be seen. The walls are fully six 
feet thick, and strongly built. On the summit of 
the wall, I noticed a thorn-tree in full blossom, and 
several small ash-trees nodding silently in the breeze. 
At a short distance to the north of the ruins is an 
ash-tree, nearly 10 feet in circumference, and about 
50 feet in height. All around the ruins the ground 
bears evidence of the existence of building, which 
formed, in times long bygone, a part of the town of 
old Roxburgh. In September, 1545, this tower was 
destroyed by the Earl of Hertford, and is entered in 
the list of places rased as "the toure of Rockes- 
borough." It is occasionally called Sunlaws Tower, 
and North Sunlaws Tower. 

SUNLAWS. This estate lies on the right bank of 
the river Teviot. The situation of the mansion, 
naturally beautiful, has been improved as far as 
possible by art. This estate formerly belonged 
to the Kers. In 1588, William Ker of Cessford 
possessed this property, as part of the barony of 


Roxburgh.* It afterwards belonged to the Kers of 
Greenhead; and, at the death of Christian Ker, 
commonly called Lady Chatto, who was lineally 
descended from William Ker of Greenhead, brother- 
german to the Earl of Ancrum, the entailed estates 
of Sunlaws and Chatto passed to William Scott of 
Thirlestane, who assumed the name and arms of 
Ker. In 1661, James Scott, brother-german to Sir 
William Scott of Harden, acquired the lands of 
Thirlestane, Heaton, and others, from Sir Andrew Ker 
of Greenhead. Alexander Scott, the grandson of 
James Scott, married Barbara Ker of Frogden, by 
whom he had the said William Scott, first of Sun- 
laws. He died in 1782, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, who was a lieutenant in the army, and 
died, unmarried, at Philadelphia, in 1790. Robert 
Scott Ker, his brother, then succeeded to the estates, 
and married Elizabeth Bell, daughter of David Fyffe 
of Drumgarth, Forfarshire, by whom he had issue, 
the present proprietor, William Scott Ker, and 
five daughters. There was formerly a tower at Sun- 
laws, and it is supposed that it was the strength re- 
ferred to by Lord Dacre in his letter to the Earl of 
Surrey, in July, 1 523. He states, that after the burn- 
ing of Kelso, he " proceeded to a great towre called 
Synlaws, three miles within Kelsoo, and kist it 
doune." It is said, that while Prince Charles was 

* Keg. Mag. Sig. lib. xxxvii. p. 125. 


on his way to Jedburgh, in 1745, he passed a night 
at Sunlaws. 

RINGLET HALL. This place is on the south side 
of the Tweed, on the top of a high cliff" which over- 
hangs the river. According to old maps, it is 
several hundred yards within the parish of Roxburgh, 
the boundaiy line between Maxton and Rox- 
burgh being exactly opposite to Makerston Mill. 
The name is obviously derived from the British 
Rhin, a point, and ley, a fortified place, a court or 
manor house; i.e., Ringley, a fortified place on the 
point or nose of the promontory.* I have no doubt 
a fort at this place was first constructed by British 
hands, and at a very early period. There are good 
grounds for believing that the territory of Boadicea 
extended to the Tweed. The name of the river 
would at least indicate that it formed a boundary 
line, when the name was imposed. Tweed is the 
ancient British Tuedd, signifying "the state of being 
on a side the border of a country." There can be 
no doubt, however, that when the Romans left the 
country, to defend their own homes and altars, the 

* The Saxons added Heal or Hall, meaning the same thing 
as the British ley, a court-house or principal place. It is 
likely that Eingky was at one time the residence of one of 
the great men of the country, whose name has been lost in 
the sands of time, while the ruins of his house remain a 
memorial to future ages of the state of the district in early 


Tweed formed the boundary between the Saxon 
people of Lothian on the north, and the Romanized 
Britons on the south of the river. The whole south 
bank of the Tweed has been bridled with forts and 
strengths of every kind. This fort now forms part 
of a plantation, the eastern fence of which has en- 
croached upon the strength. Like all the early forts, 
it takes in all the naturally strong points of the cliff. 
The crown of the fort is an exact circle, and level 
with a rampart of earth of about six feet high from 
the inside. Within the rampart, the level top mea- 
sures about 180 feet in diameter, and the entrance 
thereto has been from the east about 36 feet wide. In 
the south-west side of the upper circle are traces of a 
stone building of about 40 feet square. From the 
top of the upper rampart to the next terrace or level, 
is 18 perpendicular feet, and has been made as steep 
as could be done with soil or turf. This level is 
nine yards wide, with a rampart on its edge which 
ends on the brink of the cliff. From this rampart 
to the next level is 15 perpendicular feet, and as 
steep as the one above it. This level is 1 8 feet wide. 
The rampart to this level forms the outer defence 
to the fort, and is six feet high, composed of dry 
stones, both ends terminating, like the middle 
rampart, on the edge of the precipice. When entire, 
the height, measuring from the plain ground on the 
outside, must have been about 34 feet perpendicular. 
It is said by several writers, that it is a Danish fort, 


Jby others, Eoman ; but I do not think there are any 
grounds for attributing its formation to either of 
these people. The writers of both old and new 
statistical accounts refer to a tradition in regard to 
this locality, which relates, that during the Border 
wars, an English army occupied Ringley Hall, and 
the Scots lay on the opposite side, in a place called 
the "Scots' Hole." The English, being superior in 
numbers, resolved to pass over to the enemy at a 
ford a little above this place ; but the Scots, creeping 
out of their hole, attacked them while part of the 
army was in the dangerous passage of the river, and, 
after an obstinate battle, the English were beaten, 
and many of them slain and interred in the burying- 
ground at Eutherford. From this battle tradition 
tells us, that the place was called Rue-the-ford, on 
account of the great loss sustained by the English. 
Such is one tradition ; but there exists another, which 
says, that it was a ford through which Ruther, 
king of Scots, was conducted while on an ex- 
pedition against the Britons, and was from that 
circumstance named Rutherford. I have no doubt 
that this important passage of the river has been 
often well-contested; but it is clear to me, that 
the traditions, so far as the name of the place is 
concerned, are not correct. In the second volume, 
I have endeavoured to show that the name of 
Rutherford is derived from the red colour of the 
land, and the cliffs of red freestone peculiar to 


that part of the river. Unfortunately for the tra- 
ditions, the name is British, and must have been 
imposed at a period when that race inhabited the 
district. It is right, however, to mention, that there 
is a British word, " Rhuthyr" which signifies " as- 
sault" and assuming it to be the correct word, 
Rutherford would mean the " assault ford" or the 
"ford" of "assault." 

To the eastward of this fort, and exactly in front 
of Makerston House, is a large tumulus, or mount, 
said to be an exploratory mount to Bingley Hall ; 
but this view cannot be maintained. It has the ap- 
pearance of an ancient mote-hill, and is popularly 
known by the name of the Pleahill. A careful ex- 
amination leads to the conclusion that it is partly 
natural. The lower part of it seems to be one of 
the sand or gravelly knowes which abound on that 
part of the river, and the top composed of soil taken 
from the ground around. It seems to have been 
surrounded by terraces, or levels ascending above 
each other, which, on the south and north, are yet 
distinct. The access to the summit has been from 
the east. The diameter of the top, which is level, is 
about 34 feet. It may have served the purposes of 
a mote, as its name would lead one to believe, but it 
appears to me to have been used as a place of 
strength, to protect the weak part of the Tweed at 
this particular spot. As such it must have been 
powerful. The minister of Roxburgh, who wrote 


the old statistical account* of the parish, says, that 
a well of several streams issued out of its base, was 
called St. John's, and from the salubrity of the water, 
and remains of nice building, must have been of 
great repute. It was planted with trees about the 
middle. of last century, but from the exposed situa- 
tion, they have made but little progress ; the trees, 
however, add to the picturesque appearance of the 
locality. It is a conspicuous object to travellers by 
road or rail. 

The river, when in a very low state, may be 
forded in front of Makerston Mansion ; but excepting 
at that place, it cannot be forded between Ruther- 
ford Mill and Brochesford.'f At a little below Ma- 
kerston, the bed of the river is composed of large 
rocks, rising here and there above the water, and 
among which the river rushes wildly. Before 1797, 
the rock was divided into four slits, which contained 
the whole water when the river was not flooded. 
Two of these were 34 feet deep, and so narrow, that 
a person might easily have stepped across them. 
In summer, people on foot often passed the river by 
stepping from one rock to the other; but Sir Henry 
Hay M'Dougall caused the middle rock to be blown 
up, and thus stopped the dangerous passage. An 
active person can step it at the present day, when 

* Vol. xix. p. 137. 

t Brochesford means, the ford at the Burn, or the Burn- 


the river is in a low state ; and it is said, that Kerse, 
the fisher, who lived at this part of the river, stept 
across with one of his children on his back. As the 
river passes through these rocks it makes a loud 
noise, at all times ; but at the breaking up of the 
ice, the noise resembles the sea breaking upon a 
rocky shore. In winter, the various fantastic shapes 
made by the frost are very remarkable. Amidst 
these rocks are deep pools, which whirl with great 
rapidity. Great numbers of salmon frequented these 
rocks, and to such an extent sixty years ago, that it 
was not uncommon for three or four cart-loads of 
fish being caught there in a morning.* The locality 
is called Trows at the present day, evidently derived 
from the British " Thor" signifying, " a perpendicu- 
lar rock or height ;" changed into Tor by the Saxons, 
into Tower by the English, and corrupted into 
Trows by the people of the present day. The name 
of Tors, then, means a number of perpendicular 
rocks ; and, at the time the name was imposed on 
this place, would aptly describe the bed of the river 
Tweed. From a careful examination of the channel, 
and the banks on each side, I am satisfied that the 
Tors have at one time formed almost a complete bar 
across the river, so as to flood the low-lying ground 
to the south below Stodrig to the wastes of Eden- 

* Old Statistical Account, vol. xix. p. 133. It is said that 
Kerse the fisher knew the reason why the salmon were found 
in such numbers below the Tors, and not above that pkce. 


ham. The names of places in that direction evince 
that they stood in the midst of mosses and moist 
meadows, when they obtained their appellations. 
Stodrig is derived from the Saxon Strodre, Strother, 
signifying a moss, marsh, or any watery place, i. e., 
Strodrig, the ridge in the marsh. In like manner, 
Mus-rig, the rig in the moss. On the north margin 
of the Tweed, the name Strodre or Strother is used to 
describe a marsh or wet meadow. In the days of 
Malcolm IV., and William the Lion, the word was 
in common use in the southern districts of Scot- 

While treating of this locality, I may refer to a 
tradition of the Church of Eome, which relates, that 
the body of St. Cuthbert, the saint of Tweedside, 
floated down the river in a stone boat from Old 
Melrose to Tillmouth. St. Cuthbert was buried in 
Lindesfarne, and, on the monks being forced by the 
Danes in 875 to leave the monastery, they carried the 
corpse of the holy man along with them, in all their 
wanderings through the north of England and in this 
district of Scotland. The monks visited Norham, 
Carham, and Old Melrose on the Tweed ; but after 
staying there for some little time, the remains of the 
saint showed the same signs of restlessness and agita- 
tion as had occasioned former removals. The attend- 
ants were ordered, in a vision, to pacify the impatient 
spirit, to construct a boat of stone, into which they 
were to place the said relics, and commit it to the 


river.* The monks formed a boat ten feet long, 
three feet and a-half broad, eighteen inches deep, 
and four and a-half inches thick, out of the stone of 
that sacred place in which the remains of the saint 
were put, launched it upon the waters of the Tweed, 
and sailed down to Tillmouth, where, on a peninsula 
formed by the meeting of the waters, a small chapel 
was erected, called St.Cuthbert. Wherever the monks 
rested in j;heir flight with the sacred remains of the 
saint, a chapel was erected in after-times, dedi- 
cated to St. Cuthbert. Cavers, in Teviot, was hal- 
lowed by being the temporary resting-place of the 
body. About the end of last century, an attempt 
was made by a peasant of Northumberland to feed 
his hogs out of the boat, and also to use it for pick- 
ling pork ; but the spirits of darkness broke it in 
two during the night, leaving the fragments near the 
chapel. The learned Hutchinson, who repeats this 
strange traditional story, seems to have no doubt 
that the coffin of stone floated down the Tweed, as 
by some hydrostatical experiments it had been found 

* " They rested him in fair Melrose : 

But though alive he loved it well, 
Not there his relics might repose ; 

For, wondrous tale to tell, 
In his stone coffin forth he rides, 
A ponderous bark for river tides, 
Yet light as gossamer it glides 
Downward to Tillmouth cell." 

Marmion, ii. 14. 


capable of doing, and carrying the remains of the 
saint, observing that these philosophical exhibitions, 
in ages of profound ignorance, were always esteemed 
miracles and food for superstition. I am sceptical 
as to the floating of the stone ark and the body of 
the saint from Melrose to Tillmouth. I think it im- 
possible; and had Hutchinson known the Tweed as 
well as I do, he would not have needed the aid of 
philosophy to explain to the people that^a miracle 
had not been worked. The raft of wood, and coffin 
of stone, could not have passed the rocks at Makers- 
ton ; and all the monkish and philosophical skill in 
the world could not have floated it over the Tors. 
If the stone coffin sailed down the Tweed from Mel- 
rose to Tillmouth, it could only be by a miracle, and 
not by the aid of philosophy. 

NINGTON. This BARONY appears in record as early 
as the 12th century, in possession of the family of 
Burnard, from whom the Burnets are descended. In 
1200, the monks of Melrose obtained from Richard 
Burnard thirteen acres and a rood of his land of 
Faringdun, adjoining, the land of Simon of Far- 
burne, on the east side, below the king's road which 

* Circa, 1196, Reg. Gks. p. 55. 

t Ib. 1208, Reg. Glas. p. 99. 

t Ib. 1370, Reg. Mag. Sig. 

Ib. 1791, Valuation Books of the County of Roxburgh. 


led to Eoxburgli. To the same monks he also 
granted a right to a part of his peatiy in said ter- 
ritory, as bounded by great stones, with leave to them 
to make a ditch of six feet in diameter, and granted 
as much land and moor adjacent as was necessary 
to dry the peats, with right of passage over the ter- 
ritory of Faringdun, for the purpose of carting the 
peats.* Between the years 1208 and 1232, Walter, 
Bishop of Glasgow, obtained from Ralph Bumard a 
grant of fuel from the two peatries of Faringdune, 
for the house of Alncrumbe, with liberty to the 
bishop's servants to select the most convenient 
place for digging the peats next to the place in the 
moss where he got his own peats.-f- The grant to 
the monks of Melrose was confirmed by Alexander 
II., between 1214 and 1249. Sir Richard Burnard 
of Faringdune, and his steward of said barony, 
Symon of Fard, appear as witnesses to a charter 
granted in 1250. Two years after, the monks of 
Melrose bought from Richard Burnard, for thirty- 
five merks, which they paid him beforehand, the 
east meadow of Fairningdun, consisting of eight 
acres within the ditch, which the monks caused to 
be made around the same, with free ish and entry 
to the same through his land ; and in the event of 
the meadow being injured through his fault, or that 
of his servants, he bound himself to give them value 

* Lib. de Melros, pp. 75, 76. t Reg. of Glas. pp. 99, 100 


out of his best and nearest meadows, at the sight 
of honest men to be chosen for the purpose.* This 
grant was confirmed by Alexander III. In 1296, 
William, lord of the manor of Faringdun, swore 
fealty to Edward I. About the middle of the 1 4th 
century, John Burnard appears as lord of this manor. -f 
In 1372, Robert II. granted to Wawayne a plough- 
gate of land, forfeited by John Scampe, and half of 
which lay in the territory of Farnyngdon.* Richard 
II. claimed the whole barony of Farnyngdon as 
his own property. James VI. conferred the lands 
and hospital on Francis, Earl of Bothwell, which 
was ratified by Parliament in 1581. In 1606, the 
Earl of Morton was proprietor of the monklands of 
Pharningtoune.|| In 1634, the lands of Fernington, 
with the hospital thereof, belonged to Francis, Earl 
of Buccleuch.^[ About 1647, George Rutherfurd 
appears as proprietor of Fairnington.** He was a 
cadet of the house of Rutherfurd of that ilk. In 
1686, George Rutherfurd, younger of Fairnington, 
married Barbara Hallyburton, daughter of John 
Hallyburton of Newmains, by Margaret Rutherfurd 
of Edgerstone. They had a son, George, born in 
1691, who "proved a plague to his own family;" 

* Lib. de Melrose, p. 299. t Ib. p. 300. 

t Reg. Mag. Sig. pp. 92, 124 
Acta Parl. vol. iii. pp. 225-227. 
|| Ketours, No. 43. 1 Ib. 154. 

** For the origin of the Rutherfurds, see vol. ii. p. 274. 


and slew his brother-in-law, Thomas Hellyburton of 
Muirhouselaw, in the beginning of the 18th century. 
The two brothers-in-law had been attending a county 
meeting at Jedburgh, and in returning home, 
quarrelled, it is said, about the right to a well situ- 
ated upon the line of march between the estates of 
Fairnington and Muirhouslaw, which join on the 
north. Rutherfurd followed Hallyburton to this 
spring, forced him to fight, and there slew him. 
The place where this fatal encounter occurred is 
popularly known as the " Bloody Well," and is on 
the Muirhouselaw side of the march fence, nearly on 
a line with the road leading north from the farm cot- 
tages at Fairnington. After this sad event, the 
family went to the West Indies. About the end of 
the last century, the manor passed into the hands of 
Robert Rutherfurd, fifth son of Sir John Rutherfurd 
of Edgerstone, by Elizabeth Cairncross, daughter of 
William Cairncross of Langlee.* He was a man 
universally esteemed. On the 15th October, 1777, 
Catherine, Autocratrix of all the Russias, by a charter 
under her own hand, conferred on him and all his 
posterity and descendants, the title and dignity of a 
Baron of the Russian empire, in consideration of the 
peculiar services rendered by him as her agent at 

* The race of the Border Rutherfurds seems to have been 
singularly prolific. The couple here mentioned had 19 
children ; another had 22 ; and others, 14 and 15. 


Leghorn and Tuscany. The manor was greatly im- 
proved by the baron. He kept it in his own hands, 
and cultivated and planted the lands with great skill. 
No place was more distinguished for growing pota- 
toes. At this time potatoes were not considered a 
crop, and were only planted in small quantities 
around the chief towns. The baron, in the belief 
that it was the best crop for bringing in and improv- 
ing the land, planted annually about 12 acres. The 
produce was in some parts of the land 400 firlots per 
acre, and, when sold, brought one shilling per firlot.* 
Both the spiritual and temporal interests of those 
who lived on the estates were attended to by the 
baron. In the village, which then contained 100 
souls, he established a school, paid the salary of the 
teacher, granted an additional allowance for keeping 
a Sunday school, where all were " instructed in 
the principles of religion and morality." There were 
no poor on the manor, as the baron supplied all the 
wants of the families of his labourers. He afforded 
them medical assistance; and inoculation of the 
small-pox was successfully practised, gratis, within 
the bounds of the estate. -f- At the death of this 
truly estimable man, the estate went to his nephew, 
John Kutherfurd of Edgerstone, at whose death, in 

* Ure's View of the Agriculture of Roxburghshire, pub- 
lished in 1794. 

t Old Statistical Account, vol. xix. p. 127. 


1 83-4, the next male heir, Charles Rutherfurd, son of 
John Rutherfurd of Mossburnford,* descended from 

* This gentleman was born at Scarborough, in Yorkshire, in 
1746. His father having died at Barbadoes, while yet an 
infant, he was sent to Scotland, to the care of his grandfather, 
Sir John Eutherfurd of Edgerstone. When he had attained 
the age of fifteen, it was determined to send him out to New 
York, to his uncle, Walter Kutherfurd, who had settled there, 
and amassed a considerable fortune by commerce, besides 
being proprietor of a large tract of country, which still bears 
his name, " Rutherford County." Soon after his arrival in 
America, he was sent by his uncle to Fort Detroit, in charge 
of military stores, with supplies for the garrison ; and having 
executed his commission, was about to return to New York, 
when he was prevailed upon to accompany an exploring party 
to the Lakes, which set out on May 2, 1763, under command 
of Captain Robson of the 77th Regiment. Sir Robert Dan- 
vers also accompanied the expedition. The object of it was 
to ascertain whether the lakes and rivers between Detroit and 
Michellematana were navigable for vessels of a greater bur- 
den than the small batteaux then made use of. Whilst 
sounding about the mouth of the river Huron, they were sur- 
prised by a large party of Indians, and Captain Robson, Sir 
Robert Danvers, and a number of the party killed. Mr. 
Rutherfurd and several others were taken captive, and re- 
mained for some months with the Indians, when he made his 
escape, and, after a perilous flight, reached Detroit. He wrote 
a very interesting narrative of his captivity and hairbreadth 
escapes, a MS. of which is in my possession. He afterwards 
joined the 42nd Regiment, in which corps he obtained an 
ensigncy at a time when they were preparing an expedition 
against the Shawnessee and Delaware Indians, to the west- 
ward, under the command of General Bouquet. In that regi- 
ment he served thirty years, during which time he was 
engaged in both American wars. On quitting the army, he 


Thomas Rutherfurd, the immediate elder brother of 
Baron Rutherfurd, succeeded to the barony. It is 
now possessed by Thomas Rutherfurd, brother of the 
said Charles, lineally descended from the Rutherfurds 
of that ilk. He married Caroline Sanderson Ball, 
daughter of William Ball and Lydia Wivell, Lon- 
don; and had issue, 13 children, of whom 12 are alive. 
The mansion is pleasantly situated on the right 
bank of a rivulet, running in an easterly direction. 
There are a few old trees in the park; but the 
greater part of the wood was planted by Baron 
Rutherfurd, of which the fir is said to be of excel- 
lent quality. On the west end of the estate, near 
to the Watling-street, is Downlaw, or Dunlaw, a 
round eminence of several hundred feet high, on the 
summit of which are the ruins of an observatory or 
summer residence, built by the baron, where he spent 
much of his time.* The view from this spot is ex- 
tensive and beautiful. About a hundred yards to 
the west of the Watling-street, on the summit of a 
ridge, is a stone column, about twelve feet in cir- 

retired to his estate of Mossburnford, on the right bank of the 
Jed. At this place the poet Burns enjoyed the hospitality of 
the old soldier, in June, 1787. At a subsequent period, he 
was appointed Major of the Dumfries Militia, under the com- 
mand of the Earl of Dalkeith. He died at Jedburgh, on 12th 
July, 1830, in the 84th year of his age. 

* This building is popularly known by the name of the 
" Baron 's Folly." He had no doubt selected this place on 
account of its beautiful prospect. 


cumference, and five feet high, called the Stanan 
Stane. It is upon the farm of Heriotsfield, on the 
estate of Ancrum, and, taking every circumstance 
into consideration, it seems probable that this place 
was the scene of the battle of Ancrum Moor, and 
the fair maid Lilliard's exploits. The ground further 
to the north, where the modern stone stands, cannot 
be made to suit the description given of the battle- 
field by ancient chroniclers, but the locality of the 
Stanan Stane answers in every respect. A field to 
the east of Fairnington village is called Harlaw, 
from a circle of large stones which stood within it, 
but which have been removed to serve farm purposes. 
The old road from Jedfoot to Maxton and Rutherfurd 
ran through the middle of the estate. Traces of an 
old ditch, referred to in the charters of the 13th 
century, as the boundary between Maxton and Rox- 
burgh parishes, may still be seen where the two 
estates of Muirhouselaw and Fairnington join. 

The Chapel or Hospital of Fairnington stood on 
the right bank of the rivulet, near to the mansion. 
The exact site of it may be found on a careful exa- 
mination of the ground. It existed as the property 
of the Bishop of Glasgow before 1186. At that 
period, Pope Urban III. confirmed the chapel of 
Fairnindun, with pertinents thereof, to the bishop.* 
About 1200, Allan the chaplain was witness to a 

* Reg. of Glasg. p. 55. 


charter of Roger Burnard, the son of Fairnindun.* 
A charter of Ralph Burnard, son and heir of Roger, 
to the house of Alnecrombe, is witnessed by Pauli- 
nus, the chaplain of Faringdun.-f- In 1476, Duncan 
of Dundas was curate to William Mateland of Leth- 
ington, of the chapel of Fairningtoune.J At this 
chapel, the arbiters, in a dispute between the laird 
of Makerstoun and Nicholl Ormiston, in 1493, were 
appointed by the Lords of Council to meet. The 
hospital of Fermington was granted by James VI., 
and ratified by Parliament in 1585. In 1634, it 
was the property of the Earl of Buccleuch. In 1656, 
Andrew Ker was owner of the lands pertaining to 
the hospital of Fairnington, with common of pastur- 
age, and liberty to dig peats in the moss. The hos- 
pital lands form now a part of the estate of Fair- 

first time this territory appears on record, is in the 
days of David I., by whom it was granted to an at- 
tached follower of the name of Maccus. He is a 
witness to the Inquisitio Davidis, in 1116, and is 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 75. t Reg. of Glas. pp. 99, 100. 

$ Act. Dom. Aud. p. 44. Ib. p. 312, supra, p. 146. 

|| Circa, 1159, 1300; Lib. de Calchou, pp. 176, 316, 470; 
Chron. de Mailros, pp. 154, 319 ; Reg. of Glas. p. 102. 

1 Circa, 1200. ** Circa, 1354; Lib. de Calchou, p. 382. 


in that document styled, " Maccus Filius UND- 
WEYN."* He built a town, church, and mill, and 
called the whole territory after his own name, Mac- 
cuswel. It is said by Chalmers, that wel is a cor- 
ruption of vil, and that the name denotes the ville, 
or dwelling, of Maccus; but the earliest form in 
which the name appears, terminates in the Saxon 
wel, and the Norman ville, so far as I am aware, is 
only seen in a charter of William the Lion, granting 
to Robert, the son of Maccus, that part of Lessudden, 
in Roxburghshire, which was comprehended in the 
barony of Maccusville, and which had formerly be- 
longed to Herbert Maccusm* We, the sheriff of Roxburgh- 
shire.-f The barony is situated between the rivers 
Teviot and Tweed, and was co-extensive with the 
parish of the same name, now united to Kelso. 
Edmund Liulphus and Robert, said to be the sons 
of Maccus, witnessed several charters of David I, 
Malcolm IV., and William the Lion.| Between 
1159 and 1180, Herbert of Maccusville was sheriff 
of Teviotdale, and his son, John, filled the same 
office. He was also chamberlain to Alexander II. || 
Between 1258 and 1266, Aymer of Makuswell was 
sheriff of Dumfries, justiciar of Galloway, and 

Reg. of Glas. p. 5. 

t Charter quoted in Burke's Peerage, p. 668. 
J Lib. de Calchou, p. 145 ; Lib. de Mailros, pp. 56, 57, 141. 
|| Lib. de Calchou, p. 309. He was buried iii Melrose in 
1241. Chron. de Mail. p. 206. 


chamberlain to Alexander III. He acquired lands 
in the shires of Renfrew and Dumfries. In 1290, 
Herbert of Maccuswel was appointed one of the 
commissioners to treat with Edward I., in regard to 
a marriage between his son and the heiress of the 
crown of Scotland.* In 1292, he was named by 
John Baliol, to maintain his claim to the crown of 
Scotland.f In 1296, Herbert swore fealty to Ed- 
ward I. at Montrose.^: In the same year, John, his 
son, took the same oath to the usurper. Eustace of 
Maxwell was celebrated for his defence of Caer- 
laveroch Castle against the English. He was one of 
the conservators of truce with the English in 1336. 
At the battle of Nevilles Cross, his brother John was 
taken prisoner, and committed to the tower of Lon- 
don. In 1 343, Herbert had a safe-conduct to Lon- 
don, and John was one of those appointed to treat 
as to the liberation of David Bruce. In 1374, 
Robert of Maxwell got a safe-conduct from Edward 
III., to visit the tomb of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 
Richard II. granted to the same Robert, a safe-con- 
duct to England; and in 1414, Henry V. granted 
Mm leave to enter England. In 1471, John, the son 
and heir of Robert of Maxwell, received a grant of 
the baronies of Maxwell and Caerlaveroch, and of the 
lands of Mearns.|| In 1484, John, lord Maxwell, 

* Rymer's Fcedera, vol. i. P. Ill, p. 66. t Ib. p. 98. 

+ Ragman's Rolls, p. 87. Rotuli Scotise, vol. i. p. 397. 
[j Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. viii. No. 74. 


was keeper of the Western Marches. Four years 
after, he got a safe-conduct from Henry VIII.* In 
1491, John, lord Maxwell, and his wife, Agnes 
Stewart, possessed the lands of Wodden, and the 
lands of St. Thomas' Chapel, in conjunct fee and life- 
rent. In 1534, a charter was granted to Robert, 
lord Maxwell, of the baronies of Maxwell and Caer- 
laveroch.-f- In 1548, Robert, lord Maxwell, in pre- 
sence of the Governor and the Lords of Articles, gave 
in a writing to be passed into a statute, to the effect 
that, " it shall be lawful to all our sovereign lady's 
lieges, to have the Holy Writ, both the New Testa- 
ment and the Old, in the vulgar tongue, in English 
or Scots, of a good and true translation, and that 
they shall incur no crime for the having or the 
reading of the same," which was agreed to, as there 
was no law "to the contrary;" the Archbishop of 
Glasgow, for himself, and in name and behalf of the 
prelates of the realm, dissenting. \ In 1550, Robert, 
lord Maxwell, was served heir to his father, and the 
said Robert Maxwell, of the barony of Maxwell and 
Caerlaveroch. John, lord Maxwell, obtained a grant 
of the Earldom of Morton, in 1581, after the execu- 
tion of Regent Morton, his grandfather, but which 
reverted to the lawful heir of the Regent, on the 
attainder being rescinded by Parliament in 1585. 

* Kotuli Scotiae, vol. ii. 1488. 

t Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxv. No. 145. 

J Acta Parl. P. 11, p. 415, No. 12. 


In 1581, John, earl of Morton, lord Maxwell, ap- 
peared before Parliament, and protested that he 
had a right to hold the lands of Pendiclehill, Wester 
Wooden, St. Thomas's Chapel, thejialf of the haugh, 
the half mill of Maxwell, with their pertinents lying 
within the barony and lordship of Maxwell, belong- 
ing to the said earl, free of any claims, at the in- 
stance of Sir Thomas Ker of Ferniehirst, Thomas 
Ker of Cavers, and Adam Turnbull of Billerwell, 
which protestation the King, with advice of Parlia- 
ment, admitted.* In 1593, Lord Maxwell was 
killed in a battle with the clan Johnstones in Anan- 
dale. Spottiswoode says, that he was a nobleman 
of great spirit, humane, courteous, and more learned 
than noblemen generally were in these times. John, 
lord Maxwell, his eldest son, succeeded, and being 
of a vindictive spirit, put to death Sir James John- 
stone of that ilk, in revenge for the slaughter of his 
father by the Johnstones. He escaped to France, 
where he remained five years. On his return in 
1613, he was arrested, and immediately tried for the 
slaughter of Johnstone, and for fire-raising, for 
which he was attainted, condemned, and executed. 
In 1617, his forfeiture was reversed, and as he left 
no issue, his estates and honours were restored to 
his brother Eobert. In 1619, Eobert was served 
heir to his brother John, of the barony of MaxwelLf 

* Acta ParL vol. iii. p. 282. ;t Ketours, No. 98. 


He was created Earl of Nithsdale in 1620. The 
earls of Nithsdale were strongly attached to the 
royal family during the civil war. Robert, his son, 
the second earl, was imprisoned ,by the Parliament 
in 1646. Before 1663, the lands were in possession 
of Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead. In 1 676, William, 
lord Ker, was served heir of his brother, Sir Andrew 
Ker, of Greenhead, inter alia, of "the lands of 
Maxwellheugh, with the half of the valley, or haugh, 
called " Maxwellhaugh," with half of the mills ; the 
lands of Wodin, in the barony of Maxwell ; the lands 
called St. Thomas Chapel, half of the lands of Max- 
wellhauch, with meadows ; half of the mills of Max- 
wellheuch, half of the multures and lordship of 
Maxwellfield, and lands of Brigend ; portions of the 
town and lands of Heiton ; the town and lands of 
Softlaw and fishings.* 

In 1750, the estate of Bridgend, comprehending 
a great part of the barony of Maxwell, was pur- 
chased by James Douglas, a naval officer, from Sir 
William Ker of Greenhead. He was the second son 
of George Douglas of Friarshaw, in the parish of 
Bowden, whose predecessors had possessed the estate 
since the middle of the 16th century, when they 
branched off from the family of Douglas of Cavers. 
He was captain of the ship Alcide, which brought 
over Colonel Hale, with an account of the victory 

* Ketours, No. 270. 


and surrender of Quebec in 1759. The news created 
the greatest joy among the populace ; and the king 
expressed his satisfaction by conferring the honour 
of knighthood on Captain Douglas, and gratified 
him and Colonel Hale with considerable presents. 
In 1761, Sir James commanded in the Leeward 
Islands, took Dominica, and had a broad pendant 
at the siege of Martinique in the same year. In 
June 27, 1 786, he was created a baronet, as a re- 
ward for his gallant services rendered to the country. 
He married, first, Helen, daughter of Sir Thomas Bris- 
bane, and by her had two sons, George and James. 
He died in 1787. Sir George, who was born irj 
1754, succeeded, and married Elizabeth, daughter 
of David, earl of Glasgow, by whom he left an only 
son, John James, who married, in 1822, Hannah 
Charlotte, only daughter and heiress of Henry Scott 
of Belford, on the Bowmont Water, and in conse- 
quence assumed the name of Scott by sign-manual, 
in addition to that of Douglas.* By this lady he 
had one son and three daughters. Sir John James 
Douglas was a captain in the 34th Hussars, and 
served at Waterloo, for which he got a medal He 
was succeeded, in 1836, by his only son, George 
Henry Scott Douglas, born June 19, 1825. Sir 
George was a captain in the 34th Regiment, and 

* This lady was descended from the ancient family of 
Scots of Horsliehill in Teviotdale. 


married, in 1851, Maria Juana Petronella, eldest 
daughter of Senor Don Francisco Sanches Senano 
di Pena, of Gibraltar, and has issue, three children. 

The old mansion of Brigend stood in the haugh, 
where two silver-trees grow, and near to the old ford 
in the Teviot. Prom the place being called Brigend 
before 1 545, it may be inferred that the river was 
crossed by a bridge at this place. The name could 
not refer to a bridge over the Tweed, as no bridge 
existed over that river till 1754. The Brig&tid was 
destroyed by Hertford in 1 545.* In 1718, the house 
was burned by accident while it belonged to Sir 
Andrew Ker of Greenhead. Timothy Pont places 
a tower at the confluence of the two rivers, which 
probably was the original stronghold of the Max- 
wells, -f- The mill stood, within the memory of man, 
a little farther up the river Teviot. 
. On the family of Douglas acquiring the property, 
the old house was taken down, the present elegant 
mansion built in 1756, and the name changed to 
SPRINGWOOD PARK. The archway was designed by 
Gillespie Grahame, and erected by Sir John James 
Scott Douglas in 1822. The house occupies a very. 

* Hayne's Statistical Papers, p. 53. May not this place be the 
Berton of King Robert's Charter? Eobert the Bruce granted 
to Hugh de la Vikers the lands and villages of Roxburgh, 
Berton, and Maxwell, which had belonged to Ade Mindrum 
and William Dalton. Robertson's Index, p. 5. 

+ Blaeu's Atlas. 


lovely situation on the right bank of the Teviot, 
nearly opposite to the ruins of Roxburgh Castle. 
At this place the ground begins to rise, and gradu- 
ally increases in height till it reaches Maxwellheugh, 
when it becomes the south bank of the river Tweed. 
On the north of this bank is an extensive haugh, 
bounded by the rivers Teviot -and Tweed. From 
the house, several fine views are obtained. On the 
north are the ruins of Roxburgh ; and beyond, the 
palace and dark woods of Floors ; while looking east- 
ward, Kelso and its ruined abbey forms a lovely pic- 
ture. Although the woods are comparatively young, 
there are a number of fine trees in the park. It is in- 
teresting to notice a wych elm growing at the side of 
the easter approach, measuring five feet nine inches 
at the ground. This tree is a slip from the celebrated 
trysting tree, which grew at Friars, and was planted 
by James White, forester. An elm near the Teviot 
lodge is 13 feet 7 inches in girth; another tree of the 
same kind near the garden, 14 feet 11 inches. A 
plane-tree, near the same place, measures 14 feet 4 
inches. A crab-tree in the chapel park, at two feet 
from the ground, measures 10 feet 8 inches, and 
rises 40 feet high. A poplar at Maxwellheugh is 
92 feet high ; the height of the main stem is 26 feet 
6 inches; its girth at the ground measured, in 1828, 
31 feet 8 inches; in 1859, 32 feet 6 inches; the 
smallest girth of the stem measured, in 1828, 16 
feet 10 inches; in 1859, 18 feet 8 inches. At the 


height of 12 feet, 19 feet 6 inches in 1828; and at 
the present day, it measures 24 feet. It contains 
above 760 feet of wood, and is worth about 
63, 6s. 8d. 

Higher up the river Teviot stood the Maisondieu, 
or Hospital of Koxburgh, for the reception of pil- 
grims, the diseased, and the indigent every stone 
of which has been removed: the very foundations 
have been digged out. It is said by Morton, that 
garden flowers run wild mark the spot of its garden ; 
but a farm onstead having once occupied the site of 
the hospital, it is impossible to say whether the 
flowers to be seen in the locality indicate the garden 
of the Maisondieu or that of the farmhouse.* 

Near to the hospital there are very distinct traces 
of a mill and dam-dyke across the Teviot. It is said 
that this was the mill of Old Roxburgh, but there 
is no information existing to enable any one to fix 
with any degree of certainty the name of this mill. 

The village of Maxwellheugh is situated at the 
summit of the right bank of the Tweed. It is doubt- 
ful whether this was the ancient town of the barony 
of Maxwell, as it is clear that another town in the 
haugh existed near to the present mill. It is, how- 
ever, certain that the Earl of Morton had a house at 
this place before 1581, and it may be presumed to 
have been at the chief town of the barony. The 

* Vol. ii. p. 76. 


site of the old town is said to have been in the field 
lying between the present village and Pinnaclehill, 
and the appearance of the ground would warrant 
the belief that considerable buildings have existed at 
that place. Within the grounds of Pinnaclehill, 
close to the entrance gate, is a considerable tumulus, 
which might, without any stretch of imagination, be 
held to be the motehill of Maccus, the original set- 
tler. The tumulus is about 35 feet high, having a 
slope of about 33 yards. Maxwellheugh is in the 
list of places destroyed by Hertford in his wasteful 
inroad of 1545. From the top of the cliff forming 
the bank of the Tweed, but especially on the 
summit of the ridge to the west of the village, 
extensive views are obtained of scenery unrivalled 
in the Border land. Many of the houses are old, 
but the proprietor, Sir George Douglas, is in the 
course of taking all the mean houses down, and 
building in their stead tasteful and commodious 

The lands of Softlaw formed a part of the barony 
of Maxwell. In 1296, these lands were possessed by 
Adam de Softlawe. In the 14th century, a family 
of Sadler was proprietor of Softlaw. In 1354, 
Robert Sadler gave to Roger of Auldton, Wester 
Softlaw, with the privilege of grinding corn at the 
mill of Softlaw " roumfre," on condition of giving 
annually, at the feast of St. John the Baptist at 
Maxwell, the head mansion of the lord, the fee of a 


pair of gold spurs, or 12 pence sterling.* John, the 
lord of Maxwell, when he confirmed the grant, did 
so without the condition. Roger of Auldton con- 
ferred the lands on the church of St. James at 
Roxburgh, for the support of a chantry and the 
minister thereof. This grant was confirmed by 
David II, Edward III, and William, bishop of 
Glasgow. In 1374 the lands of Softlaw were 
granted by Robert II. to John of Maxwell, forfeited 
by William Stewart. Richard II. granted the towns 
of Maxwell and Softlaw to Richard Horslie. In 
1534, Elizabeth Fallaw, one of the heirs, wife of 
John Bredin, Selkirk, sold to Andrew Ker of 
Primsydloch her half of the lands of Softlaw. In 
the seventeenth century the lands passed into the 
families of Ker and Kene.-f- 

The church of Maccuswel was situated in the 
haugh near to the junction of the rivers Teviot and 
Tweed. It was dedicated to St. Michael. Before 
1159, Herbert of Maccuswel, sheriff of Teviotdale, 
granted the church to the monks of Kelso. The 
grant was confirmed by Malcolm IV., in 1159 ; by 
Jocelin, bishop of Glasgow, in 1180; by William 
the Lion, before 1199 ; and in 1232, by Walter, 
bishop of Glasgow.]: The church was held, in 

' Lib. de Calchou, p. 302. 

t Retours. 

$ Lib. de Calchou, pp. vl 111, 316, 319, 229. 


rectoria, by the monks, and was estimated at 
11, 16s. 8d. yearly. 

The graveyard of the church is marked by a clump 
of trees in the haugh near to the mill. There are 
still a few tombstones sufficiently legible to tell the 
names of those who rest in this sacred spot, but the 
inscriptions on many of the stones have been de- 
faced, and no doubt numbers carried away. The 
oldest inscription that I could read is on a stone 
raised to a family of the name of Cadonhead, and 
dated 1680. Another bears the name of Befal, 
dated 1692. One, Waugh of Windy wals, was buried 
in 1703, and the latest inscription is on a stone 
erected to a family of Broomfields in 1748. This 
little graveyard is now carefully preserved. 

When Herbert the Sheriff gave the church of the 
territory to the monks, he erected an oratory within 
his court of Maccuswel, dedicated to St. Thomas the 
Martyr, and which he appended to the gift to the 
monks with a toft. Considerable diversity of opi- 
nion exists as to the site of this chapel. In Sto- 
bie's old map, it is marked to the south of the 
present mansion, in a field still called St. Thomas' 
Lands, near to the Maisondieu. The writer of the 
New Statistical Account follows Stobie, and conjec- 
tures the site to have been at the place pointed out 
by the chorographer. On the other hand, Morton 
states that it stood at Harlaw, near to the head of 
Woodenburn, about a mile from Maxwell, and that 


stone coffins have been found on the spot supposed to 
have been the cemetery of the chapel, but no autho- 
rity is given for the statement.* There can be little 
doubt of the toft which Herbert annexed to the 
chapel being correctly marked by Stobie, as the 
name has been continued till the present day ; still 
it does not follow that the chapel was planted there 
by the Sheriff. In the grant by Edward III. to 
Sampson Hauberger, of the chapel of St. Thomas, in 
November, 1361, it is described as in Maxwell, oppo- 
site to Roxburgh.-}- Next year, the same king 
granted the chapel to St. Thomas of Middleton, which 
he calls of Maxwell, and as standing opposite or near 
to Roxburgh.! In the list of places given by Hert- 
ford as destroyed by him in 1545, "St. Thomas' 
Chapel" is placed between Brigend and Maxwell- 
heugh. But may not the name of Pendicill not 
fix the site of the chapel, which was a pendicle to 
the church of Maccuswell? A number of chapels 
granted under similar circumstances are called pen' 
diciles, which signifies the chapel appended to the 
Mother Church. If this view be correct, then the 
site of the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr must be 
looked for near to the little law or tumulus at the 
entrance gate to Pinnaclehill a corruption of Pen- 

* Monastic Annals, p. 110, Note, 
t Rotuli Scotije, vol. L p. 857. 
t Ib. p. 865. 


dicillhill* The grant of this chapel and toft was 
confirmed by Bishop Josceline in 1180, and by 
William the Lion. In 1232, Walter, bishop of 
Glasgow, confirmed the grant at Alnecrum, and Pope 
Innocent IV. before 1254. At the time the grant 
was confirmed by the bishop, an agreement was 
entered into Between the lepers of Alnecrum and the 
monks, that the latter should hold it in connexion with 
their church of Maccuswil.-f- As already seen, when 
the territory was in the hands of Edward III., he 
presented Sampson Hauberger and Thomas de Mid- 
dleton to the chapel of St. Thomas of Maxwell.^: 

STONE ; SPROUSTON. The name of this place is first 
seen in the foundation charter of David, Prince of 
Cumberland, to the monks of Selkirk, in 1114. The 
origin of the name cannot be traced with any degree 
of certainty. Chalmers conjectures that the territory 
" may have derived its singular name from some per- 
son called Sprous, who cannot now be traced, whose 
tun or dwelling it may have been. The same name 
may, however, be derived from the qualities of the place. 
iSprus, in the Cornish speech, signifies grain, and 
seems to be connected with the Saxon Sprote; and 

* In former times, the entire farm was known as Wester 
Wooden. Pendicill appears in the 13th century, 
t Lib. de Calchou, pp. 229, 316, etc. 
J Kotuli Scotise, vol. i. pp. 857, 865. 


hence Spruston, or Sproteton, may denote, the place 
fruitful in grain."* I think the conjecture, that the 
name denotes a place fruitful in grain, is untenable. 
It occurs to me that the name may be derived from 
Sprossen, signifying to shoot out, descriptive of the 
shape of the territory. The manor of Sprouston was 
the property of Earl David, and remained in the 
hands of the Crown till about 1193, when it was 
granted by William the Lion to Sir Eustace de Vescy, 
on his marriage with Margaret, the bastard daughter 
of that king by a daughter of Sir Adam Hutchinson. 
It seems to have included all the parish, with the 
exception of Redden and Haddon. Eustace de Vescy 
was the possessor of the barony of Alnwick and 
Malton, in Northumberland. He was the great- 
grandson of Ivo de Vescy, one of the followers of 
William the Conqueror, who gave to him in mar- 
riage Alda, daughter of William Tyson, proprietor of 
the barony of Alnwick, and who fell at the battle of 
Hastings in defence of his king. The issue of this 
marriage was an only daughter, Beatrix, who carried 
Alnwick, Malton, and other possessions, to Eustace 
St. John, the one-eyed lord of Knaresburgh, in York- 
shire, who, with consent of his wife, founded the 
abbeys of Alnwick and Malton. The issue of this 
marriage was William, who assumed to himself and 
posterity the surname and arms of De Vescy. About 

* Caledonia, vol. ii. p. 191. 


1150, he witnessed a grant by Eobert, bishop of St. 
Andrews, of the church of Lohworuora, to Herbert, 
bishop of Glasgow.* He was Sheriff of Northum- 
berland from 1154 to 1158.-J- He married Burga, 
the daughter of Robert Esto Hevil, and by her had 
Eustace de Vescy, who became Baron of Alnwick, 
Malton, and Sprouston. In 1207, Eustace and Mar- 
garet his wife confirmed to the monks of Kelso all 
their possessions, rights, and liberties, within the 
barony, and compounded the tithes of the mill of 
Sprouston by an annual payment of twenty shillings 
for lights to the church of Kelso, to be paid by the 
tenant of the mill, at two terms in the year, Martin- 
mas and Whitsunday, on condition that the monks 
would receive him and his wife and their heirs into 
the society of the House, and absolve the souls of 
his father and mother, and make them partakers of 
all the spiritual privileges of the monastery for 
ever. | In the same year, the monks granted leave 
to Eustace and his wife to erect a chapel in their 
court of Sprouston, where they might hear divine 
service, provided that the priest should obey the 
abbot and convent of Kelso, and the mother church 
should not be injured to the amount of fourpence 
yearly; that the chaplain of the mother church 

* Keg. of Glas., p. 13. 

t Hutchinson's Northumberland, vol. ii. p. 452. 

+ Lib. de Calchou, pp. 172, 173. 


should receive all the offerings of the lord of the 
manor and parishioners of the district, whether their 
master should be present or not, and also of all the 
guests there, so long as the master and mistress were 
present, except those who resided in the parish.* 
In 1212, being accused of a conspiracy against the 
life of the king, Eustace de Vescy took refuge in 
Scotland. In 1216, he did homage to his brother- 
in-law Alexander II., which so displeased King John, 
that he marched into the north with a large army, 
and destroyed Felton, Mitford, Morpeth, Alnwick, 
Wark, and Eoxburgh. Whilst John made his waste- 
ful inroad into Northumberland, Eustace de Vescy, 
with Alexander II., entered England, and proceeded 
as far as Bernard Castle, the seat of the Baliol family 
in the county of Durham, to which they laid siege ; 
and Eustace, approaching too near the fortress, with 
the view of planning an assault, was killed by an 
arrow from one of the outposts. His son William 
succeeded to the great possessions of his father. 
He married Isabel, daughter of the Earl of Salis- 
bury, but had no issue: afterwards, he married 
Agnes, a daughter of the Earl of Derby, and had by 
her John de Vescy, who, dying without issue, was 
succeeded by his brother William de Vescy, who 
died in 1297, without leaving any legitimate children. 
It was this William de Vescy who gave in a claim 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 172. 


to the crown of Scotland in 1292. He was the last 
Baron de Vescy. On the death of William de 
Vescy, King Edward issued a command that the 
lands and tenements in Scotland held in dowry by 
Isabella, the wife of John de Vescy, and all the land 
and tenements assigned to Clemence, the wife of 
John, the son of William de Vescy, who had been 
seised in these lands on the death of said William de 
Vescy, should be restored.* Robert Bruce conferred 
the barony on his son Robert I.-j* David II. granted 
the barony of Sprouston, before 1371, to Thomas 
Murray, and afterwards to Maurice Murray. In 
1402, Henry IV. conferred the barony on Henry 
Percy, earl of Northumberland. In 1451. the 
barony of Sprouston was given to William, earl of 
Douglas. In 1591, the lands of Sprouston were 
given to Sir Robert Kerr of Cessford. In 1629, 
Lord John Cranston was served heir to his father 
William, lord Cranston, of the lands of Sprouston, 
and of the office of baillie of the whole regality. In 
1644, Henry, lord Ker, and his wife received a 
grant of the demesne lands of Sprouston. In 1675, 
Robert, earl of Roxburgh, was served heir to his 
father William, earl of Roxburgh, in the town and 

* Rotuli Scotise, vol. i. pp. 45, 46. 
t Robertson's Index, p. 12, No. 62. 
I Ib. p. 45, No. 17, p. 54, No. 3. 
Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. iv. No. 148. 


demesne lands of Sprouston.* Within the barony of 
Sprouston, a number of persons held lands as vassals 
of the lord of the manor. At the end of the war of 
independence, King Eobert I. bestowed the twenty- 
pound lands of Sprouston on William Franceis, for- 
feited by persons of the names of William Rict, 
Henry Drawer, Thomas Alkoats, John, Thomas, and 
William, the sons of Allan and Hugh Limpitlaw. 
The same king also gave to Aymer of Hauden eleven 
husbandlands of Sprouston, extending to twenty- 
merk lands, which Robert Sprouston and others for- 
feited by serving the English king during the war. 

The monks of Kelso possessed considerable pro- 
perty in Sprouston. Before David ascended the 
throne, he conferred on the monks of Selkirk a 
ploughgate of land in Sproston, and ten acres of 
arable land and a measure pertaining to a plough- 
gate.'f* After he became king, he added three acres 
of meadowland, the pastures of Sprouston, and moor 
for making turf. Malcolm IV. granted, in 1159, 
two oxgangs of lands near Prestrebridge in said 
territory, in exchange for two oxgangs in Berwick. 
In 1165, Seiio, the king's clerk, granted the monks 
half a ploughgate in the territory of Sprouston. 
Ralph de Veir, or Weir, during the reign of William 
the Lion, gave to the monks an oxgang of land next 
to the lands of his man Uniford. About 1300, 

* Retours. t Lib. de Calchou, pp. 4, 5. 


they had in Sprouston two ploughgates, with right 
of common pasture for 12 oxen, 4 work horses, and 
300 year-old lambs. An oxgang of land held by 
Hugh Cay yielded them ten shillings yearly. They 
had also six cottages, one of which, near the vicar's 
house, had a brewhouse and six acres of land attached, 
let for six shillings yearly; the other five, which lay 
at the other extremity of the village called Latham, 
had each an acre and a-half, and let each for six 
shillings and six days' work in the year. 

David I. granted to the monks of Kelso the 
church of Sprouston, which was confirmed by John, 
bishop of Glasgow; by Bishop Josceline, in 1180 ; by 
Bishop Walter, in 1232; and by Pope Innocent IV. 
before 1254. The grant was also confirmed by 
"William the Lion. The church was dedicated to 
St. Michael The present church was built in 1781. 

The village of Sprouston is situated about 200 
yards south of the Tweed, and consists of about 100 
cottages. It was at one time of considerable extent, 
and defended by a strong tower. In 1790, there 
were 30 weavers in the town. The locality is re- 
markable for the advanced age of many of its inha- 
bitants. About 1790, a number of persons were 
living from 70 to 100 years old. There is here a 
ferry on the Tweed. 

The priory of Charterhouse possessed half of the 
Midtown and Mains of Sprouston, which are now 
the property of the Duke of Roxburgh. 


In 1256, the king and queen of England, accom- 
panied by a numerous retinue of knights, earls, and 
barons, took up their residence for some days at 
Sprouston, till their son-in-law, Alexander, king of 
Scotland, and his nobles, prepared and delivered a 
deed into the hands of the English king, for the 
peace and government of Scotland. In 1418, the 
town was destroyed by Sir Robert Umfraville. In 
1522, it was burned by Ross and Dacre. In the 
same year, it was burned by the Duke of Norfolk's 
army, in its progress up the Tweed. Two years 
after, it shared the fate of other towns and villages, 
in an inroad by Sir Ralph Eurie, It was again 
destroyed by the Earl of Hertford in 1545. 

The lands of Easter Softlaw were, before 1514, 
possessed by Elizabeth Fawlay. At that date they 
were granted to Thomas Ramsay, with the office of 
common sergeant of the county of Roxburgh. 

REVEDEN; REDDEN. This territory lies to the 
east of Sprouston, and before 1140 was mostly in 
the hands of the king. At that time King David I. 
granted the domain to the monks of Kelso, with 
rights of water, pasture, and peatry, excepting a 
ploughgate, which belonged to the hospital of Rox- 
burgh.* This grant was confirmed by William the 
Lion, In 1210, the monks got from Bernard of 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 297. 


Hauden, the mill of Redden, with its pond, part of 
the meadow lying near the rivulet, which of old 
formed the boundary between Haudon and Redden. 
In 1258, John of Redden appeared in the abbot's 
court at Ettrick Bridge, and resigned to the monks 
a place called Floris, in the territory of Redden, 
admitting at the time that the lands belonged to the 
convent, and that he had long unjustly kept them 
out of it. The monks purchased from Hugh, his 
son, all the lands held by him and his ancestors in 
the towns of Redden and Home. In the year 1300 
the monks had the grange of Redden, with the town, 
which they laboured with five ploughs. In the 
grange they kept 24 score of ewes, and cattle in pro- 
portion. They had also eight husbandlands and a 
ploughgate let to tenants, for which services were 
rendered by the respective occupants. In summer, 
each husbandman was bound to go to Berwick, 
weekly, with one horse cart, carrying three bolls of 
corn, and returning either with three bolls of salt or 
one and a half firlots of coals ; in winter, two bolls of 
corn, and returning with one and a half bolls of salt 
or one boll and a firlot of coals. The husbandman 
who did not go to Berwick gave two days' work in 
summer and three in autumn. The stock of the 
farm, was steelbow, and consisted of two oxen and a 
horse, three chalders of oats, six bolls of barley, and 
three bolls of wheat. The mill of Redden rented for 
nine merks yearly. Two brew-houses rented at two 


merks yearly. The monks had nineteen cottages at 
Redden, eighteen of which rented for 12 pence 
yearly, six days' labour in autumn, with their 
victuals. The cottagers also assisted at the shearing 
of the sheep of the grange. The nineteenth cottage 
rented for 18 pence and nine days' labour. David 
II. erected Kelso, Bolden, and Redden into a regality 
in favour of the monks, with exclusive jurisdiction. 
Robert III. confirmed the grant. 

The territory of Redden passed to a family of 
Kene at the Reformation. In 1609, the lands were 
held by Richard Kene. In 1634, Mary Ker, Lady 
Carnegie, succeeded to a third part of the lands as 
heiress of her brother the Master of Roxburgh. In 
1 675, Redden was the property of Robert, Earl of 
Roxburghe. Andrew Ker of Greenhead possessed, 
about the same time, the lands of Thankless. 

In the New Statistical Account, Origines Parochi- 
ales, and other works, it is mistakenly stated that 
Reddenburn in this territory was one of the places 
where commissioners met to settle Border disputes. 
The court met at Reuedenburne, one of the upper 
sources of the Jed. It is called Jedwart Overbourne* 

HAUDEN; HAWDEN; HADDEN. This manor was 
granted by William the Lion to Bernard, the son 
of Brian, an Anglo-Norman, who assumed Hauden 

* Acta Parl., vol. i. p. 84. 


as his surname. He witnessed many charters of 
King William the Lion and Alexander II.* Ealph, 
Peter, Sir Almyer, and William of Hawden, witness 
many charters of Alexander II. and Alexander III.-}- 
Before 1211, Bernard of Hawden, nephew of the 
first Bernard, was sheriff of Roxburgh. In 1281, 
William Sulis, the sheriff of Roxburgh, paid Ralph 
of Haudin eighteen pounds for himself and his men, 
for losses sustained by the English, from his lands 
lying on the marches near Reddenburn. In 1292, 
Edward I. commanded John Twynham, tacksman of 
the customs of Dumfries, to pay the same sum to 
Ralph of Hauden, for loss sustained by English 
inroads, and which it was his wont to receive from 
the kings of Scotland.:}; Bernard was lord of 
Hawden in 1354. In 1357, Edward III. gave 
Peter Tempest the manor of Haudin, because the 
lord thereof had adhered to his enemies of Scotland. |j 
In 1407, John of Haudene received a grant of 
the lands of Hawdene, Yetholm, and Brochton.<f[ 
William of Hawden possessed the barony in 1523. 
In 1624, John Halden was possessed of the 20- 
pound lands of his barony of Hauden. The lands 
are now the property of Sir William Elliot of Stobs 

* Lib. de Calchou ; Lib. of Mail. ; Reg. Glas. t Ib. 
Rotuli Scotia?, voL i. p. 13. 
Lib. de Calchou, p. 337. 
[| Rotuli Scotia?, vol. i. p. 817. 
1 Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 238, No. 39. 


and Wells. The monks of Kelso had a ploughgate 
of land in Hawden, before Bernard obtained a grant 
of the territory from William the Lion. This land 
was confirmed to them by Bernard, who added to it 
a toft free from all services and customs. In 1170, 
he gave them ten acres on the west side of the 
village. When his nephew Bernard confirmed these 
gifts during the reign of William the Lion, he added 
eight acres and a rood which lay contiguous to their 
property on both sides of the road to Carram, 
between the two fountains called BlindweUe and 
Croc. In return for these gifts the monks granted 
leave to Bernard to have a private chapel at Haw- 
den, where he and his guests might hear divine ser- 
vice all the days of the year except on Christmas- 
day, Easter-day, and the Feast of St. Michael, when 
they were bound to attend the mother church at 
Sprouston. The officiating priest was to swear 
fealty to the abbot, and the .offerings of the private 
chapel were to belong to the parish church.* The 
monks kept their land in Hawden in their own 
hands. In 1609, Richard Kene possessed the plew 
lands of Hawden. In 1675, these lands were in 
possession of Robert, earl of Roxburghe. During 
the reign of Alexander II., Bernard of Hawden 
granted to the hospital of Soltre, which had been 
erected on the Lammermoors for paupers and pil- 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 174, 175. 


grims, four bolls of wheat yearly out of Hawden, at 
the feast of St. Nicholas.* 

HADDENSTANK was one of the places where the 
commissioners of England and Scotland met to settle 
disputes. In 1410, the commissioners of the Duke 
of Albany met the deputies of Henry IV. at this 
place. In 1542, Sir Robert Bowes, warden of the 
east marches, accompanied by Angus and his 
brother, Sir George Douglas, entered Scotland with 
the design to ravage Teviotdale and sack Jedburgh, 
but they were met on Haddonrig by the Earl of 
Huntly and Lord Home, and repulsed. The town 
of Haddon is situated on Haddonrig, and commands 
a beautiful and extensive prospect of the valley of 
the Tweed and a great portion of the Merse. The 
town was destroyed by the Duke of Norfolk. The 
manor, owing to its situation on the marches, shared 
in the full miseries of Border warfare. 

PETLAW. This barony was granted by David I. to 
Eichard Germyn. During the reigns of William 
the Lion and Alexander II., Eichard Germyn wit- 
nessed several charters.-f- In 1222, he granted to 
the house of the Holy Trinity of Soltre the church 

* Chart, of the Holy Trinity of Soltre; MS. Advocates' 
Library, No. 28. 
t Lib. de Mail. pp. 127, 154, etc. 


of Lempitlaw, with all the lands and rights per- 
taining thereto.* Sir Adam Quinton was in pos- 
session of the arable land called Wellflat, with toft 
and croft belonging to it in the territory of Lem- 
pitlaw, which had been granted by Sir Richard 
Germyn to Floria, spouse of Sir Adam, during the 
end of the reign of Alexander III. After Sir 
Adam's death, his relict, Floria, granted the sub- 
jects to the house of Soltre.f In 1463, James III. 
granted to David Scott, son of Sir Walter Scott of 
Kirkurd, a charter, erecting into a free barony the 
lands of Branxholm, Langtown, Limpitlaw, Elrig, 
Rankilburn, Eckford, and Whitchester, to be named 
the barony of Branxholm. j In 1624, Andrew 
Young was in possession of the five-merk lands 
of Lempitlaw called Cowenshill. 

Geoffrey of Lempitlaw, chamberlain to William 
the Lion, appears on record about 1190. 

The barony of Lempitlaw was originally a sepa- 
rate parish, but it is now united to Sprouston. 
The church, which stood in the graveyard, has en- 
tirely disappeared. The graveyard is still used by 
the parishioners and those who wish their ashes to 
lie with their ancestors. 

The village consists of about twenty cottages and 

* Chart. No. 4, Advocates' Library. 
t Ib. No. 44. 
+ Retours. 


three farmhouses. In the days of Pont a tower stood 
at Lurdenlaw.* 

manor appears on record about the beginning of the 
twelfth century, under the name of Lintun, which 
is thought to be derived from the British Lyn and 
the Saxon tun or ton, signifying the dwelling on 
the lake, a name very descriptive of its position in 
early days. Chalmers, in his "Caledonia," says that 
Richard Cumyn, a nephew of William Cumyn, 
chancellor of England, got a grant from David I. of 
Lintun Manor, then known as Linton Roderick, and 
that Richard Cumyn afterwards gave the church of 
this manor to the abbey of Kelso for the soul of his 
lord, Earl Henry, who died in 1152, and for the 
soul of his son John, who had been buried in the 
cemetery of the house. The Rev. James Brother- 
stone, who wrote the New Statistical Account of 
the parish, takes the same view, and refers to the 
chartulary of Kelso as his authority for the state- 
ment made by him. But both are mistaken, as the 
church of Linton Roderick, granted by Cumyn to 
the monks of Kelso, was the parish church of that 

* Blaeu's Atlas. 

t Circa, 1160, 1249; Keg. Glas. p. 17; 

Lib. de Melros, p. 129. 
t Circa, 1275; Keg. Glas. p. 15. 
Circa, end of 16th century. 


name in Peebleshire. Kichard Cumyn may have 
obtained a grant of the manor from David I. ; but if 

O a 

so, he must have parted with it previous to his 
death, in 1189 ; for, in 1160, William de Sumerville 
gave three acres of land in the territory of Linton, 
with the tithes thereof, to the church of Glasgow.* 
It is certain that Cumyn was in possession of Linton 
in Peebleshire before 1153, and it is equally certain 
that he granted the church thereof, with half-a-car- 
rucate of land in the township, to the monks of 
Kelso, for the soul's rest of his lord, Earl Henry, 
and of his son John, whose bodies were buried 
at Kelso, on condition that he himself and Hextild 
his wife, and their children, should be received into 
the brotherhood of the convent, and made partakers 
of its spiritual benefits.-f- This gift was confirmed 
by Malcolm IV. ; by William the Lion ; by Josceline, 
bishop of Glasgow, before 1199; by Bishop Walter 
in the year 1232, and by Pope Innocent before 
12544 It is obvious that Linton in Teviotdale has 
been taken for Linton in Peebleshire. The first per- 
son whose connexion can be traced with the manor, 
is William de Sumerville, about 1160. He is said 
to be the second son of Sir Walter de Sumerville, 
who was the son of the first Walter de Sumerville, 
who came over with William the Conqueror, and 

* Reg. of Glas. p. 17. 
t Lib. de Calchou, p. 226. t Ib. pp. vi. 316, 319, etc. 


obtained from him the lordship and territory of 
Whichenour in Staffordshire.* William de Sumer- 
ville followed David I. into Scotland, who conferred 
upon him the lands and barony of Carnwath, in the 
county of Lanark He is a witness to the founda- 
tion charter of Melrose Abbey in 1136. In 1147, 
he witnessed a grant made by David of the church 
of Kylrmont to the bishop of St. Andrews. He is a 
witness to a charter of Earl Henry, confirming the 
endowments of his father to the church of St. John 
in the castle of Roxburgh, dated at Traquair, 1150,-f- 
In the same year he witnessed a grant of Robert, 
bishop of St. Andrews. He witnessed the confirma- 
tion charter of Malcolm IV. to the church of Kelso 
in 1 1 59. He also witnessed the grant of Malcolm IV., 

* The eldest son, Sir Walter, succeeded his father in the 
lordship of Whichenour, and carried on the line of the 
family in England. From him descended Sir Philip de 
Soinerville, so noted for his hospitality in the reigns of 
Henry IV. and V. It was this Sir Philip who held the 
lands of Netherton, Cowlee, Eidware, &c., by the celebrated 
service of furnishing a flitch of bacon to the married pair 
who could, on their consciences, declare that they had not 
once had a difference during the first twelve months of wed- 
lock. The male line of the Whichenour branch terminated 
in a daughter, who was the wife of the Duke of Buckingham, 
beheaded in the reign of Henry VIII. From Eoger, the 
third son of the first Sir Walter, sprang William Somerville, 
born in 1677, author of "The Chase," and other poems. 
He was the friend of Shenstone, and a correspondent of 
Allan Ramsay. 

t Eeg. of Gks. p. 10. 


in 1160, to Herbert, the bishop of Glasgow, of the 
church of Old Roxburgh, with its appurtenances, and 
the chapel of the castle of Roxburgh.* It is uncertain 
when he died, but it is thought to have been before 
1162. WILLIAM DE SUMEKVILLE, his eldest son, 
succeeded. He was in great favour with Malcolm IV. 
and William the Lion, and witnessed many of their 
charters. This William de Sumerville is thought to 
have been the first of Linton. Tradition relates 
that he obtained the barony from William the Lion, 
on his destroying a monster which inhabited a glen 
in the territory of Linton, about a mile from the 
church, known at the present day as the Worm's 
Glen. The monster was in length three Scots 
yards, and about the thickness of an ordinary man's 
leg, with a head more proportionate to its length than 
thickness ; in form and colour it resembled a moor 
adder. When this monster sought after its prey, it 
usually wandered a mile or two from the glen ; creep- 
ing among the bent heather, or grass, it was not 
discovered till it was master of its prey, which it 
instantly devoured. So great was the destruction of 
the bestial, that the country people were forced to 
remove themselves and their cattle to a distance. 
Neither durst any person go to church or market in 
that direction, for fear of the worm. Several attempts 

* Reg. of Glas. p. 14. 
VOL. m. p 


were made to destroy it, by shooting arrows and 
throwing darts from a distance; but as no one durst 
approach near to it, to use a sword or lance, it 
only received slight wounds. So terrified were the 
country people at last, that they imagined that the 
monster was a judgment sent by God, to plague 
them for their sins. While the people were in such 
fear and terror, William Sumerville, who was in 
the south, hearing such strange reports of the beast, 
resolved to see it. On his arrival at Jedburgh, 
where the court was at the time, he found the whole 
inhabitants in a panic, owing to the stories told by 
the country people, who had fled to that place for 
shelter. He was told that it had wings ; was full of 
fire, which blazed out of its mouth at night; and so 
venomous, that its breath killed the cattle at a con- 
siderable distance. However, Sumerville was curi- 
ous to see this monster, whatever might happen. 
Having learned that the animal usually left its den 
at sunrise or sunset, and wandered the fields in 
search of prey, he went on horseback to the glen by 
dawn of day. He was not long there, till the beast 
crawled out of his den, and observing him at a little 
distance, lifted up its head, with half of the body, 
staring him in the face, with open mouth, but 
not offering to advance, on which he took cour- 
age and went nearer, that he might examine its 
shape, and try whether it would attack him or no ; 
but the beast turned in a half-circle, and entered its 


den. Being informed of the means already used to 
kill the animal, and being satisfied it could not be 
destroyed by sword or dagger, owing to the hazard 
of approaching so near to it as these weapons re- 
quired; for several days he watched the animal 
to ascertain the manner of its leaving and entering 
the den ; and finding that it did not retire backwards, 
but always turned in a half-circle, so that there was 
no way of killing it but by a sudden approach, by a 
long spear on horseback; a mode by which, if the 
body was impenetrable, he might endanger not only 
the life of his horse, which he loved well, but also his 
own, to no purpose. At last, he caused a long spear 
to be made, plated with iron about six quarters 
from the point upward, on the top of which he 
placed a lighted peat, and accustomed his horse to 
the smell of smoke and fire. Having the horse well 
trained, he made a slender wheel of iron, and fixed 
it near the point of his lance, that the wheel might 
turn round on the least touch, without a risk of 
breaking the lance. All things being ready, he pro- 
claimed to the gentlemen and commons of Teviotdale, 
that he would, on a certain day, kill the monster, or 
die in the attempt. Many looked upon the ofier as a 
boast, others as an act of madness on the part of the 
youth, and endeavoured to advise him to forego the 
attempt ; but no argument could turn him from his 
purpose. Accordingly, on the appointed day, he 
placed himself, with his servant, a stout, resolute 


fellow, within half-an-arrow shot of the mouth of the 
den, which was no larger than easily to admit the 
monster, whom he watched with a vigilant eye on 
horseback, having some small, hard peats, bedaubed 
with pitch, rosin, and brimstone, fixed with a small 
wire, on the wheel, at the point of the lance, so that, 
on being touched with fire, they would immediately 
burst out into a flame. The proverb, that the fates 
assist bold men, was verified in this enterprise, for 
the day was calm, with only as much air as served 
his purpose. About the rising of the sun, the beast 
appeared, with its head and part of its body out of 
the den; on which, the servant, as previously ar- 
ranged, set fire to the peats on the wheel at the top 
of the lance, and instantly, Sumerville, putting spurs 
to his horse, advanced at a full gallop, the fire still 
increasing, placed the same, with the wheel, and 
nearly the third part of his lance, directly in the 
monster's mouth, which went down the throat into 
the belly, and the lance breaking by the rebounding 
of the horse, was left there, causing a deadly wound. 
So great was the strength of the animal, that, in at- 
tempting to get back into the den, the whole ground 
above was raised up and overturned, which aided in 
its destruction. The body of the serpent, or dragon, 
was taken from under the rubbish, and exposed for 
many days to the sight of a great number of people, 
who came far and near to look on the dead carcase 
of the creature, which was so great a terror to them 


while it was alive.* For this gallant action, Sumer- 
ville obtained universal applause from the people, 
and his gracious king honoured him with knighthood, 
conferred upon him the whole barony of Linton, and 

* The celebrated poet of Teviotdale, while singing of the 
scenery of Cayle, alludes to this tradition : 

" Pure blows the summer breeze o'er moor and dell, 
Since first in Wormiswood the serpent fell : 
From years, in distance lost, his birth he drew, 
And with the ancient oaks the monster grew, 
Till venom, nursed in every stagnant vein, 
Shed o'er his scaly sides a yellowy stain, 
Save where, upreared, his purfled crest was seen, 
Bedropt with purple blots and streaks of green. 
Deep in a sedgy fen, concealed from day, 
Long ripening, on his oozy bed he lay ; 
Till, as the poison-breath around him blew, 
From every bough the shrivelled leaflet flew, 
Grey moss began the wrinkled trees to climb, 
And the tall oaks grew old before their time. 

" On his dark bed the grovelling monster long 
Blew the shrill hiss, and launched the serpent prong, 
Or, writhed on frightful coils, with powerful breath, 
Drew the faint herds to glut the den of death ; 
Dragged, with unwilling speed, across the plain, 
The snorting steed, that gazed with stiffened mane ; 
The forest bull, that lashed, with hideous roar, 
His sides indignant, and the ground up-tore. 
Bold as the chief, who, 'mid black Lerna's brake, 
With mighty prowess quelled the water-snake, 
To rouse the monster from his noisome den, 
A dauntless hero pierced the blasted fen : 
He mounts, he spurs his steed ; in bold career, 
His arm gigantic wields a fiery spear ; 


appointed him Eoyal Falconer. The grateful people 
of Teviotdale perpetuated the gallant exploit, which 
freed the territory of Linton from such a monster, 
by cutting out in stone the figure of young Sumer- 
ville, as he performed the deed, and placed it above 
the principal door of Linton church, with an inscrip- 
tion referring to the event.* The inscription has 

With aromatic moss the shaft was wreathed, 

And favouring gales around the champion breathed; 

By power invisible the courser drawn, 

Now quick, and quicker, bounds across the lawn ; 

Onward he moves, unable now to pause, 

And fearless, meditates, the monster's jaws, 

Impels the struggling steed, that strives to shun, 

Full on his wide unfolding fangs to run ; 

Down his black throat he thrusts the fiery dart, 

And hears the frightful hiss that rends his heart ; 

Then, wheeling light, reverts his swift career. 

The writhing serpent grinds the ashen spear ; 

Eolled on his head, his awful volumed train 

He strains, in tortured folds, and bursts in twain. 

On Gala's banks, his monstrous fangs appal 

The rustics, pondering on the sacred wall, 

Who hear the tale, the solemn rites between, 

On summer Sabbaths, in the churchyard green." 

* In the memoirs of the Baronial House of Somerville, 
written by James, the eleventh Lord Somerville, who died 
in 1690, it is stated that John was the destroyer of the 
worme; that he was the first of Linton, and the first of the 
name who acquired lands in Scotland. But the noble author 
is mistaken. There was not a John in the descent of the 
Scottish branch, till the middle of the fourteenth century ; and 
the John of that time was a third son ; besides, it is undoubted 




long been effaced, but tradition says it was as 
follows : 

"Wode Willie Somerville 
Killed the worm of Wormandaill, 
For whilk he had all the lands of Lintoune, 
And six miles them about." 

The monument was to be seen above the door of the 
little church of Linton, till the summer of 1858; 
when, in consequence of repairs upon the edifice, it 
was taken down, and placed outside a newly erected 
porch. The sculpture presents a rude representa- 
tion of a horseman, in full armour, with a falcon on 
his arm, in the act of charging his lance down the 
throat of a large four-footed animal, not in the 
least resembling a worm or serpent. Several writers 
imagine that there is no foundation for the legend, 
and that the sculpture above the church door gave 
rise to the legend, and not the legend to the sculp- 
ture. But I have no doubt that the legend is in 
substance true, and that a monster of one kind or 

that the tradition relates to William Somerville. It is also cer- 
tain, that William Somerville arrived in Scotland, as a fol- 
lower of David, Prince of Cumberland, before 1124, and ob- 
tained from him the manor of Carnwath, in Lanarkshire. 
It is said by Chalmers, and several Peerage writers, that the 
first William Somerville died in 1142, and was buried in 
Melrose Abbey ; but this is also a mistake, as the only entry 
of a Somerville being buried in that cemetery, is William 
Somerville, who died in 1242, no doubt, the grandson of the 
first William. Chron. Mail. p. 155. 


another existed in that place, which made it danger- 
ous to dwell in the locality, and that it was killed 
by young Somerville. It is very easy to account 
for the improbable statements as to the power and 
dimensions of the animal. At that time the old 
faith would be in the full remembrance of the in- 
habitants of the district, and no doubt, secretly be- 
lieved by many ; and when such a destructive animal 
made its appearance, it is not surprising that they 
should connect it with the obscene spirits, that in- 
fested the hills, mosses, and fens, and attribute to it 
a portion of their power. According to the Gothic 
mythology, there existed flying dragons, who floated 
on their wings over the plains, and carried away 
corpses. One of these is alluded to in the fine 
Saxon poem of Beowolf, under the name of Grendel : 

" There was a more grim spirit, called Grendel ; 
Great was the mark of his steps, 
He that rules the moor, 
The fen, and the fastness." 

The place where this worme is said to have had its 
abode would, in former days, be entirely surrounded 
by lakes, mosses, and fens peculiarly adapted for 
such a reptile. At that time the Cayle valley, from 
Marlfield to Crookedshaws, would be almost an 
entire lake or marsh. Another fen extended from 
the Bowmont river, by Cherrytrees and Thirlestane, 
to within a very short distance of a large flow moss, 
which existed on Greenlees farm, forming a circle of 


lakes and mosses around Wormesglen.* But Linton 
was not the only place which was infested at that 
early day by such animals. Duncan Fraser, an old 
bard, who lived upon the Cheviot mountains about 
1270, sings of a Laidley worm which existed at 
Spendleston heugh 

" For seven miles east and seven miles west, 

And seven miles north and south, 
No blade of grass nor corn could grow, 

So venomous was her mouth." 

Within the bishopric of Durham, two MANGES were 
obtained, under nearly the same circumstances as 
Linton was gained by Somerville. The manor of 
Sockburn, in Northumberland, originally belonging 
to the ancient and powerful family of Conyers, is 

* About 1826, the skull of a beaver was found in Linton 
loch by Mr. Purves, the tenant, who was in the course of 
making operations in the morass, so as to get at a very exten- 
sive deposit of marl After penetrating about eight feet of 
moss which covered the marl, the skull was found on its sur- 
face, in an excellent state of preservation. The remains of 
deer and other animals were also found on the surface of the 
marl, about twenty yards from the margin of the loch. At 
other places, horns of the red deer, with bones of animals of 
the same species, were found at a depth of twenty-two feet 
from the surface of the moss. At a depth of seven feet 
within the marl was found the left tibia of an ox, bos pri- 
mogenius, which was computed to have belonged to an ani- 
mal measuring at least six feet, or, with hoof and soft parts 
entire, fully half-a-foot more to the summit of the shoulder. 
Near the margin of the loch, and about seven feet deep in the 
moss, were found an arrow-head, and two or three small 
horse-shoes. The moss was divided into three layers, the upper 


held by the service of presenting a falchion to every 
bishop on his first entrance into his diocese, and the 
use of an ancient form of words when he does so, to 
the effect that the presenter " represents the person 
of Sir John Conyer, who, on the fields of Sockburn, 
with this falchion, slew a monstrous creature, a 
dragon, a worm, or a flying serpent, that devoured 
men, women, and children. The then owner of 
Sockburn, as a reward for his bravery, gave him the 
manor and its appurtenances, to be held for ever, on 
condition that he meets the lord Bishop of Durham, 
with this falchion, on his first entrance into his dio- 
cese after his election to that see." It is said that 

layer about three feet in thickness ; the second, measuring 
about two feet, was not so firm as the upper layer, and 
changed its colour, of a greenish brown when moist and newly 
exposed, to almost a white when dry ; the third extended to 
four feet, but in some places to a greater thickness, and of a 
black colour, holding embedded, in various grades of preser- 
vation, the trunks of hazel and birch trees, with an occasional 
oak, measuring from two to four feet in diameter ; large 
quantities of hazel nuts, in masses, as if gathered and swept 
from the upper woodlands by the mountain freshets. The 
stratum of marl was eighteen feet in thickness. Paper by 
CHARLES WILSON, M.D., late of Kelso, in the Edinburgh New 
Philosophical Journal, July, 1858. 

In Linton loch grew a species of reed, which the inhabi- 
tants of the neighbouring villages and onsteads used in the 
roofing of their houses. With these reeds they also made 
" bennils " for laying above the joists of their cottages, instead 
of deals. While the workmen were taking out the marl, they 
found a strong and copious mineral spring issuing from the 
eand beneath the marl 


the animal slain was venomed and poisoned, which 
overthrew and devoured many people, for the scent 
of the poison was so strong that no person was able 
to abide it; yet he, by the Providence of God, over- 
threw it. But, before he entered upon his enter- 
prise, he went to the church in full armour, and 
offered up his son to the Holy Ghost. This took 
place before the Conquest. The monument, says a 
writer of the end of last century, is still to be seen, 
and the place where the serpent lay is called Gray- 
stone.* Pollardslands, in the same county, are held 
by the same tenure.^ In the Cathedral of St. An- 
drews, the tusks of a boar long hung in the choir, 
in gratitude for the destruction of the enormous 
and savage animal to which they belonged. 

In the memoir of the family of Somerville, it is 
said that the destroyer of the worme married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Eobert Oliphant of Cessford, 
whose lands lay next to his own barony of Linton, 
the water of Cayle being the boundary, and by her 
had several children. J Between 1180 and 1189, 
he confirmed to Joscelin, bishop of Glasgow, the 
church of Carnwath, which he had, by the advice of 
his father and other friends, previously granted to 
Bishop Englram. WILLIAM, his son, succeeded, 

* Harleian MSS., No. 2118, p. 39. 
t Tennant, vol. iii. p. 341. 
I Memoirs, vol. i. p. 60. 
Eeg. of Glas., p. 46. 


and married Margaret, daughter of Walter New- 
bigging of that Ilk in Clydesdale. In 1 239, William , 
baron of Linton, attended Alexander II. at Koxburgh 
Castle, on his marriage with Mary of Picardy.* 
He died in J 242, and was buried in the cemetery 
of Melrose.-f- WILLIAM, his son, succeeded, and was 
knighted by Alexander III. In 1263, he attended 
the king at the battle of Largs, where he greatly 
distinguished himself. In 1270, he witnessed a 
charter of Henry of Halyburton to the monks of 
Kelso. In 1289, THOMAS of Somerville was one of 
the commissioners appointed to consult the king of 
England as to a marriage between his eldest son 
and the heiress of Scotland. J JOHN, his second 
son, swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296. Sir 
WALTER Somerville of Linton, with his son, Sir 
David, joined Wallace, and commanded the third 
brigade of horse at the battle of Biggar, fought 
in the end of May, 1297. WALTEE Somerville 
followed Kobert Bruce to the battle of Methven 
Wood, near St. Johnstone. His son, Sir David, who 
was also present, was taken prisoner. In conse- 
quence of the Somervilles adhering to the interests 
of Wallace and Bruce, the barony of Linton was 
given by Baliol to Walter Cumyn of Kilbride. On 

* Hailes's Annals, vol. i. p. 185. 
t Chron. de Mail. p. 155. 
J Rymer, vol. i. P. iii. p. 66. 
Ragman's Rolls, p. 139. 


the independence of Scotland being won on the 
field of Bannockburn, the lands were restored to 
the lawful owners. In 1348, two years after the 
unfortunate battle of Durham, where king David 
was taken prisoner, Edward III. charged the sheriff 
of Roxburgh to restore the lands forfeited by William 
of Somerville, in Lynton and Carnwath, to Richard 
Cuniyn of Kilbride, son of Walter Cumyn, to whom 
the lands had been granted by Baliol.* On King 
David Bruce regaining his liberty, he granted two 
charters, one in 1365, and the other in 1369, con- 
firming and ratifying all former rights and charters 
granted by himself, or father, to and in favour of 
Walter Somerville, of the barony of Linton and 
Carnwath, to be held ward of him and of his suc- 
cessors. He died in 1380, at Kelso, on his way to 
Linton, in the house of William Somerville, his 
natural son, from whence his remains were con- 
veyed to Linton, and buried in the " queir of the 
church/' JOHN Somerville, his son, was served heir 
to his father, at Jedburgh, April 10, 1381, before 
Robert Ker of Cessford. In 1396, he sat as one of 
the barons of Scotland, in the parliament of Perth, 
called by Robert III. In 1426, THOMAS Somer- 
ville lived at Linton for some time, and while there, 
repaired the tower, church, and queir of Linton, 
with the ancient monument to the destroyer of the 

* Kotuli Scotiae, voL i p. 723. 


worme, which, by length of time, and the perpeutal 
incursions and burnings of the English, were much 
decayed. In 1434, James I. confirmed Thomas of 
Soinerville in the barony of Linton. WILLIAM of 
Somerville witnessed a confirmation by James II. 
of charters by David I. and Robert III., to the 
canons of Holyrood. He died in 1456, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, JOHN. During the 
siege of Roxburghe Castle, in 1460, he was of great 
service to the king and the army, in furnishing 
provisions from his own barony of Linton, and ad- 
jacent country, which he the more easily accom- 
plished owing to his being nearly allied to the Kers 
of Cessford and Fernieherst. On the breaking up of 
the siege, he retired to his tower of Linton. In 
1476, WILLIAM of Somerville was infeft in the 
barony of Linton, confirmed by James III. in the 
following year. Between 1486 and 1538 the family 
of Somerville seems to have sold the barony of 
Linton to the Kers. In 1594, William Ker of 
Littleden had a grant of the barony, with the 
patronage of Linton kirk* In 1608, John Ker of 
Hirsel, son and heir of Walter Ker of Littleden, 
obtained a charter of the baronies of Maxton, Lin- 
ton, and Town Yetham.-f- In 1619, Linton and 
Maxton were granted to John Ker, son of Sir John 
Ker of Jedburgh. In 1670, Elizabeth and Anna 

* Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. XL No. 90. i Ib. lib. xii No. 35. 


Scott were served heirs portioners to their father, 
George Scott, who was the brother of Walter Scott 
of Whitslaid, in the land and barony of Linton, 
with the patronage of the church.* In 1686, Janet 
Pringle was served heir to her father, Eobert 
Pringle of Clifton, of parts of the barony of Linton, 
viz., the lands of Park, Hindlaw, Burnfoot, Easter 
and Wester Howden, Glendelhaugh, Ladywelbrae, 
Swinesclos, part of the lands of Linton, now called 
Southquarter, and Yaitt, on the south side of the 
town of Linton, which is the southern division of 
the lands of Linton; part of the lands of Linton, 
called Bankhead, and Shielscrocerig, on the north 
side of the town of Linton, which is the northern 
division of the lands of Linton, which extend the 
22-pound lands with the astricted multure and 
privilege of the common in Shielscrocemoor, Wool- 
struther bog, and Wormeden, within the parish and 
barony of Linton; parts of the lands of Priorlaw, 
lying runrig, with the privilege of pasture in the 
parish of Linton.-f- At the death of Eobert Pringle 
of Clifton and Haining, the lands passed to the pre- 
sent owner, Robert Elliot of Harwood, who, after his 
accession to the estate, erected an elegant mansion, 
within a well-wooded park, called CLIFTON Park. 

The Kers retained GRADEN to a later period. 
Andrew, or Dand Ker, the laird of Graden, was a 

* Retours, No. 253. t Ib. No. 290. 


man of note on the Borders, in the beginning of the 
16th century. He held the lands under Walter 
Ker of Cessford, who, in 1551, confirmed him anew 
in the lands, Graden tower, fortalice, and pertinents, 
in consequence of the old writings being destroyed 
by the English. In 1679, Henry Ker was laird of 
Graden, and one of the justices of the peace for the 
county of Eoxburgh for the purpose of suppressing 
conventicles. Three days after the battle of Both- 
well-brig, the Council ordered him to secure Sir 
Henry Hall of Haughhead, Turnbull of Bewly, Turn- 
bull of Stanehill, and Archibald Riddell, brother of 
Kiddell of that Ilk, as being either at or accessary 
to that battle. The infamous laird of Meldrum was 
ordered to assist. In 1680, Archibald Riddell, 
Turnbull of Knowe, and the laird of Down, were 
apprehended by Henry Ker, and imprisoned in Jed- 
burgh. The Council ordered Meldrum to carry the 
prisoners to Edinburgh, and recommended the laird 
of Graden to the Lords of the Treasury for the 
reward offered by the Council's proclamations for 
taking Riddell.* In 1699, he was served heir to 
his father in the lands of Wester Hoselaw, alias 
Place Graden, and in the lands of Falside, in the 

* In these doings a key is furnished to the way in which 
the Kers acquired a number of small properties in various 
parts of the counties of Roxburgh and Selkirk. It is curious 
to notice that the descendants of the clan Turnbull, and other 
Border thieves, lost their properties for non-conformity. 


parish of Linton.* William Dawson, the agricul- 
turist, possessed part of Graden till a few years ago. 
George Humble of Kelso is the owner of another 
part of Graden. The lands of Fauside were pos- 
sessed at a very early period by a person who had 
assumed the name of the place as his surname. 
Robert Bruce granted to William de Fauside the 
lands of Greenlees, which adjoined Fauside, forfeited 
by Sir James Torthorald.f In 1372, John de Fau- 
side and John of Linton witnessed a notarial copy 
of a confirmation, by Pope Gregory IV., of gifts to 
the canons of Holyrood. In the middle of the 17th 
century, Greenlees was the property of William 
Bennet, son of the rector of Ancrum.^: 

BLAKELAW, which formed a portion of the barony 
of Linton, was the property of Mark Ker, portioner 
of Cliftoune, in 1655. It now belongs to Kobert 
Oliver. On this property was born Thomas Pringle, 
the author of "The Excursion." He emigrated to 
Africa, and established a newspaper at Cape Town ; 
but the measures he supported were deemed too 
liberal for that day, and the journal was sup- 
pressed by the governor. In returning to his native 
land, he devoted himself to literature, published 

* Retours, No. 324. t Robertson's Index, p. 6. 

$ Retours, No. 195. 
VOL. III. g 


"African Sketches," and edited "Friendship's Offer- 
big/' When about to embark for Africa, he thus 
took leave of his native land : 

" Our native land our native vale 

A long and last adieu ; 
Farewell to bonny Teviotdale, 
And Cheviot's mountains blue." 

He died in December, 1834. Dr. Clarke, who was 
celebrated as the first physician of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, was also a native of this barony.* 

Of the old town of Linton, which was formerly of 
great extent, there are now no remains, excepting 
the church and mill. A number of the old build- 
ings have been removed within the memory of man, 
and the foundations of others are occasionally ex- 
posed by the plough. Tradition fixes the site of the 
baronial cross opposite to the farm-house, and near 
to the butts, where the inhabitants were trained to 
archery. The tower stood on an eminence to the 
south of the church, and between it and the mill. 
The site is now covered with trees. In 1522, it was 
destroyed by the English warden. Next year it was 
again visited by the Earl of Surrey, who razed it to 
the ground. Linton was again destroyed by the 
Earl of Hertford, in 1545. 

There are traces of the church of Linton as far 
back as 1127. In 1160, Edward was parson of the 

* New Statistical Account. 


church.* Patrick was parson in the reign of Alex- 
ander II. In 1 304, Richard was pastor. Edward III. 
appointed Richard of Skypton and Richard Prodham 
to the church, between 1358 and 1360,-f- In 1459, 
William Blair was parson of the church. The 
" queir" of the church was the burying-place of the 
Somervilles. In 1214, Roger Somerville of Which- 
enour, who had joined in the rebellion against 
King John, fled to Scotland. He died in the 
" toure" of Linton, at the age of 94, and was buried 
in the queir of the church, where his descendants 
continued to be buried for nearly 200 years. The 
present church is situated on the top of a consider- 
able law or knoll of pure sand.| Tradition bears 
that this little hill was sifted by two sisters, to save 
the life of their brother, who had slain a priest ; but 
it is not easy to believe in the legend, as the hill, at 
a moderate computation, must have a solid content 
of about half a million of cubic feet. It is probable 
that the legend owes its origin to the early Catholic 
priesthood, with the view of impressing upon the rude 
people of the locality of that day the sacredness 
of their persons. The legend is, however, implicitly 
believed in by the people of the district at this day. 

* Reg. of Glas. p. 17. t Eotuli Scotise, vol. i. p. 852. 
J Vol. i. pp. 40-42. 

Sir Walter Scott, in his " Minstrelsy," says that the hill 
was sifted by two beautiful sisters, as a penance on them for 


Although there is no certain information to show 
that the present site occupies the position of the old 
church which existed during the days of David, 
Malcolm, and William the Lion, it may be inferred 
that it does, from the Somervilles being buried 
within it for nearly 200 years.* In rQpairing the 
church, sometime before 1792, there was found a 
large grave, containing fifty skulls, all equally de- 
cayed, and from several of them being cut, it is 
supposed that they had fallen in battle. The 
minister of Linton, who drew up the last statistical 
account, conjectures that the skulls belonged to 
individuals who had fallen at Flodden-field, the 
remains of many of whom were consigned to a com- 
mon grave in the cemeteries of the nearest Border 
parishes; but this conjecture is very improbable, 
from the distance, and several graveyards lying 
between it and Linton. It is more likely that the 
skulls belonged to individuals who had fallen on one 
of the English visits to Linton. When the English 
warden destroyed the town in ] 522, he had with 
him an army of 2000 men, which may sufficiently 

the blood shed on their account by the gallants of the district. 
The legend, as gj,ven in the text, is as related by the people 
living in the locality, and implicitly believed. 

* The interior of the church was taken out in 1858, and 
entirely renewed. The beautiful Nornian font was used for 
years by a blacksmith for the purpose of holding small coal. 
It is now in the possession of the owner of the barony. 



account for the remains, without including the raids 
of Surrey and Hertford. 

A chapel, dependant upon Linton, is said to 
have stood at Hoselaw, probably for the conve- 
nience of the eastern part of the parish ; but 
the plough has now passed over it and its little 

YETTAM ; YETHOLM.|| The name of this ancient 
place is thought to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon 

* No district in all the Border land has undergone s-o 
much improvement as the barony of Linton. I remember 
when nearly all the land lying between the Softlaws and 
Thirlestanes was moor, moss, and loch, with scarcely a fence 
to be seen. Now it has all been brought under the plough, 
and produces excellent crops. All the flat ground between 
Greenlees and Fauside was a large flow moss within my day. 
Not a tree was to be seen excepting an ash or two at the 
onstead of Greenlees. The onstead at the roadside between 
Fauside and Easterstead was called " Patie's on the Moor,'" 
from its situation on the top of a wild ridge. The locality is 
now full of fruitful fields. From the top of this ridge, where 
the road crosses it a little above Easterstead, is obtained 
one of the most extensive and beautiful views in the district. 
It is well worth going many a mile to see. 

t 1165-1230,' Lib. de Calchou; Ragman's Eolls; Reg. 
Glasg. ; Lib. de Dryburgh ; Rotuli Scotiaj. 

J Circa, 1388 ; Froissart's Chronicles, vol. iv. p. 3. 

Circa, 1545 Account of Hertford's expedition into 

|| Circa, 1797; Old Statistical Account ; Old Valuation 
Book of the County of Roxburgh. 


Zete, gait or road, and ham, a dwelling ; the dwelling 
or hamlet at the yet or road. At present there are 
two towns bearing the name of Yetholm; the one at 
which the church is situated is called Kirk Yetholm, 
and the other, Town Yetholm. Originally there was 
only one village, that which is known as Kirk 
Yetholm ; and Town Yetholm is not seen till near 
the middle of the loth century. The prefix Kirk 
does not appear on record till the beginning of the 
15th century. 

The early history of this territory is involved in 
the haze of antiquity. The bounds of the manor 
cannot be exactly ascertained ; but it is probable 
that it was at first co-extensive with the parish, and 
continued so till about the end of the 15th century, 
when nearly all the lands lying to the north of 
the River Beaumont were erected into a barony in 
favour of the Earl of Bothwell, and called the barony 
of Town Yetholm. After that period, the lands of 
Kirk Yetholm and the lands of Town Yetholm ap- 
pear to have remained as separate baronies. About 
the middle of the 17th century, the manor of Kirk 
Yetholm was annexed to the barony of Grubet. 
About the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 
1 3th centuries, occasional glimpses are obtained of 
persons connected with the locality. Ralph Nanus, 
who seems to have possessed the manor, granted to 
the monks of Kelso three acres of land in Yhetam. 
opposite the lands which the monks held in Colpin- 


hopes, and near to the rivulet which divides Eng- 
land from Scotland, as bounded by a ditch, with 
right to them to build houses for themselves, their 
men, and animals, on the said lands, with free pas- 
sage for themselves, their men, and cattle, from 
the lands of Colpinhopes to the lands of Yetholm. 
Ralph also bound himself and his heirs not to build 
any houses on the road lying between the foresaid 
lands and the rivulet dividing England from Scot- 
land, nor suffer any person to do so to the injury of 
the monks.* This property is thought to be the 
same as that called by the name of the Half-hus- 
bandlands at the present day, and on which there 
are houses still named the Halfland Houses. The 
monks had also the right of common pasture in 
Yetholm, and which they let to the miller of Col- 
pinhopes. Colpinhopes lay within the English bor- 
der, and was granted by Walter Corbet, the laird of 
Makerston, to the convent. William, the son of 
Patrick, earl of D unbar, with the consent of his 
wife Christian, daughter of Walter Corbet, con- 
firmed the grant, and added the mill of Colpinhopes. 
In the chartulary of the abbey of Kelso, the boun- 
daries of the grant are said to extend " from Edred- 
sete to Greengare under Edredsete, and to the 
bridge at the head of the brook which divides Eng- 
land from Scotland, and down this brook towards 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 307, 30a 


the chapel of St. Edeldrida* the virgin, to another 
brook which runs down by Homildun, and then up 
this brook to a glen where the brook comes to Ho- 
mildun, across the way which comes from Jetam, 
and along this way to the two great stones. -f- No 
person was to plough on the west side of Homildun. 
The monks laboured the grange of Colpinhopes in 
winter with two ploughs, and they had there pasture 
for 20 oxen, 20 cows, 500 ewes, and 200 other 
sheep. They had also five acres of land in Shotton 
or Scotton, which lay on the west side of the road 
beside the burn which divides England and Scot- 
land, near Yetham, with pasture for forty sheep 

* ETHELRIDA was the daughter of Ina, King of the East 
Angles, and was married to Egfrid, King of Northumbria, 
with whom she is said to have lived for twelve years in a state 
of continency. She then, with leave of the king, retired to 
Coldingham, where she took the veil. On the king repent- 
ing granting her leave to retire to the convent, and threa- 
tening to take her therefrom, she, with two companions, fled 
to the summit of a rock called St. Abb's Head. When Eg- 
frid attempted to take her from the rock, the tide suddenly 
surrounded the rock, so as to make it inaccessible. The ris- 
ing of the waters was attributed to a miracle, and Egfrid took 
to himself another wife. I think I came upon the founda- 
tions of the chapel a little way below the ruins of the Shank, 
and I was told by an old man in Yetholm that he had seen 
its Font. He also stated to me that a person in Yetholm, 
who died several years ago at an advanced age, had, while he 
was a boy, at a place called Marchlaw, worshipped in the little 
chapel of the Virgin. 

t Are these the stones now called Stob stones ? 


and forty cows everywhere in Shotton, excepting in 
the cornfields and meadows. They had also common 
pasture and fuel, and a right to grind without pay- 
ing multure at the mill of Schotton. In 1296, 
William of Yetham swore fealty to Edward L* In 
the same year, Mestre Walran, the parson of Yetholm, 
swore fealty to the same king at Berwick, f On the 
23rd of August, Edward I. arrived at Yetham, and 
remained two days. In 1320, William of Yetham, 
Sir William de Soulis, and Sir Robert de Keith got 
a safe-conduct from Edward II. to enter England. 
In 1375, Edward III. gave Parkfield, with other 
lands in Yetham, to Thomas Archer, for good service 
done to England on the Scottish border, for a pay- 
ment of X J 4 annually. In the same year, Robert 
II., the Scottish king, granted the barony of Yetham 
to Fergus M'Dougal, on the resignation of Margaret 
Fraser, his mother.^ Archibald M'Dougal obtained 
from Robert III. a grant of Yetham, Mackerston, 
and Elystoun, between the years 1390 and 1406. 
The manor of Yetham passed to William de Haw- 
den, by grant of the Duke of Albany, in 1407. 
Before 1432, Andrew Ker got a gift of the lands of 
Yetham from the governor, but the Estates of Par- 
liament found that the governor could not gift from 
the crown any land that fell to the crown through 

* Kagman's Rolls, p. 128. t Rotuli Scotiae. 

I Reg. Mag. Sig., p. 191, No. 33. 


the decease of any bastard, and therefore the gift to 
Ker was of no avail.* In 1491, James IV. granted 
to the noted Sir Robert Ker the superiority of the 
tenandry of the lands of Kirk Yethame. In 1523, 
George Rutherfurd, son and heir of John Rutherfurd 
of Hundolee, got a charter of the ten-pound lands of 
Yetham andHayhope. In 1629, the lands and mill 
of Kirk Yethoim were held by Andrew, Lord Jed- 
burgh. -J- In 1647, William Bennet was served heir 
to his father, William Bennet, rector of Ancrum, in 
the lands of Kirk Yetham and mill annexed to the 
barony of Grubet.j The family of Nisbet of Dirlton 
next possessed the barony. The greater portion of 
these lands are now the property of the Marquis of 

HALTERBUENHEAD, a portion of the old manor of 
Yethoim, formed at one time part of the estate of 
Cherry trees, belonging to a family of Murray, from 
whom it passed to Wauchope of Niddrie, and is now 
the property of Charles Rae of Middleton, Northum- 
berland. This estate is situated on the sources of a 
brook of that name, which runs eastward, past the 
half-land-house, till it meets the burn that divides 
England and Scotland, from whence its course is in 
a northerly direction, forming the boundary of the 
two kingdoms till its confluence with the Beaumont. 

* Acta Parl. vol. ii. p. 20. t Eetours. I Ib. 


The name of Halterburn is thought to be a corrup- 
tion of Edeldrida, and so named from the chapel 
of the Virgin which stood in that locality. The 
brook, which descends from the mountains on the 
west of the Shank, is stated in the grants of the 
13th century to be the boundary of England and 
Scotland, but which is not so at the present day. 
The foundations of many ruined houses speak of a 
numerous population which once inhabited the well 
sheltered hopes of the mountains. It is interesting 
to notice the close proximity of the buildings to the 
border line on each side, as if the inhabitants in 
either kingdom had always lived at peace with each 

The whole territory of Kirk Yetham, with the ex- 
ception of the vale of Beaumont, and part lying 
near Shotton, is mountainous, affording fine pasture 
for sheep. Many of these hills bear marks of hav- 
ing been cultivated, at a former period, to near their 
summits. All the accessible lands on the slopes of 
the hills is being brought under the influence of the 
plough. Part of the hill sides, to the west of Kirk 
Yetham, is planted, but in a manner that does not 
add to the beauty of the scenery. 

The church and graveyard are at the west end of 
the town. The present church, which is a very 
handsome building, was erected in 1836, on the site 
of the old church, which was a long low building, 
thatched with reeds, with the floor below the level 


of the ground. The earliest notice of the church is 
about 1233. At that time, Nicholas de Gleynwin, 
rector of the church of Jetham, is a witness to 
Mariote, the daughter of Samuel, quit-claiming the 
land of Stobhou in favour of the church of Glasgow.* 
In 1295, on a dispute arising between William 
Folcard and the monks of Kelso, the rector of 
Yetham was commissioner for the abbot of Dun- 
fermline, who was chosen arbiter. -f- In 1368, 
Edward III. presented John of Alnewyk to the 
church of Yetham, and on the bishop of Glasgow 
refusing to induct, the king charged the sheriff of 
Roxburgh not to allow any other person to be 
inducted. Six years after, the same king presented 
John Walays to the church of Yetham. In the 
same year, Edward III. issued a writ for the 
exchange of Minto for Yetham.j In 1379, Richard 
II. presented Robert Gilford to the church of 
Yetholm. In 1406, William de Hawdin, laird of 
Kirk Yetholm, gave the monks of Kelso the advow- 
son of the church of Yetham, and imprecated the 
curse of the Almighty upon whomsoever of his 
heirs should dispute their right to it ; binding him- 
self and them, if he or they molested the abbot in 
his right, to pay =20 to the church of St. Lawrence 
at Merebotyle for each offence. || In 1495, Patrick, 

* Reg. de Glas., p. 111. t Lib. de Calchou, p. 169. 

t Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i. pp. 963, 965. Ib., vol. ii p. 19. 
|| Lib. de Calchou, pp. 415, 416. 


earl of Bothwell, obtained the advowson of the 
church of Yetham.* About the beginning of the 
17th century, the family of Buccleugh was possessed 
of the advowson of the church of Yetham.-f- About 
the middle of the same century, the advowson 
passed into the family of Wauchope, with whom it 
now remains. In 1662, the Presbytery of Kelso 
was discharged by the Privy Council from proceed- 
ing to ordain a minister to Yetham. Tradition 
tells that the bodies of a number of the Scottish 
nobles who fell at the battle of Flodden were buried 
in the cemetery of Yetham, as the nearest conse- 
crated ground to the battle-field, seven miles distant. 
The town of the manor stands on the right bank 
of the Beaumont River, on the base of one of the 
Cheviot mountains. The inhabitants are all rent- 
allers, under the family of Tweeddale. The feu 
consists of a house, garden, about a quarter of an 
acre of land in the loaning, privilege of turf and 
peat, and pasture for a horse and cow on an exten- 
sive common that runs into the heart of the moun- 
tains. A number of the rentallers farm each a few 
acres of land in the vicinity of the town, at rents 
from 2 to 3, 10s. per acre, which is considered 
extremely high; but as the occupiers are mostly 
tradesmen and day labourers, who work the land at 
leisure hours or when unemployed, they manage to 

* Reg. Mag. Sig. t Eetours. 


make the land pay and prove a source of health and 
comfort to themselves and families. The town has 
been greatly improved within the last twenty-five 
years. The houses look better, the streets are 
cleaner, and last year an abundant supply of the 
purest water was introduced from the springs on the 
sides of the mountain above the town. For some 
years past a number of Irish have taken up their 
abode in the town, contrary to the wishes of the 
native population, and are employed generally in la- 
bouring on the farms around. Hitherto, the conduct 
of these people in Teviotdale has been exemplary. 

There is a manufactory here, driven by the 
waters of the Beaumont, confined exclusively to the 
working up of pure Cheviot wool into Tweeds, &c., 
in which a considerable trade is carried on. It was 
originally a fulling mill, of which there are notices 
extending back several centuries. The same stream 
drives a corn and flour mill of nearly equal antiquity. 

The' territory is governed by a baron baillie, 
appointed by the Marquis of Tweeddale. The town 
has right to two fairs in the year, one in July, the 
other in October, for sheep and cattle, both well at- 
tended. The market cross, a large block of whinstone, 
may be seen lying in front of the Cross Keys Inn. 

Yetholm, so far as I am aware,* is the only place 
in this part of the kingdom where a remnant of the 
old mode of keeping SHROVETIDE is still to be seen. 
In the early days of the Roman Church, Shrovetide 


was strictly observed. The people were particularly 
enjoined to forgive all offences, and be reconciled to 
each other before entering upon the solemnities of 
Lent. With the Koinan Catholics it was a day of 
mutual intercourse and friendship. Many families 
opened their kitchen, and every neighbour and pas- 
senger permitted to enter and fry a pancake, for 
which the necessary provision was made ready. In 
all religious houses the table was spread for tra- 
vellers and visitants. The diversions of the day 
consisted in fighting cocks, in some places hand- 
ball, and in other places foot-ball, foot-races, &c. 
In Yetholm, cock-fighting used to be one of the 
amusements of the day, but it has been given up, and 
foot-ball is now the chief diversion.* The game is 

* Although ball-playing is connected with the Shrovetide 
of the Romans, it is thought by several writers to be a ves- 
tige of the worship paid by the ancient Britons to the sun. 
In Brittany the same game is played, and there the ball is 
called Souk, derived, it is said, from the Celtic heaul, the 
initial letter of which was changed into S by the Eomans, 
and signifies Sun. It is probable that cock-fighting on that 
day was at an early period part of the sun worship. The 
cock was the bird that proclaimed the rising sun, and is thus 
alluded to in. the " Voluspa :" 

" Crow'd his JEsir call, 

Cock with the glistening crest: 

He in Odin's hall 

Wakes the brave from rest." 

The crest of the helmit of the image which represented Odin, 
was a cock, a device emblematical of vigilance, one of the attri- 


played between the married men and the single, the 
one party playing east, and the other west. At two 
o'clock the ball is thrown up at the cross, and then 
a scene ensues that baffles description. Old and 
young join in the contest as keenly as if a kingdom 
were the prize of the victor. Will Faa, who long 
reigned as gipsy king, was a celebrated ball player 
in his day, and never failed to turn out with his 
tribes on the occasion of the annual game. The 
sports are continued till night puts an end to the 
match, and then the combatants retire to the various 
inns in the town, to partake of dumplings and pan- 
cakes, prepared by the hostess, and served up gratis. 
After the feast is over, the players and others who 
may have joined them dance and drink till morning. 
Foot-ball was a game very common on the Border 
during the wars with England. When a foray was 

butes of Odin. The nations which worshipped the sun sacrificed 
this bird to that deity, because it was "sunnie, swifte, and very 
prompt of flight and course, and so consequently an acceptable 
offering to the sunne, the fountaine of light ; admirable for his 
three qualities ; his luminous beauty ; his force and efficacy of 
heat, and his promptitude of course." The bird is mentioned 
by Solomon in his Book of Proverbs, as serving for the sym- 
bol of power and strength. The cock mounted on his spurs, 
says a learned writer, " chanteth victoriously by preference 
over all creatures of the earth, so say the philosophers and 
naturalists, God having given him such light and power ; as we 
learn from the wise king of Edom, and mirror of patience, 
the patriarch Job." Pythagoras speaks of the cock as sacred 
to the sun and moon. 


contemplated into the neighbouring kingdom, a 
match at foot-ball was got up, and under cover of 
it, great numbers were assembled without suspicion 
near the place where the Border line was intended 
to be crossed. It was also usual for persons not 
friendly to their own government to meet at foot- 
ball, and talk treason without being suspected. 

The Christmas festivities were many years ago 
celebrated at Yetholm, much in the manner as in 
Northumberland and Durham. Dancers, with hat, 
sleeves, and buttonholes decorated with ribbons, went 
in companies of sometimes a dozen, to exhibit their 
skill in dancing, accompanied by a person called 
BESSY with the besom, dressed in petticoats, and 
disguised as an old woman ; and another called the 
Fool, in grotesque costume. These two collected 
donations from the bystanders, while the others 

Kirk Yetholm has long been the abode of several 
gipsy tribes. Various opinions are entertained as 
to the origin of this race of people, who were once 
so formidable, and infested most countries of Europe 
and Asia. The exact year that the gipsies made 
their appearance is not precisely known. In Turkey 
they were seen about the beginning of the 15th 
century, and so formidable were they, that the 
Turks were glad to enter into a treaty with them, 
and admit them to the same privileges which the 


subjects of the Sultan enjoyed. They, however, 
having been so long accustomed to a vagabond 
rapacious life, and being unacquainted with the arts 
of industry, began to have recourse to their former 
mode of subsistence. For some time their outrages 
were overlooked by the Turks, for fear of another 
insurrection, but proving irreclaimable, they were 
banished the land, and a power given to every man 
to kill a Zingance or gipsy, or make him his slave, 
if found in the territory of Egypt after a limited 
time. Finding it impossible to maintain their 
liberty at home, they resolved to disperse into 
foreign countries. About 1420, they appeared in 
Germany, in various bands, under chiefs bearing 
the titles of Dukes and Earls. They travelled as 
smiths and tinkers, and others dealt in earthenware. 
Out of this country they were banished in 1500. 
In Bohemia and Hungary they assumed the charac- 
ter of pilgrims, and received passes from the princes 
through whose territories they travelled ; but their 
morals not corresponding to the sanctity of that 
character, and their numbers increasing by fresh 
swarms from the east, they were banished out of 
these kingdoms under severe penalties. They also 
appeared in Spain at an early period, but were 
banished therefrom in 1492. They were also driven 
out of France in the years 1561 and 1612. In 
England they appeared about the time they were 
banished from Spain, and to such an extent did they 


impose upon the credulity of the public by palmistry 
or fortune-telling, that an act was passed in the 
reign of Henry VIII., banishing them out of the 
country, and any Egyptians found within the realm 
after the space of a month, were to be adjudged 
felons, and every person importing such Egyptians, 
should forfeit for every offence forty pounds. But 
this severe enactment not having the desired effect, 
an amendment of the act was passed five years after 
Elizabeth ascended the throne. In 1549, a search 
was made through the county of Suffolk for " va- 
gabonds, gipsies, conspirators, players," and such 

In Scotland these people are seen about the middle 
of the 1 5th century, under the leadership of a person 
sometimes styled King, Prince, Earl, and Captain. 
In July 17th, 1492, there is an entry in the trea- 
surer's books of a payment made to Peter Ker of 
four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get 
letters subscribed to the "King of Rowmais." Two 
days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made 
at the king's command to the messenger of the 
"King of Rowmais." In 1502, the "Earl ofGrece" 
was paid 14s. at the king's command. In May, 
1529, " King Cristal's" servant was paid .20. In 
1532, the "King of Cipre" got, at the command of 
the king, dPIOO. About 1506, the tribe was under 
the government of Anthony Gawin, in whose favour 
James IV. wrote a letter under his own hand to the 


king of Denmark* In the letter Anthony is styled 
Earl of Little Egypt. After Anthony Gawin left, 
the power seems to have fallen into the hands of 
Johnnie Faa, also called Earl of Little Egypt. They 
appear as dancers and minstrels, and as such often 
performed before the court. In April, 1505, an 
entry in the treasurer's books bears that 6s. were 
paid to the Egyptians, at the king's command. In 
May, 1529, another entry shows that they danced 
before the king at Hallyrudhouse. It would appear 
also, that the queen chose her handmaidens from 
the gipsy bands. It is probable that the reason of 
the gipsies rising to such high favour with James 
IV. and his successor was on account of their skill 
in dancing and music. When the kings of that 
period travelled from one place to another in their 
kingdom, or even on a pilgrimage to the shrine of 
a saint, they were always accompanied by minstrels 
and dancers, to beguile the way. James V. granted 
special protection to Johnnie Paa, and power to 
him to administer justice upon his people, " conform 
to the laws of Egypt." Several of the tribe having 
rebelled in 1540, James V. interposed his authority 
in support of the gipsy king.-f- In May, 1540, a 

* Pinkerton's Hist, of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 444. Lond. Ed. 

t " James, be the Grace of God, King of Scottis : To our 
Sheriffs of Edinburgh, principal and within the Constabulary 
of Haddington and Berwick, Provestes, Aldermen, and 
liailliea of our burro wes and cities of Edinburgh, &c., greet- 


precept was granted in favour of John Wanne, son 
and heir of the said Johnnie Fall, to hang and 
otherwise punish all his Egyptian subjects within 
the kingdom of Scotland. In 1541, the *lords of 

ing. Forasmeikle as it is hurnblie meanit and schewin to. 
us be owre lovite Johnnie Faa, Lord and Erie of Little 
Egypt, that quhair he obtainet our Letters under our Grette 
Seele, direct to zou, all and sindry our said Sheriffs, Stewartes, 
Baillies, Provestes, Aldermen, and Baillies of burrowes, and 
to all and sindry ayris havand autorite within our realm e, 
and to assist in the execution of justice upon his company 
and folkis conforme to the laws of Egypt; and in punishing 
of all yame that rebelles against him ; neveryeless as we are 
inforniet, Sebastiane Calow, Egiptiane, of the saids John's 
company, with his complices and partakeris underwrittin, 
yat is to say, Anteane Dorea, Satona Fingo, Nova Tineo, 
Philip Hatfeyggow, Jowla Bailzow, Graf to Neyn, Geleys 
Bailzow, Bernard Beige, Demer Macskella, Nolfaw Cawlour, 
Martin Zemine, rebelles and conspires agains the said Johnnie 
Faa and has removit yame all uterly out of his company, 
and taken fra him divers soumes of money, jevelles, claiths, 
and oyrs gudis, to ye quantite of ane grete soume of money 
and on na wyss will pass hame with him ; howbeit he has 
bidden and remainet of lang time upoun yame, and is bunding 
and obest to bring hame with him all yame of his company 
yat are on live, and ane testimoneale of yame yat are deed; 
and also ye said Johnnie has the said Sebastiane's obliga- 
tioune maid in Dunfermling befor our maister housald yat 
he and his company suld remane with him, and on na wyss 
depert fra him, as the samin beiris incontrar ye tennor of ye 
quhilk, ye said Sebastaine be sinister and wrang information 
fals relatioun and circumventioun of us, hes purchest our 
writings, discharging him, and ye remanent of the personis 
above written, his complices and partakeris of the said John's 


council, on considering the complaints given in by 
Johnnie Faa and his brother, and Sebastiane Low- 
law, Egyptians, to the king, each against the others, 
were ordered to depart the kingdom within thirty 

company, and with his gudes takin be yame fra him, causus 
certane our lieges assist to yame and yair opinionis and fortify 
and take yair part agains ye said Johnnie, yair lord and 
maister, sae yat he on nae wyss can apprehend nor get yame 
to have yame hame againe within yair owin countre, after 
the tenour of his said band, to his heavy dampnage and 
skaith, and in (frete perell of tynsatt of his heretage, and expres 
agains justice. Our will is heerfor, and we charge you 
straitlie, and commans, yat incontinent yir our letters ze and 
ilk ane of zou, and within ye bouns of zour offices command & 
charge all our lieges yat nane of yame tak upoun hand to 
reset, assyst, fortify, supple, mainteine, defend, or take pairt 
with the said Sebastiane and his complices above written, for 
na buddies, nor oyr way agains the said Johnnie Faa, jair 
lord and maister, bot yat yai, and ze in likwys tak a lay 
handis upoun yame quharevir yai may be apprehended, and 
bring yame to him to be punist for yer demeretis, conforme 
to his laws, and help and fortify him to punish and do jus- 
tice upoun yame for yair tresspasses ; and to yat effect len 
to him our personis, stokis, fetteris, and all oyer things neces- 
sar yerto as ze and ilk ane of zou and all oyers our lieges 
will answer to us yerupoun and under all hieast pene and 
charge yat efter may follow ; swa yat the said Johnnie have 
na cause of complaynt heirupoun in tyme cuming, nor to re- 
sort to us agane to yat effect, notwithstanding ony our writ- 
ings sinisterly purchest or to be purchest be the said Sebas- 
tiane in the contrar. And als charge our lieges yat nane of 
yame molest, vex, enquiet, or truble ye said Johnnie Faa 
and his company in doing yair lefull bessynes or oyerwaiyes 
within our realme, and in yair passing, remanyng, or away- 


days after being charged so to do, under pain of 
death.* In 1553, Queen Mary renewed the writ 
granted in 1540 in favour of the gipsy king, and in 
the end of the same year granted a respite to 
Andrew Faa, captain of the Egyptians, George Faa, 
Kobert Faa, his sons, for the murder of Ninian 
Smaill, one of his subjects, committed within the 
town of Linton.f King James VI. thought very 
differently of the subjects of John Faa: he declared 
them to be vagabonds and thieves, and to be 
punished as felons. In ] 609 they were ordered out 
of Scotland under the description of sorcerers, vaga- 
bonds, and common thieves, commonly called Egyp- 
tians, with the penalty annexed, that if any of them 
were found within the kingdom they might be 
punished with death. In 1610, Elizabeth Warrock 
was convicted of being a follower of the gipsies or 

ganging furth of ye samin under the pane above written : and 
siclike, vat ze- command and charge all skippers, maisters, 
and merinaris of all schippes within our realme at all portes 
and havyns quhair the said Johnnie and his company sal 
happen to resort and cum to resavi him and yame yrin upoun 
yair expenses for furing of yame furth of our realme to the 
portes beyond sey ; as zou and ilk ane of yame sicklike will 
answer to us yereupoun, and under the pane forsaid. Sub- 
scrivit with our hand, and under our Privie Seele at Falk- 
land the fiveteene day of Februar, and of our reign the 28 

* Acta Dom. Con. xv. 155. 

t Reg. Sec. Sig. xxvii. 3. 


jugglers. Next year, Moyses Faa, David Faa, and 
Johnnie Faa, were indicted and accused for remain- 
ing within the kingdom contrary to the statute ex- 
pelling them from the country. At the trial, Moyses 
Faa produced a licence to her by the Privy Coun- 
cil ; but owing to the conditions under which it was 
granted not being fulfilled, the court refused to 
give it effect. They were all found guilty, and taken 
to the Burrow Moor and hanged.* In 1 61 6, Johnnie 
Faa, James Faa, his son, Moyses Bailzie, and Helen 
Brown, spouse to William Bailzie, Egyptians, were 
charged with abiding within the kingdom contrary to 
the laws. They were found guilty, and because they 
could not find caution, were ordered to be taken to 
the Burrow Moor and executed ; but the king granted 
them a respite during pleasure. In 1624, Captain 
Johnnie Faa,-}- Eobert Faa, Samuel Faa, Johnnie Faa, 

* Pitcairn, vol iii. p. 99. 

t This is the celebrated Captain John Faa, whom tradition 
says ran away with Lady Jean Hamilton, spouse of John, the 
sixth earl of Cassillis ; but, before the gipsy and his band 
could reach the Border fastnesses, the earl overtook them, and 
a battle ensued, in which he was victorious. It is said that he 
carried back his frail spouse, and afterwards confined her in 
a tower at Maybole, where eight heads carved in stone below 
one of the turrets represented eight of the luckless Egyptians. 
It is thought there is no truth in the tradition, at least in so 
far as it relates that the lady of " the grave and solemn 
Cassillis" eloped with the gipsy chief, who was hanged in 
1624. The lady was born in 1607, and at the time of the 


Andrew Faa, William Faa, Eobert Brown, and Gawin 
Trotter, were convicted for remaining in the kingdom 
contrary to the laws,andhanged on the Burrow Moor.* 
Five days after, Helen Faa, relict of Captain Faa, 
Lucretia Faa, spouse to James Brown, Elspeth Faa, 
brother's daughter of the Captain, Catherine Faa, 
relict to Edward Faa, Marionne Faa, spouse to James 
Faa, Jeanie Faa, relict of Andrew Faa, Helen Faa, 
relict of Robert Campbell, Margaret Faa, daughter of 
the deceased Edward Faa, Isabel Faa, relict of Robert 
Brown, Margaret Ballantyne, relict of Johnnie Faa, 
Elspeth Faa, daughter of the deceased Henry Faa, 
were tried and found guilty of contravening the 
same act as their unhappy relations, and were con- 
demned " to be taken to some convenient pairt and 
drowned till they be deed." This barbarous sentence 
was not put into execution, the king having granted 
a respite, on condition that they should leave the king- 

alleged elopement could not be more than fifteen years of age. 
But about that time a family of the name of Faa lived at 
Dunbar, whose progenitors, by industry in trade and com- 
merce, became wealthy and respected. It seems a member of 
this family was knighted. With this family the Faas of 
Yetholm claimed relationship. One of the Faas of Dunbar 
contested the election of the Jedburgh district of burghs, in 
1733. If an elopement really took place, as to which there 
are grave doubts, it is more likely that the offender was the 
rich, gay, and handsome Knight of Dunbar, and not a tat- 
terdemalion gipsy. 

* Ib., vol. iii. p. 559. 


dom by the following April.* In 1636, Sir Arthur 
Douglas of Quettinghame having taken some of the 
vagabond and counterfeit thieves, called Egyptian, he 
delivered them to the Sheriff of Edinburgh, within the 
constabulary of Haddington, where they remained for 
a month. The Privy Council, considering that the 
keeping of them longer within the tolbooth was a 
burden on the town of Haddington, and fostered the 
thieves in the opinion of impunity, and encouraged 
the rest of the infamous " byke " to continue in the 
thievish trade : " Thairfoir the Lords of Secret Coun- 
sell ordens the Sheriff of Haddington, or his depute, 
to pronunce doome and sentence of death aganis so 
manie counterfoot theivis as ar men, and aganis so 
manie of the weomen as wants children, OKDANING 
the men to be Hangit, and the weomen to be 
Drowned; and that suche of the weomen as has 
children to be Scourgit threw the burgh of Hadin- 
ton, and burnt in the cheeke : and ordanis and com- 
mandis the provost and bailies of Hadinton to cus 
this doome to be execute upon the saidis persons 
accordinglie." After the punishment of death in- 
flicted on Captain Faa and his gang, the records are 
silent upon the transactions of these unhappy crea- 
tures for many years. The next person that appears 
as a chief of the tribe is Alexander Faa, who was 
killed at Eomano, Peebleshire, in a fight between 

* Pitcairn's Trials, vol. iii. pp. 560, 561. 


his tribe and that of the Schawes. Of the Fawes 
there were four brothers and a brother's son ; of the 
Schawes, the Captain, with his three sons ; and seve- 
ral women on both sides. Old Faa and his wife were 
killed on the spot, and his brother George danger- 
ously wounded.* For these murders, Eobin Schawe 
and his three sons were tried, found guilty, and exe- 
cuted at the Grassmarket in 1678. In 1714, Wil- 
liam Walker, Patrick Faa, Mabel Stirling, Mary Faa, 
Jean Eoss, Elspeth Lyndsey, Joseph Wallace, John 
Fenwick, Jean Yorkstone, Mary Robertson, Janet 
Wilson, and Janet Stewart, were tried at Jedburgh, 
and found guilty of wilful fire-raising, and of being 
notorious Egyptians, thieves, vagabonds, and sor- 
cerersj when they were banished to the plantations 
in America, with the exception of Janet Stewart, who 
was scourged through Jedburgh, and afterwards stood 
a quarter of an hour with her left ear nailed to a 
post at the cross. They were conveyed from Jed- 
burgh to Glasgow in carts, with a guard, and in the 
burgh books there is a receipt for their bodies by the 
jailor of the tolbooth at Glasgow.-f- About the same 
time, three men and two women of the tribe were 
hanged at Edinburgh. In 1727, Geordie Faa, hus- 
band of the notorious Jean Gordon, was killed at a 
clan meeting at Huntlywood on Leader, by Robert 
Johnstone. Johnstone was apprehended, and lodged 

* Old Statistical Account. t Burgh Eecords. 


in Jedburgh prison. He was afterwards tried, and 
condemned to death, but, while lying under the sen- 
tence, he contrived to break the prison, and escaped. 
A traditionary tale is told of Jean Gordon, the relict 
of the murdered man, that when the murderer escaped 
out of jail, she followed him to Holland, and from 
thence to Ireland, where she had him seized and 
brought back to Jedburgh. But the tale is not true, 
for, whatever revenge she felt against the slayer of 
her husband, she had no share in his apprehension. 
Rewards having been offered by the magistrates, the 
officers of the law were on the alert, and in some 
places too active, for in York a man was seized as 
answering Johnstone's description, and lodged in jail 
till a person could be sent from Jedburgh to identify 
him. One of the magistrates accordingly went to 
York, when he found the person detained upon sus- 
picion not Johnstone. The right person was, how- 
ever, detained at Newcastle, brought to Jedburgh, 
and from thence carried to the Justiciary Court at 
Edinburgh, where the identity was established, and 
he was transmitted to Jedburgh to carry into effect 
the original sentence. He was executed on the Gal- 
lahill. In 1731, John Faa, William Faa, John Faa 
alias Faley, Christian Stewart, and Margaret Young, 
were tried at Jedburgh, and convicted of house and 
shop-breaking, and of jail-breaking. In the summer 
circuit of 1732, the celebrated Jean Gordon, com- 
monly called " Dutchess," presented a petition to the 


justiciary court sitting at Jedburgh, setting forth 
that she was indicted as an Egyptian, common vaga- 
bond, and notorious thief; that she was old and 
infirm, and had lain long in jail, and was willing to 
enact herself to leave Scotland never to return. 
" Her grace," says the reporter, " was banished accor- 
dingly, with certification to be imprisoned for twelve 
months, and scourged once a-quarter, in case of 
return."* After being liberated, Jean left Scotland, 
and wandered upon the English side of the Border. 
Being at Carlisle on a fair-day, after the rebellion of 
1745, she was seized by the mob for declaring her 
partiality to the Jacobite cause, and ducked to death 
in the river Eden. The murder was not easily accom- 
plished, as Jean was a very powerful woman; and 
whenever she got her head above water during the 
struggle with her murderers, she screamed, " Charlie 
yet ! Charlie yet /"-f- The year following Jean's sen- 
tence of banishment, John Faa, William Faa, John 
Faa, William Millar, Christian Young, and Elspeth 
Anderson, were tried at Jedburgh for theft, and, with 
the exception of Millar, received sentence of death. 

From the rigorous enactments already noticed, and 
the unrelenting severity with which they were ap- 
plied, the gipsy settlement at Yetharn is sufficiently 

* Hume, vol. i. p. 474. 

t Jean is the Meg Merrilees in "Guy Mannering:" Intro- 
duction, p. xix. et seq. 


accounted for. Being close to the Border, and in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the Cheviot fastnesses, 
rendered it a peculiarly eligible locality for the resi- 
dence of these unfortunate people. On the executors 
of the law of either kingdom attempting to enforce 
obedience to the statutes, it was easy for the gipsies 
to retire across the ideal line to the friendly side, or 
penetrate the recesses of the Cheviot mountains, in 
which they might mock the utmost efforts of their 
pursuers. In these wilds they could have no diffi- 
culty in procuring provisions from the numerous 
herds of deer and other animals with which these 
mountains then abounded. Following the range of 
the Cheviot fells, they could make incursions into 
the very heart of Northumberland, and, under cover 
of the same wilds, they might travel to the west 
seas. But although these people, from an early 
period, concealed themselves near the Borders, it 
does not appear that they had any fixed residence 
at Kirk Yetham till a late period. Tradition bears 
that the tribes became house-dwellers at this place in 
consequence of one of their number saving the life of 
Captain Bennet, proprietor of the barony of Yetham, 
at the siege of Namur. The captain, while mount- 
ing a breach, was struck to the ground, and his sup- 
porters slain, with the exception of a gipsy of the 
name of Young, who defended his officer with the 
utmost gallantry till he gained his feet, then rushed 
past him, mounted the wall, and seized the flag, 


which so encouraged the troops, that the attack was 
renewed, the breach gained, and Namur taken. In 
gratitude for this gallant act of the gipsy, it is said, 
that David Bennet built cottages at Kirk Yethain, 
and feued them out to the tribe, and from that time 
they have continued to make the place their head- 
quarters. Nisbet of Dirleton, the successor of Ben- 
net, showed particular attention to the wanderers by 
building additional cottages ; and so highly did he 
esteem them, and so certain was he of their support, 
that he named them his bodyguard. After the 
death of their patron and protector, the estate was 
purchased by the trustees of the Marquis of Tweed- 
dale, under whom they enjoy their cottages in peace. 
While such kindnesses were heaped upon the gip- 
sies by the possessors of the barony of Grubbet, 
they were not allowed to place the soles of their feet 
upon the barony of Town Yethom, belonging to 
Wauchope of Niddrie. 

The present strength of the various tribes in 
Kirk Yetholm is about 80, consisting of the Blythes, 
Ruthvens, Taits, and Douglases. The strong tribe 
of the Faas, from whom the king was selected, is 
now extinct. At the death of Will Faa, several 
years ago, the throne was seized by Charles Blythe, 
husband of Etty Faa, sister of the king. Before 
the death of the late king, the revenue of the tribes 
had decreased to such an extent, that his majesty 
was forced to lay aside the diadem, and become, for 


a time, the protector of game on several farms be- 
longing to the Marquis of Tweeddale. He was an 
excellent fisher, well acquainted with every pool and 
stream in the Beaumont, Cayle, and Colledge waters. 
By game-preserving and fishing, he contrived to 
scrape together as much as supported life, and he was 
well supplied with drink by visitors from every part 
of the country, anxious to see those people who had 
been rendered so interesting by the pen of the 
mighty magician. But times are changed ; visitors 
are few to the present king, and but for the gene- 
rosity of a noble Lord who occasionally resides in 
the neighbourhood, his majesty would often be with- 
out supplies. The king is about 85 years old, pos- 
sesses a fair share of health, but complains that 
living in houses subjects him to colds which he 
never had while he dwelt in tents. 

The chief employment of the gipsies was travel- 
ling in the summer season in promiscuous bands. 
They generally left their settlement at Kirk Yetholm 
in the end of March, and did not return till driven 
back by the storms of winter. Most of the men 
assisted in the operations of the harvest, and in the 
winter carted coals to Jedburgh. When out on the 
rout, they lay beneath their carts, or upon straw 
under wicker frames, with a cover which resisted the 
weather. During their progress through the country, 
they laid the farm-yards, corn, and potato fields, 
under contribution to a great extent. They had a 


perfect knack of thieving, and carried off every- 
thing that came in their way corn, hay, hewn 
.stones, wheels, and axletree. They may be said to 
have lived in a complete state of ignorance, " with- 
out God and without hope in the world," till the 
Rev. John Baird was inducted into the pastoral 
charge of the parish, when, through his efforts, they 
were induced to attend church and school; and he 
obtained from the Edinburgh Bible Society a grant 
of Bibles and Testaments, which enabled him to 
place a copy of the Scriptures in every gipsy dwell- 

A few of the gipsies still travel the country, deal- 
ing in earthenware, horn spoons, baskets, heather 
brooms, and mats; but the strictness with which 
they are watched by the police, prevents any exer- 
cise of their thieving talents. From the improved 
state of the district, there are few waste places for 
them to pitch their camp, and the raising of a fire 
on the roadside is certain to be visited with a fine 
and imprisonment. They cannot now remain in 
idleness, and are forced to apply themselves to some 
occupation to procure daily bread. A number of 
the men have become labourers, and, mixing with 
the population, acquire better habits, and marry out 
of their tribe. The gipsy girls, too, are beginning 
to leave their tribe, and to engage as domestic 
servants and bondagers, and occasionally marry 


farm-servants. The houses are now more comfort- 
able; instead of the stone and straw beds, stools, 
chairs, tables, and the ordinary country beds are to 
be seen in many of their dwellings. There can be 
little doubt that the original race is fast falling off, 
and that ere many years run their course, the ori- 
ental blood will have ceased to flow. The days of 
the gipsy have passed away. 

ception of a small portion of land on the south of the 
Beaumont Water, this barony lies on the north of 
the beautiful vale through which this stream flows. 
In 1495, the Earl of Bothwell got a charter of Town 
Yetham, with the patronage of the church. In 
1523, George Rutherfurd, heir-apparent of John 
Eutherfurd of Hundolee, was possessed of the ten- 
pound lands of Town Yetham. At the close of the 
16th century, Gilbert Ker of Primsideloch, Eliza- 
beth Edmonstone, his wife, and their third son, 
got a charter of the demesne lands of Town 
Yetham.* In 1585, James VI. and his parliament 
ratified an infeftment in favour of Francis, Earl of 
Bothwell, of " all and haill the landis and baronie of 
Town Yethame, with towns, pairtis, dependencies, 
pendecilis, annexis, outsettis, mylnis, tennetis, tenan- 
driis-, etc."f In 1608, John Ker of Hirsel obtained 

* Keg. Mag. Sig. t Acta Par!., vol. iii. p. 409. 


a charter of the baronies of Maxton, Linton, and 
Town Yetham.* Three years afterwards, Gilbert 
Ker of Lochtour, his eldest son, was in possession of 
Lochtour. -J- In 1624, John Ker of Lochtour suc- 
ceeded his brother Robert in the lands of Town 
Yetham.J Ten years after, the barony passed into 
the family of Buccleuch. In 1643, John Wau- 
chope of Niddrie got a charter of the tennandrie of 
Town Yetham.|| In 1662, Sir John obtained a new 
charter of all and haill the town and lands of 
Sunny side, Wideopen, Stankford, and Boghouse, 
with houses, yards, tofts, and crofts, which formerly 
belonged to Sir John Ker, and formed part of the 
barony of Lochtour, " of late called Town Yetham ;" 
also all and sundry the town and mains of the barony 
of Town Yettoun, milne and milne lands, and the 
patronage of the kirk of Town Yettoun; the lands 
of Bennetsbank ; the lands of Shirrietrees ; the lands 
of Hayhope ; half of the husbandland called the Gloss 
and Butterbrae, being a pendicile of the land of 
Hayhope, with pasturages and privileges according 
to wont, in the bounds of Town Yettoun; the 
haugh called Little Roughhaugh ; the lands of Easter 
and Wester Rysides ; four husbandlands of Baltrees ; 
which charter contained an erection of said lands, 

* Acta Parl., vol. iii. p. 409. 

t Ib. ; Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. iii. p. 538. 

J Retours, No. 123. Ib., No. 154. j| Reg. Mag. Sig. 


town, mains, and barony of Town Yettoun, Shirry- 
trees, and Little Roughhaugh into one barony, to 
be called in all time coming the barony of Lochtour, 
for the yearly payment of thirty pounds. In 1672, 
the charter was ratified by Parliament.* In 1683, 
James Wauchope, born of the marriage between his 
father and the widow of Sir John Ker of Lochtour, 
claimed the estate of Lochtour in right of his mother.^ 
The family of Wauchope is still in possession of the 
barony of Yetham. The principal messuage of the 
barony was Lochtour, built on an island in Yetholm 
Loch, connected with the land by a causeway. This 
was the Avenel Castle of the " Monastery/' described 
as occupying "a small rocky islet in a mountain 
lake or tarn, as such a piece of water is called in 
Westmoreland. The lake might be about a mile in 
circumference, surrounded by hills of considerable 
height, which, except where old trees and brushwood 
occupied the ravines that divided them from each 
other, were bare and heathy. The surprise of the 
spectator was chiefly excited by finding a piece of 
water situated in that high and mountainous region, 
and the landscape around had features which might 
rather be termed wild than either romantic or 
sublime ; yet the scene was not without its charm. 
Under the burning sun of summer, the clear azure of 
the deep unruffled lake refreshed the eye, and im- 

* Acta Parl., voL viii. pp. 106, 107. t Burke, voL ii. p. 1539. 


pressed the mind with a pleasing feeling of deep soli- 
tude. In winter, when the snow lay on the moun- 
tains around, these dazzling masses appeared to 
ascend far beyond their wonted and natural height, 
while the lake, which stretched beneath and filled 
their bosom with all its frozen waves, lay like the 
surface of a darkened mirror around the black and 
rocky islet and the walls of the grey castle with 
which it was crowned."* The fortress is now 
removed, and in its place is a comfortable house for 
the farmer of the baronial lands. Although the lake 
has been greatly lessened by drainage since the 
day Sir Walter Scott penned the above description, 
it is still an extensive and lovely sheet of water. In. 
its northern margin, a beautiful mansion has in the 
course of the present year been erected by Robert 
Oliver, owner of the estate of Lochside. 

TOWN YETHOLM, now the principal place of the 
barony, stands on the left bank of the Beaumont, 
forming the southern base of Yetholm Law. It is a 
regularly built village, containing the parish school- 
house, a ladies' school, a Free church, and a dissent- 
ing meeting-house. The village was at one time 
deemed unhealthy and liable to epidemic diseases, 
owing to an extensive morass on the east of the vil- 
lage, and which encircled Yetholm Law ; but a drain 

* " Monastery," voL ii. p. 85. 


was carried up the middle of the marsh, and the 
stagnant pool is now converted into excellent land. 
Last year, a good supply of water was brought to 
the town from a neighbouring height. There is little 
trade in the town. It has two fairs in the year, and 
what is termed a high market after each term of 
Martinmas and Whitsunday. It formerly had a 
market on the Wednesday, but it has long ceased to 
exist. It is governed by a baron baillie. 

CHERRYTEEES, the property of Adam Brack Boyd, 
occupies a very lovely situation on the east side of 
the vale, which extends from Beaumont, round 
Yetholm Law, to Primside. The house is small but 
handsome, and the grounds around are adorned with 
wood. Part of this estate seems at one time to have 
formed part of the barony of Lochtour. In 1 523, it 
was the property of George Rutherfurd, son and heir 
of John Rutherford of Hundolee. A family of Tait 
seems to have possessed part of the estate before 
1 605. At that time, William Tait is designed " of 
Cherrytrees/ 1 in a criminal libel at his instance 
against James Tait of Kelso, for the murder of his 
son on the green at Cherrytrees. The charge was, 
that the said James Tait of Kelso, with his accom- 
plices, armed with swords, steel bonnets, lances, and 
pistols, came to the green of Cherrytrees, where the 
deceased was, and slew him. The jury found the 
said James Tait to be "cleane innocent and acquit 


of airt and pairt of the said slauchter." The jury 
consisted of John Mow of that Ilk, who was chan- 
cellor; Thomas Ker of Pryoraw; Thomas Tait of 
Hoill, and John Kiddell, younger, of that Ilk, and 
the remainder of feuars. According to the practice 
of that period, the jury were taken from the neigh- 
bourhood where the panels dwelt, however distant, 
that they might be tried by their neighbours. In 
1624, it belonged to John Ker of Lochtour. In 
1 665, it was the property of William Ker. In 1 684, 
Ker, the laird of Cherrytrees, was accused, along 
with the lairds of Brodie and Grant, Craufurd of 
Ardmillan, Elliot of Stobs, and others, of conspiring 
against the succession of the Duke of York. In 1 672, 
part of it was granted to Wauchope of Niddrie. In 
the end of last century it was the property of a family 
of Murray. The estate has been greatly improved 
since the present owner came into possession. The 
small estate of THIRLESTANE is now included in the 
estate of Cherrytrees. This property appears to have 
belonged to the Kers of Lochtour; at all events, it 
was the property of Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead 
before 1661, when it was purchased by James Scott, 
brother-germau of Sir William Scott of Harden. 
One of the lairds of Thirlestane was a physician to 
Charles II., and distinguished as a chemist. The 
old mansion-house of Thirlestane stood near Loch- 
tour, in the centre of the vale where it bends 
around Yetham Law ; but it was pulled down above 


twenty years ago. One of the rooms in the house 
was called the " Warlock's room/' and is supposed 
to have been the laboratory of the learned doctor.* 
In this family was long preserved a prototype of the 
Poculum Potatorium of the Baron Bradwardine, in 
the form of a jack-boot. " Each guest was obliged 
to empty this at his departure. If the guest's name 
was Scott, the necessity was doubly imperative. "-f- 
The family is now represented by William Scott Ker 
of Sunlaws. In the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, Thirlestane was possessed by George Walker 
and George Douglas. 

King Edward was at Yetham for two days in 
1 304, on his way to England. It is said by Frois- 
sart and others, that the Scottish army, under James, 
Earl of Douglas, assembled at Yetham in 1338, be- 
fore the battle of Otterburn ; but this is a mistake, 
as that gallant army mustered in Jedforest, at Sudon 
or Southdean. The army could not have met here, 
as the whole line of forts, from Berwick to Jedburgh, 
were in the hands of the English. Douglas entered 
England by the Watling-street, and Albany by the 
Maidenway.J In 1523, the Earl of Surrey, while on 
his way to destroy Linton and Cessford, razed Loch- 
tour, near which he had lodged for the night. The 
two Yethams, with Cherrytrees, Barears, the Bogge, 

* New Statistical Account. 

t Note to chapter xi. of " Waverley," vol. i. p. 114. 

t Vol. ii. p. 238. 


Longhouse, Fowmerdon, and Hayhope were destroyed 
by Hertford in 1545. In 1745, a party of High- 
landers marched through the village of Yetholin, up 
the Beaumont Water, to receive some supplies of 
money remitted from France, and entrusted to the 
care of Charles Selby of Earl. The minister of Yet- 
holrn, in his account of the parish, states that " an 
old man, lately deceased, in Town Yetholm, distinctly 
remembered having seen these Highlanders passing 
his father's house.* 

A number of persons have borne the surname of 
Yetham. Adam of Yetham is a witness to charters 
in the reigns of William the Lion and Alexander 
II. -f- Reginald of Yetham appears about the same 
period. William of Yetham lived in 12964 William 
of Yethame was archdeacon of Teviotdale between 
1321 and 1326. 

MOLLE,|| Mow.^[ This territory owes its name 
to the Cambro-British people, and intended to de- 
scribe a mountainous tract, abounding with hills of a 
round form, Mole signifying a round or conical hill. 

The territory of Molle is bounded on the south 

* New Statistical Account. 

t Lib. de Melrose, pp. 130, 131, 239. 

J Ragman's Rolls, p. 128. 

Regist. of Glasg., pp. 228, 233. Lib. de Dryburgh, p. 275. 

i| Circa 1124-1500. Lib. de Mailros; Lib. de Calchou. 

IT Circa 1536; Criminal Trials; Reg. Mag. Sig. 


and south-west by the march line between England 
and Scotland, beginning at a place called the Black 
Hag on the east, and ending where the boundary of 
Hownam meets the English border on the south- 
west. On the east it was bounded by the parish of 
Morebattle, of which it now forms a part. The 
march line left the English border near the Black 
Hag, at a place where Northumberland slightly in- 
dents itself into Roxburghshire, and from thence to 
the source of Altonburn. The burn then formed 
the boundary till it reached the water of Beaumont, 
which it crossed, and then ran in a straight line by 
the east side of a place then called Hulaweshou* to 
the base of Hunedune,-f where it met the Hownam 
boundary, and along that line to the English border. 
The whole of the territory is mountainous. On the 
west, a ridge of hills runs from Hownman on the 
Cayle Water into Northumberland, forming the table 
land between Coquetdale and the vale of Beaumont. 
From this chain on the north, is a tract of hills 
running eastward, and dividing the vales of Cayle 
and Beaumont, and another chain of summits on 
the south wends eastward, separating the vale down 
which Colledge Water rushes from Beaumont. Be- 
tween these two chains of mountains is the vale of 
Beaumont, extending from the ridge running north 
and south eastward by Yetholm to the English bor- 

* Ellisheugh. t Hounamlaw. 


der. In the centre of this vale flows the Beaumont 
Water, dividing the territory into nearly two equal 
divisions. The mountains afford the finest pasture 
for sheep, and the valley produces excellent crops. 

This territory originally formed a part of ancient 
Northumbria, and was granted, with other lands 
and towns on the Beaumont, to Lindisfarne, during 
the seventh century. During the reign of Alexan- 
der I, it was possessed by a person of the name of 
Liulf. After his death, Uctred, his son, succeeded 
to the territory, and who, before the year 1153, 
granted to the monks of Kelso the church of Molle, 
with land lying adjacent, as bounded by him and 
Aldred the dean.* From Uctred the land passed 
to ESCHENA DE LoNDONiis called Lady Eschena 
of Molle ; but the connexion between her ladyship 
and Uctred does not clearly appear. She was mar- 
ried first to Walter, the first steward of Scotland. 
This Walter, the husband of Eschena of Molle, was 
a younger son of Alan, who was the son of Flaald, 
a Norman, who acquired the estate of Oswestrie in 
Shropshire, soon after the conquest. William, the 
brother of Walter, added the estate of Clime, in the 
same shire, to Oswestrie, by marrying the heiress, 
Isabel de Say, and John Fitzallan, by marrying the 
third sister of the third Earl of Arundel, who died in 
1196 without issue, became fourth Earl of Arundel, 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 144. 


and removed to Sussex. Both brothers espoused the 
cause of the Empress Maud, niece of David I., against 
Stephen, and after the siege of Winchester, Walter 
followed David into Scotland, and obtained from 
him large possessions in the shires of Renfrew, East 
Lothian, and Kyle.* Malcolm IV. granted to Wal- 
ter the lands of Birchinside and Leggardewdede in 
Berwickshire, and also the territory of Molle by its 
right bounds, and with all its just pertinents, to him 
and his heirs in fee and heritage, for a knight's ser- 
vice.f The charter is dated at Roxburgh, and the 
witnesses are Ernald, bishop of St. Andrew; Herbert, 
bishop of Glasgow; John, abbot of Kelso; William, 
abbot of Melrose ; Osbert, abbot of Jedburgh ; Wal- 
ter, the chancellor; William, the king's brother; 

* A number of persons of rank followed Walter to Scot- 
land, and obtained from him grants of land. Eobert de 
Mundegumeri, a younger son of Roger, the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, got from Walter the manor of Eglesham, which is still 
enjoyed by his descendant, the Earl of Eglinton. Robert 
was the first Montgomery who settled in Scotland. The 
family of WALLACE were vassals of Walter. It is said the 
Boyds owe their origin to Simon, a brother of Walter, who 
had followed him to Scotland. 

t Acta Parl., vol. i. p. 83. " Molle per rectas devisas suis 
et cum omnibus justis suis pertinentiis Tenendam et haben- 
dam sibi et heredibus suis de me et heredibus meis in feodo et 
hereditate ita libere et quiete plenarie et honorifice sicut 
aliquis comes vel baro in regno Scotie terram aliquam de me 
liberius quietus plenius et honorificentius tenet et possidet 
faciendo de predictis tends mihi et heredius meis servitium 
unius meletis." 


Richard, the constable; Gilbert of Umphrniville ; 
Waldevo, son of Earl Cospatric, and Jordan Riddell. 
Walter died in 1177,* leaving, by Eschina, a son, 
Alan, who succeeded to the estate and the office of 
Steward of Scotland, and whose lineal descendant, 
Robert the Steward, became king of Scotland in 
1371. After the death of Walter, his widow mar- 
ried Henry of Molle, by whom she had four daugh- 
ters, Margaret, Eschina, Avicia, and Cecilia. She 
died about 1200, and shortly after the De Vescis 
appear as over lords of the territory. Lady Cecilia 
married Simon Maleverer, but no information exists 
to show what became of her three sisters. During 
the lifetime of Cecilia, Sir Gilbert Avenel appears 
in possession of portions of the estate of Molle, upon 
which he had built a hall.-f- Chalmers states that 
Cecilia was married to Robert, a younger son of 
Gervase Avenel, and that Gilbert was the issue of 
that union. Morton, author of the "Monastic Annals," 
takes the same view, but both are undoubtedly mis- 
taken. The charters in favour of the monks at 
Kelso prove that Cecilia was married to Simon Mal- 
verer, and that at the period these grants were made 
by her with consent of her husband, the lands con- 
veyed are described as being bounded by the pro- 

* Chron. Mail., p. 88. " Walterius filius Alani dapifer 
regis Scottorum familiaris noster deini obiit cujus beata 
anima vivat in gloria." 

+ Lib. de Calchou, p. 29. 


perty of Gilbert Avenel. Gilbert may have been 
her nephew, but her son he could not be. At the 
death of Cicilia, about 1250, the family became ex- 
tinct, and the lands not gifted to the monks devolved 
upon the said Gilbert Avenel, but who does not 
seem long to have enjoyed them, as they were in 
the hands of Sir John Halyburton, whose daughter, 
Johanna, carried the estates to Adam of Roule, 
whom she married after the death of her first hus- 
band, Ralph Wyschard.* About the end of the 
thirteenth century, those lands were possessed by 
Alexander Molle, and, in the beginning of the next 
century, by J6hn Molle. Before 1357, the lands 

* The Halyburtons were a Berwickshire family, and derived 
their name from the town, i.e., Haly-burg-tun, signifying the 
holy fortlet and village. John Halyburton, who was the second 
son of Sir Adam, married a daughter of William de Vaus. 
Her father dying without issue, his great estates were carried 
by her into the family of Halyburton. In 1392, Sir Walter 
Halyburton, the grandson of that marriage, succeeded his 
father in the estate of Dirlton, and in the beginning of the 
next century, succeeded his cousin, Sir John Halyburton, in 
the estate of Halyburton. Sir Walter married a daughter of 
Regent Albany, and became a peer by the title of Lord 
Halyburton of Halyburton. After various transmissions, the 
estates and title came to Patrick, Lord Halyburton, who 
died in 1506, leaving three daughters, who carried the estates 
to Lord Ruthven, Lord Home, and to Ker of Faudenside. 
Patrick Halyburton was married to a daughter of Patrick, 
Lord Hailes, celebrated for his defence of Berwick Castle in 
1482, against Albany and Gloucester. The sister of Patrick's 
wife, Euphemia, married Andrew M'Dougal of Makerston. 


seem to have been in the keeping of John de Cope- 
land, probably Edward's sheriff of the county, and 
about that date all the lands and tenements in Auld- 
townburn, with their pertinents, which formerly be- 
longed to Adam of Roule, were resigned by Cope- 
land in favour of John Ker of the forest of Selkirk. 
In 1358, the same John Kerr, on the resignation of 
William of Blackdeane, of part of the lands of Mow 
and Auldtownburn, obtained a charter in favour of 
himself and Mariote his spouse, of the said lands 
and others. These lands were confirmed to him by 
Archibald, Earl of Douglas, his superior. In 1474, 
the lands of Altonburne, as part of the barony of 
Cessford, were resigned to James III. by Andrew 
Ker of Cessford, and granted by that king to Wal- 
ter Ker, his son. In 1481, the same Walter resigned 
the lands to the king, who granted them again to 
him in heritage, with remainder in succession to his 
brothers, Thomas, William, and Ralph, and the heirs 
of Andrew Ker.* In 1542, these lands were granted 
by James V. to Walter Ker of Cessford, for services 
against the English, and a sum of money paid to 
the king's treasurer. } The lands are now possessed 
by the Duke of Roxburghe. 

In 1490, Robert Mow resigned the town and 
demesne lands into the hands of James IV., who 
granted them to John Mow, the brother of Robert. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. vii. No. 286; lib. ix. No. 62. t Ib. 


In 1536, John Molle of that Ilk, "William Douglas 
of Bonne-Jedburgh, Thomas MacDougall of Mac- 
caristoune, found caution to the extent of 1000 merks 
each, to underlye the law at the next justiceaire 
of Jedburgh, for oppression and hainesucken done 
to the dean of Murray.* In May, 1541, at the 
court at Jedburgh, John Mow of that Ilk, William 
Stewart of Traquair, Walter Ker of Cessford, Robert 
Scott of Howpeslat, and Gilbert Ker of Greenhead, 
became cautioners for John Johnstone of that Ilk, 
to the extent of L.10,000.-f- In the same year, John 
Mow, and twenty-nine others, got a respite for three 
years, for art and part in the slaughter of William 
Burn, son to Robert Burn, in Primsideloch, at the 
Kirk of MOW.J In 1575, the laird of Mow fell at 
the raid of the Redswyre. In 1606, William Mow 
was served heir to his father, James Mow, in the 
lands of Mow-mains, extending to six mercat lands. || 
In 1618, John Mow was served heir to his father 
in the lands of Mow.^f] In 1631, Gilbert Mow was 
served heir to his father in the lands of Mow-mains.** 
In 1636, John Mow of that Ilk was served heir to 

* Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 176. 
t Ib., p. 230. + Ib., p. 257. 

Border Minstrelsy :- 

" Scotland has cause to mak great sturt, 
For laiming of the laird of Mow." 

|| Retours, 44. J Ib., 94. ** Ib., 145. 


John Mow of the eleven-mercat lands and twenty- 
pound lands of Mow, called Mow-town and Mow- 

About 1165, Anselm of Whitton, afterwards styled 
of Molle, appears to have been in possession of a 
part of the territory of Molle. He left two daugh- 
ters, Matildis and Isolde. The former married 
Eichard of Lincoln, and the other, Alexander, said to 
be the son of William, who was the son of Edgar, 
and between these two ladies the estate of Anselm 
was divided at his death. It is difficult to ascertain 
the portion possessed by Anselm, but so far as can 
be gathered by grants from him to the monastery of 
Kelso, it lay on the east of Ernbrandsdene, as far as 
the ford of the river ; and upwards towards Hune- 
dune; all Hulasheshou, Ladhladde, Thueles, Molle- 
hope,-f- &c. 

The monks of KELSO had at a very early period 
considerable possessions in this territory, independent 
of the land which they held in name of the church. 
Lady Eschina of Molle granted to the abbey the 
lands of Hethou, bounded, " as the water descends 
from the fountain called Bradestrother, between 
Hethou and Faveside, and as far as the rivulet 
which descends from Westerhethoudene ; along that 
rivulet as far as the passage of the upper ford of the 

* Retours, 145. t Supposed to be the present Mowhuugh. 

VOL. in. T 


same rivulet, next to Crag, and so across Hathou- 
dene, eastwards, as the crosses have been placed, and 
the ditches have been made, and the furrow has been 
drawn, and the stones have been set, as far as the 
rivulet of Easter Hethou ; and from the ford of the 
same rivulet ascending as the wood and arable land 
meet above Halreberge, and so eastward, as far as 
Grenelle, near the white stone, as far as the foresaid 
head of the fountain of Bradestrother ; with a cer- 
tain portion of laud beyond the rivulet of Hethou, 
westwards as far as Blyndwell, as the meadow and 
arable land meet, descending as far as the foresaid 
rivulet of Hethou."* This land afforded pasture 
for 400 sheep, 16 cattle, 2 work-horses, and 12 swine. 
About 1198, she also granted them "pasture for 
twenty cows and their calves, till the latter were 
grown up, and also one bull, part of a meadow which 
lay between Eddredesete and the rivulet of Ruhope, 
as far as the water of Blakepool ; and that portion 
of land which lay above the bank of the Bolbent, 
opposite Blakepool ; and the croft lying on the north 
side of the house of William the Forester, under the 
hill, and gave up every claim which she might have 
on the mill."-}- Before 1249, her daughter Cecilia, 
with the consent of her husband, gave them the toft 
and croft which belonged to William of Mollehope, 
(Mowhaugh), on the moors near to the outlet at 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 146, t Ib., p. 130. 


Whitelaw, on the English border ; and 26 acres 
of the demesne lands of Molle, which were arable, 
viz., in Hauacres, from the land of Gilbert Avenel, 
eastward, nine acres, with half-an-acre near the 
rivulet of Altouneburne ; two acres in Persouthside, 
and one acre next to the outlet which led to Per- 
south ; one acre on the west side of Benlawe ; nine 
acres and a rood in Dederig, which lay in detached 
portions between Altouneburne and the two crosses 
on the ascent to the south, and below a little hill ; 
three acres next to the lands of the monks ; one rood 
and all her share of the hill, and half-an-acre in Kydel- 
lawes croft : in Haustrother, eight acres of meadow, 
four of which lay between Hauacres and the furrow 
which separated the meadow from the meadow of 
Gilbert Avenel, and four acres of meadow below 
Persouthswire; thirteen acres of land in her demesnes, 
that is to say, her whole part of Mollestelle, which 
contained four acres and a half; and her part of the 
land which lay next the rivulet, descending from 
Brademedue, as far as the Bolbenth; half-an-acre 
called Crokecroft next the road to Persouth ; two 
acres and a half between her sheepfold next to the 
outlet towards Persouth, as you ascend; and three 
acres in the tilth next to Persouth, excepting the 
tilth of Gilbert Avenel ; and all her part of Brade- 
medue, with pasture for 300 sheep, 10 cattle, 4 
horses everywhere on the pasture of her lands ; and 
her sheepfold near Aultonburne, and free passage to 


the monks and their men. The monks were also to 
have liberty to take from the woods of Persouth 
materials necessary to make their ploughs and 
fences.* Sir Gilbert Avenel, after the death of 
Lady Cecilia, confirmed said grants ; and Eustace de 
Vesci, the over lord of Molle, at the request of Sir 
Gilbert, confirmed the monks in all their posses- 
sions.-f- These grants were also confirmed by Pope 
Innocent IV., before 1254.J In 1270, Henry of 
Halyburton confirmed all previous grants. About 
1300, Adam de Eoule and his wife Johanna, daugh ! 
ter of the said Henry Halyburton, granted the 
monks "four acres of land in the tenement of 
Molle, which lay in the upper part of Stapelaw, 
to be held so as they were not entitled to claim 
any commonty within their demesne lands of 
Molle, for which grant the monks received the 
granters into their brotherhood and participa- 
tion in their prayers, and engaged to celebrate 
one mass weekly for their souls. About 1190, 
Anselm of Molle granted to the same monks "all 
the land and meadow and wood in the territory of 
Molle, which was on the east side of Erndbrandes- 
dene namely, from the bounds of the lands of the 
monks of Mailros, by the direct path as far as Ernd- 
brandesdene, and as far as the ford of Bolbent, which 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 118, 120, 141. t Ib., p. 139. 
I Ib., pp. 351, 352. Ib. 


included all the lands and the wood and meadow 
which extended from these bounds to the eastward, 
as far the bounds of the church-lands of Molle, and 
upwards towards Hunedune; all Hulcheshou, in 
wood, plain, and pasture, except one acre of land 
which he gave to Walter the Mason.* From 
Richard, the son of the said Ansel me, they got the 
tilth of Ladladde, containing eight acres and a rood. 
Richard of Lincoln confirmed the grant, and added 
an acre of land. About 1200, Isolde, daughter of 
*Anselm, with consent of her husband, gave the 
monks an oxgang of land which lay on the east side 
near the land which Henry the Fat held of Richard 
Scott, with the pertinents thereof. In 1 25 5, Richard , 
the son of Richard of Lincoln, gave them twenty 
acres of arable land and meadow in Mollehope, which 
the canons of Jedworde held of him in ferme, and 
pasture for sixty sheep and four cows, wheresoever 
they pleased, in all his lands of Molle, except corn- 
land and meadow, for the term of ten years after 
Whitsunday, 1258, for ten merks yearly. In 1260, 
Matildis, wife of Richard of Lincoln, in her free 
widowhood, " forgave to the monks all causes and 
complaints which she had or could have against 
them, their men, and their servants/' She also 
granted the monks all the lands which they held in 
ferme from her late husband in Molle, to possess the 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 12, 123. 


same without claim or hinderance, on the condition 
that they should find her son William in victuals, 
along with the better and more worthy scholars in 
their poor's-house, as long as they retained the said 
lands in their hands.* 

The monks of MAILROS also obtained valuable 
grants in this manor. Anselm of Molle, before 1185, 
granted them his whole petary, which was between 
Mollehope, Bereop, and Herdstrete, which separated 
the lands of Molle from Hunum and his wood of Mol- 
lope, as much brushwood as one horse could carry 
to their grange of Hunedune, every year between 
Easter and the Nativity of St. Mary.f He granted 
them also the land and meadows which he and the 
nephew of Eobert Avenel perambulated. He also 
granted to them that portion of land in the territory 
of Molle which was next their land on the south of 
the hill of Hunedune, and on the east bounded by 
the road from that hill to Molle, which road lay 
between the foresaid land and the church-lands of 
Molle, as far as a fountain on the west side of the 
same road from thence along the side of Kippe- 
rnoder, as far as certain large stones of the old 
building, which stood upon a small ridge on the 
south side of the land called Cruche. Afterwards, 
the boundary descended along the same ridge to the 
south side of the same Cruche, as far as the rivulet 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 142. t Lib. de Mail., pp. 126, 127. 


between the lands of Hunum and Molle.* Before 
1218, these grants were confirmed by the over lord, 
Eustace de Vesci. In 1236, Walter, the son of 
Allan, who was the son of the first Walter the 
Stewart, granted to the same monks all the lands in 
Molle which he had in the fief of Sir William de 
Vesci, and all rights competent to him, in exchange 
for Freertun, which formerly belonged to the nuns 
of Southberwick, with 200 merks in boot. About the 
same time, Alexander II. erected the lands which 
the monks held in Molle into a free forest.-f- The 
monks also purchased Hungerigge, about 1258, from 
Adam of Hetune. About 1285, William of Sproves- 
ton gave the monks of Mailros that part of the lands 
of Altonburne which he had obtained from John de 
Vescy, his over lord.j They also had the lands of 

The monks of Paisley, about 1 157, obtained from 
the wife of Walter the Stewart a ploughgate of land 
in the west part of Blackdene, according to the boun- 
daries measured to them at her command by Eldief, 
provost (prepositus) of the town of Moll, viz., as 
the Stelnaburn falls into the Blackburn, and along 
that stream as far as two stones lying near the bank 
opposite the house of Ulf the steward, on the west ; 
as far up as a certain ditch, and two stones standing 
in that ditch ; from these stones as far as another 

* Lib. de Mail, p. 129. t Ib., p. 263. t Ib., p. 307. 


ditch heaped with stones, to another ditch also 
heaped with stones, and from thence to Heselensahe, 
which goes as" far as the ford of the torrent of 
Alembarke ; from thence to the ford of Stelanburn, 
and down that stream to the Blackburn ; four acres 
and three roods in the town of Molle, with common 
pasture belonging to one ploughgate. She also 
granted them pasture for 500 sheep.* The monks 
let their ploughgate to Robert Maleverer, for pay- 
ment of half-a-merk of silver. At Paisley, Robert 
III., in 1396, granted to the monks the lands which 
they held in this territory, as part of the regality of 

The canons of Jedburgh only held twenty acres in 
this territory, till 1255, when they were granted to 
the monks of Kelso, as above stated. 

ROBERT CROC, who followed Walter the Stewart in- 
to Scotland, and obtained from him Crocs-town, pos- 
sessed the lands of Hungerigge in Molle, which was 
granted to him by Lady Eschina, with all its perti- 
nents, liberties, and easements. The estate was given 
with his daughter Isabel in marriage to Robert Polloc, 
and about 1 300, was granted by Isabel to Simon of 
Lyndesay, with consent of her husband and advice of 
her father, for payment of ten shillings yearly to her- 
self, and " an aerie of young hawks to Lady Eschina 
and her heirs." The lands were afterwards granted by 

* Kegist. de Pass., pp. 24, 75. 


Simon of Lyndesay to Helen, his daughter, and before 
1238, the said Helen and her husband, Adam of 
Hetun, sold the same lands and a meadow called 
Holmedeto the monks of Kelso, for 10 sterling and 
10s. yearly, to Isabel, the daughter of Eobert Croc, 
and her heirs.* Simon Lyndesey seems also to have 
been owner of other lands in Molle, which he derived 
from his mother.-f- He granted to his man Patrick 
six acres of land, an acre of meadow, an acre and 
a half in toft and croft, and one acre of meadow 
below Chestres, and above Selestede Ade ; two acres, 
and a half to be held of him in fee and heritage, for 
payment to him and his heirs of one pound of 
cumin, or threepence, at the Festival of St. James.| 

* Lib. de Mailros, pp. 257, 258. 

t The surname of Lindsay is derived from the manor of 
Lindsay in Essex. Walter Lindsay and William Lindsay, 
two brothers, came into Scotland while David was Prince of 
Cumberland. William witnessed the Inquisitio Davidis in 1 1 1 6. 
He is a witness to the charter of the Prince to the monks of 
Selkirk. They seem to have been constantly about David 
after he ascended the throne, and from him received grants of 
lands in Clydesdale and in the Lothians. Between 1189 and 
1199, William Lindsay, the son of William, was Justiciary 
of Lothian. In the progress of time, branches of the family 
settled in Fifeshire and Berwickshire. A William de Lind- 
say held the lands of Earlston under the Earl of Dunbar. He 
granted land in Earlston and in Caddesley to the monks of 
Dryburgh, and he granted the patronage of the church of 
Earlston to the monks of Kelso. 

J Lib. de Mailros, pp. 131, 132. 


During the 13th century, Vedastus of Jedde- 
word was infeft in part of Swynesdene which he 
held of the monks of Melros. A person of the name 
of Simon possessed part of Blackdene. Before 1 279, 
John de Vescy granted to William of Sproveston, 
chaplain, all the land which belonged to Amicia 
de Capella, in the town of Molle, the chief messuage 
there, and with the born slaves, their followers, and 
their cattle, with pertinents and services of freemen, 
to be held by him, his heirs, and assignees, except- 
ing religious men, for payment of one suit thrice in 
the year at the head court of Sproveston. All the 
land belonging to William in Molle was erected into a 
free forest, for him and his heirs, by the same John de 
Vescy. About 1285, William granted these lands, 
half of the mill, half of the services of the lands 
held by Thomas Palmer, half of the services of 
the lands of Vedast of Jeddewood, half of the ser- 
vices of the land of Symon of Blackdene, and half 
of the services of Thomas, the son of Aucia, in 
consideration of which he asked only the prayers of 
the monks. The monks held these lands to the 
Eeformation. They are now enjoyed by the house 
of Roxburghe. 

COCKLAW, on the upper sources of the Beaumont, 
formed part of the territory of Molle. A powerful 
castle stood on this estate between two burns 
which descend from Cocklaw and Windgatehill, and 


near the houses now called Cocklaw-foot. Imme- 
diately after the battle of Homildon, in 1401, 
Henry Percy, with the Earl of March, laid siege to 
this castle, which was gallantly defended by John 
Greenlaw. At last, Percy, finding that he could not 
take this fortress, entered into an agreement with 
Greenlaw, that, if he had no rescue within three 
months, the castle was to be delivered up into the 
hands of the English. Intimation of this agreement 
being made to the Governor of Scotland, he as- 
sembled the lords in council for advice as to the 
levying of an army within the appointed time. 
Many of the council were of opinion that it was 
better to lose the castle than to hazard the lives of 
so many men as were necessary for the saving of it ; 
but the Governor declared that he weighed the loss 
of it so much that, if none of the nobles would pass 
with him to the rescue, he would go himself and 
do what in him lay to save it. But the troubles 
which at that time arose in England caused Percy to 
raise the siege of the castle.* In 1481, the castle 
was ordered to be garrisoned with twenty men, to 
support the warden of the marches.-j- Before 
1560, the estate of Cocklaw belonged to a family 
of the name of Gledstones. In 1561, John Gled- 
stone of Cocklaw was charged with the slaughter of 

* Hollingshed, vol. ii. pp. 48, 49. 
t Acta Par!., vol. ii. p. 140. 


Thomas Pebles and William Bell.* In 1569, James 
Gledstones subscribed the bond by the Border barons 
and others at Kelso, for the purpose of putting down 
the thieves of Liddesdale, Ewsdale, and Eskdale.-f- In 
1606, James Gladstones, apparent of Cocklaw, was 
fined and amerciated in 500 merks for not entering 
Thomas Turnbull, younger, of Wauchope, accused of 
fire-raising on the lands of Harwood, and stealing 
from the Lady of Appotsyde 200 cows and oxen, 30 
score of sheep, 30 horses and mares, and the whole 
plenishing of her house, worth d^lOOO, and cutting 
down the trees growing on her lands.;]; In the same 
year, Eobert, Lord Roxburghe, was served heir 
to his father, William Ker of Cessford, of the 
lands of Cocklaw, with whose descendants they 
still remain. 

COLRTJST belonged to the monks of Kelso, as ap- 
pears from their roll.|| Before 1700, it was the pro- 
perty of Scott of Mangerton, and at that period 
Elizabeth Scott was served heir to her brother, 
Francis Scott, in the lands of Colruist, "compre- 
hending the husbandlands of Adam Bell, feuar of 
Bellfoord, his twelve husbandlands of Belfoord, per- 
tinents thereof, with teinds, rectorage, and vicarage, 

* Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, voL i. p. 414. 

t Ib., voL ii. p. 512. Ib., voL iii. p. 396. 

Retours, No. 36. || Rent Roll of Abbey. 


all united to the lands and barony of Heartrig.* 
Colrust now belongs to the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, and Belford is the property of 
Sir George Douglas, as heir of his mother, Hannah 
Charlotte, only daughter and heiress of Henry Scott 
of Belford. 

The town of Molle was of old of considerable ex- 
tent, with a peel and many fair houses in and around 
it, but it has entirely disappeared. In the town 
the monks of Kelso had fourteen cottages, each of 
which rented for two shillings yearly, and six days 
work, with the common easements of the town, and 
liberty to pasture cattle wherever the laird's cattle 
grazed. They had also one malt kiln, which rented 
at half-a-merk. A few scattered onsteads, with 
here and there a shepherd's house, are all that is 
now to be seen on that important territory. The 
church of Molle stood on the summit of a rising 
ground on the right bank of the Beaumont, but it 
also has fallen before the ruins of time, and the only 
evidence of a religious house at this place is its small 
graveyard, still used by those who love to mingle 
their ashes with their forefathers. Until lately, all 
kinds of bestial had access to this sacred spot, but 
the sepulchres of the dead are now protected by a 
fence. It is painful to observe the carelessness of 
landlords and tenants in protecting the little grave- 

* Retours, No. 32p. 


yards of the district. As stated above, the son of 
Liulf gifted, in 1153, to the monks of Kelso, the 
church and the land lying adjacent thereto, namely, 
" from Houlaushau to its river, and from the river 
along Houlaueshau as far as the ford of Bolbent, 
opposite the church, and from that ford upward as 
far as Houlaueshau, and thence along the road as far 
as Hunedune, and thence as far as the head of the 
river of Houlaueshau common pasture, in the town 
of Molle, with easements/'* This grant was con- 
firmed by Herbert, bishop of Glasgow, by Malcolm 
IV., William the Lion, and Bishop Josceline. In 
1186, Lady Eschina of Molle confirmed to the monks 
the previous grants of the church lands and liberties, 
and added, for the weal of the soul of her lord 
Walter, the son of Alan, of her daughter, who was 
buried at Kelso, and of others, that the monk's 
chaplain of Molle, their men dwelling in the town of 
Molle on the lands of the church, should have com- 
mon pasture, with reasonable stock, and other pri- 
vileges, in common with her men of Molle. Henry 
of Molle, the second husband of Lady Eschina, con- 
firmed the grants made to the monks. About this 
time, a dispute arose between the monks and Henry 
of Molle and his lady, in regard to the extent of the 
rights claimed by the former in right of the church. 
It was at last agreed that the monks should have 

* Lib. de Calchou, p. 144. 


for ever, in the territory of Molle, pasture for 700 
sheep and 120 cattle, in right of the church, 
with all the privileges which the parson ought to 
have, and also that the vicar and the men of the 
abbey, dwelling on the church lands of Molle, should 
have common pasture and easement in all things 
with the men of the land of Henry of Molle him- 
self.* A like demand was made by the monks upon 
the lands of Anselm of Molle, which was settled by 
compromise. The monks gave up all claim made 
against Anselm in name of the parson of Molle, and 
he granted to them pasturage for 700 sheep and 1 00 
cattle, over his land of Molle, with liberty to pas- 
ture over the whole of that land, except on corn and 
meadow, at any time of the year, except for 15 days 
before the 24th of June and 1 st of August, during 
which time they were to use the pasture of Berehope 
only for cattle. He also gave them liberty to take 
wood for making sheep-cots, to allow both sheep 
and cattle to go at large, to give the monks room for 
their folds, with free passage through the lands of 
Molle. In consideration of the monks having given 
up the tithes of his mill, he gave up the multure, 
and granted to them the privilege of grinding at 
his mill at any time, whenever the hopper of the 
mill should be empty, unless the corn of his own 
demesne was lying to be ground. The monks of 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 135, 136. 


Kelso and Melrose disputed as to the smaller tithes 
and other rights belonging to the parish church of 
Molle, due by Melrose monks for the lands of 
Uggings. A reference being made to the Pope, he 
delegated the abbot of Paisley and the treasurer 
of Glasgow to act as the principal judges in the 
cause ; and they having appointed the sub-dean of 
Glasgow to hear parties and pronounce judgment, 
the parties appeared before the sub-dean. The monks 
of Kelso stated that they held the church of Molle for 
their own uses ; that the monks of Melrose had, after 
the fourth council of Latern, acquired lands within the 
parish, and withheld the tithes and other parochial 
rights of the church of Molle, to the injury of the 
house of Kelso : demanding that the monks of Melrose 
should pay t J 300 for the tithes which they withheld, 
and pay for the future. The sub-dean held that 
the monks of Melrose had unlawfully withheld the 
tithes and other rights claimed by the monks of 
Kelso in right of the church of Molle; that they 
should pay these tithes and rights to the monks of 
Kelso, as rectors of the church, as they had been ac- 
customed to receive them from the other parishioners 
of Molle ; and awarded 260 merks, as loss sustained 
by the monks of Kelso. In 1273, it was arranged 
before the sub-dean of Glasgow, in the presence of 
William Wyschard, archdeacon of St. Andrews, and 
chancellor of Scotland, who acted as mediator, that 
the monks of Melrose should pay yearly, for ever, 


to the monks of Kelso, thirteen chalders of good 
oatmeal, for the tithes of the lands of Molle, which 
they themselves cultivated, and for the teind sheaves 
of their men in Molle. The two houses of Kelso 
and Melrose seem to have had many differences as 
to this payment, till 1309, when a final settlement 
was agreed upon by several arbiters, in the church 
of St. James of Roxburgh.* 

The chartularies of the abbeys contain many 
notices of the woods and. forests in the territory of 
Molle. In the wood at " the Scrogges" the monks 
of Kelso got a grant of wood for making flakes for 
securing their sheep, and rods for repairing their 
ploughs. From the woods of Persouth, the monks 
were allowed to take material for their ploughs and 
for making fences. The same monks had also right 
to the wood on the east side of Erndbrandsdene. 
Not a trace of these woods is now to be seen, ex- 
cept a solitary tree, standing here and there in the 
mountain dells, and in the neighbourhood of the 
principal houses of the district. 

This territory suffered severely during the Border 
wars. In Hertford's desolating expedition in 1545, 
the towns of Mowe, Muscles, Colruist, Esheughe, 
Awtonburne, and Cowe were destroyed. 

A number of persons in the 12th, 13th, and 14th 
centuries bore the surname of Molle. 

* Lib. de Mail., pp. 391, 392. 


BOTTLE, MOEEBOTTLE.|| The ancient spelling of 
this place, which conferred a name on the parish, 
waa Merbotle, which, in the Anglo-Saxon language, 
signifies the dwelling-place at the lake. The present 
orthography of the word did not come into use till 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. The 
territory of Morebattle, under the name of Mere- 
boda, appears in the Inquisitionis Davidis in 1116.^[ 
At that early period, the church of Glasgow was 
possessed of the church and a carrucate of land in 
Merebotle. The territory seems to have been of 
limited extent, bounded by the lands of Whitton on 
the west, by Grubet, Clifton, and Primside, on the 
south and south-east, and by the barony of Linton 
on the north. Very little information exists as to 
the early history of this territory, further than an 
occasional notice in grants to the monks of Melrose, 
and in the Eegister of Glasgow. Between 1170 and 
1249, charters are witnessed by Hugh, Eoger, and 
William, designed of Merbotle.** The lands appear 
to have belonged to the family of Corbet. King 
Robert Bruce granted the lands of Marbottil to Ar- 

* Circa 1116; Kegist. Glasg., pp. 5, 7. 
t Circa 1174 ; Lib. de Mailros, p. 58 ; Kegist. Glasg., p. 23. 
J Circa 1214 ; Lib. de Mailros ; Kegist. Glasg. 
Circa 1575. || Acta Parl. ; Ketours. 

IT Kegist. of Glasgow, pp. 5, 7. 
** Lib. de Mailros, pp. 58, 152, 237. 


chibald Douglas, supposed to be the brother of the 
Good Sir James.* In 1529, James V. granted 
to Kobert Stewart and Janet Murray his wife, the 
lands of Marebottil and Middleby.-j- In the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, the lands of 
Morebattle were included in the barony of Minto, 
and possessed by Sir Walter Stewart.J The terri- 
tory afterwards became a part of the barony of 
G-rubet, and belonged to Sir William Bennet. It is 
now the property of the Marquis of Tweeddale. 

The town of Morebattle stands on an eminence 
near to the river Cayle. The houses have been 
greatly improved since the end of last century. 
When the Old Account of the parish was written, the 
houses were mostly of one storey, and covered witli 
thatch ; but they are now well built, the greater 
number two-storied and covered with slate. After 
the property came into the possession of the Marquis 
of Tweeddale, he feued out the ground on which 
the town is built for the terms of nineteen times 
nineteen years, at the rate of o sterling per acre. 
About the end of last century, 380 acres of land ad- 
joining the village were parcelled out into 26 small 
pendicles, and let to the feuars of the town. There was 
also a small common in the neighbourhood of the 
town, on which the feuars had the right of casting 

* Robertson's Index, p. 11, No. 50. 

t Eeg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxiil No. 115. JRetours, No. 73. 


turfs, which, with the consent of the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, was divided amongst them in shares 
proportioned to the amount of their rentals. It is 
now enclosed, and bears good crops of potatoes, tur- 
nips, grass, and corn, and is a great benefit to the 
rentallers. The feu-duty is trifling. The church of 
Morebattle stands on the north of the village, on the 
verge of a steep bank, the base of which being 
formed of pure sand, gradually yielded to the opera- 
tions of the river Cayle, and each flood brought 
down large masses of earth from the top of the ridge, 
so as to endanger the church and graveyard, but by 
embankments and planting, the stream is kept at a 
distance from the sand-bank.* Tradition tells of a 
prophet who foretold that the church and graveyard 
would be carried away by the stream. Unless care 
be taken to keep the stream from the bank, there 
can be little doubt that the prophecy will be fulfilled. 
The church was dedicated to St. Lawrence, and was 

* There are three parallel ridges running south and north. 
On the top these ridges have a coating of soil, while below 
they are formed of sand. The middle ridge affords a beauti- 
ful specimen of the sand-bank being converted into rock. 
In it the lines are discernible by which the quarryman of 
centuries hence will be guided in his operations on the then 
solid rock. It is instructive to watch the progress of human 
events, to trace the path of man from a state of barbarism 
to civilization ; and it is equally edifying to observe the pro- 
gress of the earth on which we tread, from one state into 
another. The bank of sand referred to, with not one particle 


confirmed to the bishops of Glasgow by successive 
popes Alexander III., Lucius III., Urban III., and 
Honorius III, before 1216 * About 1228, a perti- 
nacious controversy arose between Hugh de Potton, 
archdeacon of Glasgow, Walter, bishop of Glasgow, 
and Thomas, the rector of Morebattle, as to their 
several rights. Pope Gregory delegated the bishop 
of Dunkeld, the prior of Coldingham, and the dean 
of Lothian, to settle the dispute. The commissioners 
met in the chapel of Nesbit, and, after hearing par- 
ties, found that the church of Merebotle was a pre- 
bend in the church of Glasgow, yielding twenty 
merks ; that, for the future, the archdeacon and his 
successors should perpetually receive thirty rnerks 
annually in lieu of a mansion, but should make no 
claim against the rectory of Morebattle on any 
ground whatever, and to submit to the conscientious 
determination of the bishop.*f- A dispute having 
arisen, in 1455, between the monks of Melrose and 

larger than another, is fast being converted into a solid con- 
sistence, and which will, in after-ages, yield large blocks of 
stone. That lump of sand, which can now be crumpled 
to separate particles, will in process of time resist the 
steel-pointed tool of the labourer. Those lines, beauti- 
fully delineated on the face of the bank, are the places where 
the quarryman will insert his wedge and lever, for the raising 
of immense blocks for some stupendous undertaking of the 
yet unborn. Vide voL i. pp. 42, 43. 

* Kegist. Glasg., pp. 23, 30, 43, 50, 55, 95. 

t Ib., pp. 125, 126. 


Patrick Hume, the archdeacon of Teviotdale, regard- 
ing the tithes of Gateshaw and Cliftoncotis, was re- 
ferred to Master John of Otterburn, licentiate of 
decrees, Master Gilbert Heryng, vicar of Innerwic, 
Sir Andrew Bell, a monk of Newbottle, licentiate in 
theology, and Alexander of Casteltaris, rector of 
the church of Keth, who met at the dwelling-place 
of Mr. Nicholas of Otterburn, in the presence of 
several notaries and witnesses, and decided that the 
tithes of the towns of Gateshaw and Cliftoncotis had 
been continually raised and possessed by the monks 
of Melrose from time immemorial, and that those 
tithes ought of right to belong to them, and that 
they were legitimately secured to them by prescrip- 
tion against the archdeacon of Teviotdale, reserv- 
ing half-a-merk of silver to be annually paid in lieu 
of the whole tithes of said towns by the monks of 
Melrose to the archdeacon of Teviotdale and his suc- 
cessors for the time being, and imposed perpetual 
silence on the said archdeacon and his Successors as 
to the said tithes.* The present church was built on 
the site of the old church, in ] 757. It underwent 
considerable repairs in 1 839, and is now a comfort- 
able place of worship, capable of containing about 
500 sitters. A fountain below the churchyard 
bears the name of Laurie's Well, a corruption of 
St. Lawrence, to whom the church was dedicated. 

* Lib. de Mailros, pp. 583, 587. 


The graveyard, although situated on the top of the 
ridge, is rough and moorish. About 1812, it was 
infested by a numerous colony of rats, who, after 
feasting on the bodies of the dead, were observed 
going in great numbers to the well of the saint to 
quench their thirst. There were in early days two 
chapels in this parish, dependent on the mother 
church of Morebattle, one at Clifton on the Beau- 
mont water, and the other at Nether Whitton. In 
1 186, Pope Urban III. confirmed to Joceline, bishop 
of Glasgow, the church of Morebattle, " cum capella 
de Cliftun et capella de Whittun."* There is a 
dissenting meeting-house in Morebattle. It stood 
originally at Gateshaw, which was the first settle- 
ment of the Secession in the south of Scotland. The 
first minister was ordained in 1739, and, until a 
church was erected, the people assembled during 
winter and summer on the brae, and the minister 
preached from a tent.f About 1779, the house and 
manse were removed to Morebattle. The pious 
David Morrison was the first minister of Morebattle, 
where he spent a long and useful life. His successor, 

* Eegist. Glasg., p. 55. 

t In regard to this settlement of seceders at this place, the 
minister of Hounam, in the Old Statistical Account, re- 
marks : The people of Hounam are, " however, in general, 
piously disposed, and rational in their religious sentiments, 
which is, perhaps, somewhat the more remarkable, as Gate- 
shaw is bordering on this, where there has been from the 
beginning of the Secession a meeting-house of the wildest 


Mr. Cranstown, is at present pastor of the congrega- 
tion. The wife of Mr. Morrison introduced the double- 
handed spinning-wheel into the district ; but it was a 
long time before it came into general use, owing to 
the women of the locality being at that period chiefly 
engaged in agricultural labour, and sat down with re- 
luctance to the spinning-wheel. There is also a Free 
Church in the village, under the charge of an excel- 
lent pastor, and which is well attended. About 
twenty years ago, a new school-house was erected, 
said to be, without exception, the finest in the 
county. It is attended on an average by 100 

Owing to the proximity of this village to the 
Border, it was often destroyed by the predatory 
bands of England. In 1523, it was destroyed by the 
Marquis of Dorset, Sir William Buhner, Sir Anthony 
Darcey, and others, who carried out of Teviotdale 
about 4000 head of cattle. In 1 544, it was burnt 
by Sir Ralph Eurie, Sir Brian Laiton, and Sir George 
Bowes. Next year, it was destroyed by the Earl of 
Hertford's army. 

kind of seceders, the Antiburghers, who are zealous in dis- 
seminating their principles not supposed very favourable to 
morals and true piety. These people were formerly nume- 
rous in the parish ; they are now dwindled much away, and 
there are not twenty of all the different denominations, and 
of that number there is but one small tenant." General 
Appendix to the Old Statistical Account, voL xxi. pp. 
19, 20. 


WHITTON. The name of this ancient place is 
thought to be derived from an early proprietor of the 
name of Hwite, who conferred his name on the 
place : Hwites-tun, i. e., White's dwelling or tun. 
The family of Riddel acquired this territory from 
King David I. before 1153, with whose descendants it 
remained until the beginning of the present century. 
The monks of Mailros had considerable possessions 
in this territory, which they obtained from the vassals 
of the over-lord, Patrick Ridel. A tenant of the name 
of Bernoldebi gave to the monks Rauensfen, as 
perambulated and bounded by him and the monks. 
It consisted of twenty acres, and extended from the 
head of Harehoudene as far as the land which Wil- 
liam of Ridel gave to Matildis Corbet, his wife, and 
thence towards Whitton, and thence towards Harehou 
as far as a little thorn, and thence as far as Harcar, 
and thence by an ancient ditch to Harehoudene. 
He also gave to the monks a gift of the land from 
the top of Harehopdene, ascending westward by a 
syke ; and thence across southwards along a furrow 
which bounded the lands let to William, the parson 
of Hunum, as far as the old ditch, which was the 
boundary of the lands on the south; and thence 
downwards towards the east as far as the head of 
Harehopedene. Geoffrey, the son of Walter of Ldl- 
liescliue, gave three oxgangs of arable land, as they 
lay together above Rauensfen, next to the lands of 
Heuiside, which the monks held by the grant of 


Patrick the over-lord : also thirteen acres and half- 
a-rood at the same place. Ysabel, the wife of Wil- 
liam of Ridel, granted to the same monks an oxgang 
of land which lay between Hordlawe and Tocke- 
sheles, which oxgang had previously been granted 
by Geoffrey, the cook of Whitton, to the hospital of 
Jerusalem, afterwards purchased by Ysabel's father, 
and given to her. These grants were confirmed to 
the monks by Patrick of Ridel and his son Walter, 
by Robert de Brus and William the Lion. On 
Eustace de Vesci becoming over-lord of Whitton, 
he confirmed all the grants which had been made in 
favour of the monks before 1218. King Alexander 
II. also confirmed all the grants as defined in the 
charter of confirmation of Patrick of Ridel. In 
1454, the charter of Patrick was confirmed by James 
II. At the beginning of the present century, Over 
and Nether Whitton, with the mill thereof, were pos- 
sessed by Sir John Buchanan Riddel of that Ilk. 
They are now the property of Sir John Warrander, 
John Ord, and Christopher Douglas. The town of 
Whitton must have been of old of considerable ex- 
tent. The ruins of the fort of the town are still to 
be seen. The fort of Whitton was cast down by 
Surrey when he besieged Cessford, and both Over 
and Nether Whitton were destroyed by Hertford in 

Before 1 306, several families and individuals bore 
the surname of Whitton. 


SETS,! PEOMSET, PEIMSIDE. This territory was 
granted by Earl Henry, the son of David I., to one 
of the family of Ridel. || It is believed to have been 
the earliest possession of that family in Scotland. 
About 1180, Geoffrey Ridel granted to the monks of 
Kelso, for the weal of the soul of Earl Henry, who 
gave the town to his father, two oxgangs of land, 
with toft and croft, free from multure ; pasture for 
1000 sheep; the common easements of said town, as 
well in fuel as in other things ; a portion of meadow 
on the east of the town, with liberty of pasture 
everywhere without the meadow-land and corn-land, 
except on one ploughgate of demesne reserved for 
the pasture of his own cattle.** He granted them 
also a haugh lying near the waters of Bolbent, next 
the march of Cliftun, on the west side of the road 
from Cliftun to Primside. In 1208, on the settle- 
ment of the dispute between the monks of Kelso and 
Melrose, the former, in accordance with the judg- 

* Circa 1153 ; Lib. de Calchou, p. 294. 

t Circa 1180 ; Lib. de Mailros, pp. 134, 135. 

J Circa 1213 ; Ib., p. 154. Circa 1300 ; Ib., pp. 110, 111. 

|| Primside is thought to be the first settlement of the 
family of Riddel in Scotland, which, with Corbet and King- 
horn, are the oldest surnames in this country. The lineage 
of Riddel will be given along with the account of the barony 
of Riddel. 

** Lib. de Calchou, p. 294. 


ment of the king, conveyed to the latter two oxgangs 
of land and two acres of meadow, and pasture for 
400 sheep in Primside. This grant was confirmed 
by Geoffrey Eidel, the lord of the territory. In 
1215, Alexander II. confirmed to the monks of 
Melrose those two oxgangs, and pasture for 400 
sheep. In the beginning of the 14th century, the 
house of Kelso had, in the territory, seven acres 
of land, and common pasture for 300 dinmonts. 

There is difficulty in ascertaining the exact boun- 
daries of this estate, but it is thought to have com- 
prehended the present Primside, Primside Dykes, 
Cruickedshaws and Primside Mill. In the 15th 
century, Primside belonged to a branch of the family 
of Cessford, said to be now represented by Ker of 
Gateshaw. It belongs to the family of Benburghe. 
Primside shared the same fate as the other towns 
and villages in the district when Hertford paid his 
destructive visit in 1545. 

CEOOKEDSHAWS, the Crukehou or Croucho, of 
the charters, stands at the east end of Linton Loch. 
It has been at one time nearly surrounded by the 
waters of the loch. At this place, a high ridge or 
bar of sand runs from near the onstead, almost 
across the neck of the loch. It is not easy to 
account for the formation of this remarkable bar of 
sand ; but the probability is that it has been made 
either by the burn of Cruikedshaws bringing down 


sand and gravel from the mountains,* or by the deep 
waters of the lake drifting sand round the turns of 
the hill. The ridge of sand appears as if bent by 
the action of the waves. The turnpike road to 
Yetholm passes over the end of the ridge. 

CLIFTON, which derives its name from its situa- 
tion at the cliffs, belonged to St. Cuthbert, at the end 
of the seventh century. At the end of the 12th 
century, it belonged to Walter of Wildleshoures. 
At that early period, the monks of Melros had land 
in the territory of Clifton. Walter granted to the 
said monks land in Clifton, described as follows: 
" From the two stones projecting from the rock 
above the small rush-bed on the east side of Cruke- 
hou, close by where the lands of Prenwensete and 
the lands of Grubbheued meet together ; along that 
rush-bed and the stone lying below it; along a cer- 
tain ridge, according to the marches and bounds 
which he and Ernald, abbot of Melros, and Symon, . 
the archdeacon, perambulated, and made as far as 
the Bireburn, and thence across the Bireburn in a 

* It is hardly possible to imagine the immense quantities 
of sand which are brought down from the mountains in a storm 
of rain. Last summer, Primside Hill, which is steep and 
high, was under a crop of turnips, and, while the crop was 
yet young, a thunder-storm broke upon the locality, and 
brought down such a quantity of sand and gravel as filled 
the turnpike road at the base of the hill several feet deep, 
and lay like wreaths of snow. 


southern direction towards Molle, as far as the rock 
next the road eastwards, above the Cukoueburn 
as the Cukoueburn descends as far as the same 
great road, namely, that which leads from Roches- 
burgh to Molle; and from thence along that road as 
far as the Mereburn, which separates the land of 
Cliftun from the land of Molle ; and thence along 
the Mereburn to the boundaries of Hunum; and 
thence as the boundaries run between the land of 
Hunum and the land of Cliftun, as far as the boun- 
daries of Grubbeheued; and thence along the marches 
and boundaries which he perambulated between the 
lands of Cliftun and the land of Grubbeheued ; and 
thence above the foresaid Cruikehou, along the 
boundaries which he perambulated between the 
land of Cliftun and the land of Prenewensete ; and 
thence as far as the foresaid two stones on the rock 
above the foresaid rush-bed/'* The family of Cor- 
bet seems to have been the next proprietor of Clif- 
ton, and who also purchased, in 1241, the land which 
belonged to Roger Lardenar and his wife Matildis, 
in the territory of Cliftun. Before 1306, John of 
Sumerill had lands in Cliftun. The family of 
Rutherford was possessed of lands in Cliftun, which 
were forfeited, and granted by Robert Bruce to 
Roger Finlay. Roger Aillermere had a portion of 
the lands of Cliftun, and which were granted by 
Richard II. to William Badby. In the beginning of 

* Lib. de Mailros, pp. 107, 108. 


the 16th century, William Pringle of Torwoodlee 
obtained a charter of the lands of Clifton. In the 
17th century it was divided among four families. 
James Tweedie of Drummelyier possessed the half 
of the lands and barony; in 1615, John Pringle of 
Tofts, a descendant of the Torwoodlee family, was 
proprietor of two portions thereof; and, in 1616, 
Thomas Pott was possessed of one mercat land of 
old extent, within the under half of the barony of 
Cliftun.* The situation of the town of Clifton was 
on the right bank of the Beaumont, at a place where 
the water of Cliftun joins that river. ' A farm-house 
and a few cottages occupying the same position, are 
all that remains of the once important town of Clif- 
ton, and one of the most ancient towns of Nor- 
thumbria. It was destroyed by Hertford in 1545. 


GKUBET. The etymology of this name is doubtful 
It may be intended to describe hills on which dwarf 
shrubs grow. About the middle of the 1 2th cen- 
tury, the territory was the property of Uctred, who, 
before 1181, adopted the name of Grubbeheued as 
his surname. In 1181, the said Uctred, and Symon, 
his son and heir, granted to the monks of Melrose 
Elstaneshalche, which lay on the west side of the 
old course of the water of Cayle, near to the 

* Retours, Nos. 79, 82, 84. t Circa 1180; Lib. de Melros. 
Circa 1180, 1189 ; Lib. de Melros. Circa 1300, 


monks' lands of Whittun, on condition that they 
were to be admitted into their fraternity, and parti- 
cipate in all the privileges of the church.* The 
land contained in this grant was afterwards quit- 
claimed for ever to the monks, in presence of Jo- 
celine, the bishop of Glasgow, and the archdeacon of 
that church, Huctred and his heirs vowing by the 
holy church of St. Mary of Melrose, "that they 
should never claim anything within the boundary of 
the lands conveyed by them to the monks, but defend 
and maintain everywhere the house of Melros and 
everything belonging to it." Uctred and his heirs 
also granted to the monks right of road across the 
lands of Grubbesheued for the carriages belonging 
to the abbey passing to their grange of Hunedun 
without challenge. This family was in possession of 
the territory about the end of the 13th century. At 
this period the De Vescis were over-lords of this ter- 
ritory, and about the beginning of the 14th cen- 
tury, Robert Bruce granted the lands to Archibald 
Douglas. About 1426, Nichol Rutherford of that 
Ilk, ancestor of the Rutherfords of Hundalee, got 
a charter under the great seal of the lands of 
Grubet.-f- In 1629, Andrew, Lord Jedburgh, was 
served heir to Andrew, master of Jedburgh, one of 
the senators of the college of justice, in the lands of 
Grubet, with the mills thereof.^: In 1647, William 

* Lib. de Mailros, p. 111. t Eetours, No. 141. 

J Dougks Peerage, 588. 


Bennet was served heir to his father, Master Wil- 
liam Bennet, rector of Ancrum, in the lands and 
barony of Grubet, with the mills of Grubet.* From 
the family of Bennet, the land passed into the 
family of Nisbett of Dirlton, and it now belongs to 
the Marquis of Tweeddale. The town of Grubet 
stood upon the right bank of the river Cayle, at a 
little distance from the mill. It now consists only 
of a shepherd's cot and byre. The banks on each 
side of the Cayle valley, particularly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Grubet mill, used to be covered with 
the broom ; but this beautiful shrub, which might 
have vied with the broom of the Cowdenknowes, was 
rooted up several years ago. The "long yellow 
broom " might have been spared to adorn the steep 
braes of the lovely Cayle. Both broorn and whin 
seem to be under the ban of the agriculturist. 

WIDEOPEN, anciently written WYDEHOIPE, a 
name descriptive of its position on the peninsula 
where the Cayle enters the large valley extending 
from Cruickedshaws to Marlefield, formed a part 
of the barony of Grubet in the beginning of the 
17th century. About 1700, it was the property 
of the maternal uncle of the poet Thomson, and 
where tradition says he was born, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of which he wrote his " "Winter."-f- The 

* Ketours, No. 195. t Supra, pp. 114, 115. 



hill on which it is said the poem was written has two 
summits, and bears the name of Parnassus. Wide- 
open is again united to Grubet. 

GATESHAW, which is situated on the left bank of 
the Cayle, was of old a possession of the abbey of 
Melrose, and was, at the end of the 15th century, 
fermed by Andrew Ker of Gateshaw, who, in 1498, 
appeared in the court of the abbot, and swore on 
the holy evangels, that he should not intromit with 
the herezeld of his tenants, but that the abbot should 
have them while they happened to be vacant, with- 
out prejudice or guile.* The lands of Gateshaw 
and Cliftoncote remained with the monks till the 
Keformation. In 1510, the same Andrew Ker of 
Gateshaw was accused at the Justiceaire at Jed- 
worth, for the slaughter of John Murray of Falahill. 
Lancelot Ker, his son, and James Ker of Whiterig, 
were his sureties.-f- Lancelot succeeded his father; 
and, in 1530, along with the barons and lairds of 
the shires of Roxburgh and Berwick, submitted to 
the king's will for breaking their bonds.J In 1564, 
Richard Ker was owner of Gateshaw, and was a 
party to the contract between the Scotts and Kers. 
It would thus appear that the lineage, as given by 
Burke, of the family of Gateshaw, is not correct. 

* Lib. de Mailros, p. 125. 

t Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. G9. + Ib., p. 147. 


William Ker, the present proprietor of the estate, is 
descended from the foresaid Lancelot. Gateshaw- 
brae, on this estate, is hallowed as being the place 
where the covenanters worshipped, and where the 
first congregation of the Seceders in the south of 
Scotland formed a congregation in 1739, of whom 
Mr. Hunter was the first pastor. On the 17th Octo- 
ber, 1839, about 3000 people assembled here to 
celebrate the centenary of the event, and the devo- 
tional exercises were sustained by dissenting minis- 
ters from the neighbouring towns and villages. 
"Nothing could be finer," says a writer who was 
present, " than when from the vast multitude there 
arose the song, the loud acclaim of praise, with a 
volume and majesty worthy of an occasion which 
had taken for itself that 

Temple not made with hands, 
The vaulted firmament. 

It seemed to take the soul of that waste place with 


COKBET HOUSE, named after its early proprietor, 
Corbet, now belongs to Mr. Ker of Gateshaw.* It 
was repaired and renewed about the beginning of 
the century by Sir Charles Ker, the predecessor of 
the present owner of the estate. In 1522, it was 

* Corbet is one of the oldest surnames in Scotland. Supra, 
p. 142. 


burnt by the English, who ravaged the banks of 
Cayle and Beaumont, in retaliation of an inroad 
into Northumberland by Lancelot Ker. It was 
again destroyed by Hertford in 1545. It is named 
the " tower of Gateshaugh," in the list of places de- 
stroyed, and the present Gateshaw is called " New 
Gateshaugh." The tower seems to have been the 
principal mansion of the estate. 

OTTEEBTJKN, anciently Otirburn, appears in the be- 
ginning of the 15th century. Nicholas of Otirburn 
was a master of arts, a licentiate in degrees, a canon of 
the church of Glasgow, and vicar of St. Giles, Edin- 
burgh. John of Otirburn appears about the same time. 
It was at the end of last century the property of Gil- 
bert Elliot, and it is now the property of James Wilson. 

The lands of TOFTS and COWBOG belonged to Wil- 
liam Bennet, rector of Ancrum, in 1647, and then 
formed a part of the barony of Grubet. The small 
property of Heavyside has retained its name from 
the 12th century, without almost any corruption. 
It conferred a surname on William of Heuside in 
the 13th century. In the end of the last century it 
belonged to Andrew Henderson. It is now the 
property of Christopher Douglas. 

LOCHSIDE and FOUMEKDEAN were the property of 
Andrew Ker of Hoselaw, and now belongs to Robert 


Oliver, whose beautiful mansion stands on the north 
margin of Primsideloch. 

HOWNAM. The name of this territory is said by 
Chalmers to be an abbreviation of Howen-ham, and 
derived from a person named Howen or Owen, who 
settled here. || During the second century, Howen, 
the son of Ruth, witnessed a charter of Richard de 
Morville, the constable of Scotland, who died in 
1189. But may the name not be derived from 
Koger de Ow, a follower of Earl Henry, the heir- 
apparent of David I., and who had large estates in 
Berwickshire ? He may have first settled here, and 
conferred his name on the place. It is probable, 
however, that the true etymology may be found to 
be Hodham, signifying the upper village or town. 
The territory first appears in the possession of a 
person of the name of Orm,^[ before 1164, and who 

* A.D. 1165, 1250; Regist. Glasg. ; Lib. de Mailros. 

t Ib. J 1600 ; Lib. de Mailros. 

1650; Retours. || Caledonia, vol. ii. p. 165. 

IT The family of Orm is supposed to have come from North- 
umberland, in the days of David I. Orm, the son of Eilar, is 
a witness to a charter of Malcolm IV., before 1160, granting 
to the church of Glasgow the church of old Rokesburg and 
the chapel of the castle. He is said to have settled at Orm- 
ston, on the Teviot, from whom the pkce derived its name. 
Orm, the son of Hugh, acquired lands in the shires of Forfar 
and Fife during the reign of Malcolm IV., and from William 


was succeeded by Ms son John.* In 1199, William, 
called De Laundeles, a son of John of Hunum, was 
in possession of the lands. About the same time, 
William built a chapel at Easawe in honour of St. 
Mary, and gifted the lands of Easawe, in pure and 
perpetual alms, to the monks of Melrose, on condition 
of their maintaining a chaplain to celebrate masses 
at the chapel. -f- This grant seems to have compre- 
hended the territory from the Capehopeburn on the 
east, up to theiditch between Eaweshawe and Cuth- 
bertshope, and thence by the march between him 
and Eichard de Uinphravill,J to the Eoman way on 
the west, and along that road to the boundary of the 
lands of Chatthou, and thence by the Chatthou 
march to the Capehopeburn. This district, attached 

the Lion he obtained the manor of Abernethy, in Strathern, 
after which he assumed the surname of Abernethy. At the 
death of Alexander, Lord Abernethy, in the reign of Robert 
I., without male issue, his three daughters carried his estate 
and blood into the families of Stewart, Lindsay, and Lesley. 

* This John is thought to have been the possessor of Over 
Crailling, now called Crailing Hall, on the Oxnam. He was 
one of the sheriffs of Roxburghshire. He is the second 
sheriff that can be traced at that period. 

t Lib. de Mailros, p. 122. 

J Gilbert de Umphraville granted to the monks of Kelso 
the tenth of his foals of his breeding mares in the forest of 
Cottonshope, which lay within the English border, opposite 
to the grant of William of Hunum ; and these foals he allowed 
to follow their dams till they were two years old. Lib. de 


to the chapel at Rasawe, appears to have included 
all the land lying between the Capehopeburn, Chat- 
thou, and the English border. The grant was con- 
firmed by William the Lion. After some time, 
William repented of his liberal gift to the monks, 
and endeavoured to regain forcible possession of the 
territory, but the commissioners of Pope Innocent 
decided that he should enjoy only a lifer ent of the 
lands, on the condition of their becoming the pro- 
perty of the monks at his death.* In 1225, William 
resigned the territory to the monks, and which was 
next year confirmed by Alexander II.-}- In 1237, 
the canons of Jedburgh agreed to find a chaplain to 
celebrate the masses for the souls of William, his 
wife, Donancia de Clerefei, and all the faithful dead, 
at Rasawe, as appointed by the bishop of Glasgow, 
instead of at the house of Melrose. John de Laun- 
deles, who lived about 1245, confirmed the grant 
made by his father, or uncle, William, to the monks, 
and granted free passage to them between their 
grange at Hunedune and Rasawe. The monks of 
Melrose obtained a grant of lands on the east part 
of the territory of Hunum. Between 1164 and 
1174, John, the son of Orm, granted to them certain 
lands which lay between his lands and the lands of 
Whitton, the lands of Grubet, the lands of Clifton, 
and the lands of Molle, as the boundaries were fixed 

* Lib. de Calchou, pp. 124, 125. 1 Ib., p. 246. 


in presence of Bishop Ingleram and many good men, 
namely, " as far as the place where a small rivulet 
falls into Huneduneburn on the east side of Hul- 
killes, and thence upwards by this rivulet as far as 
its source, and thence westward to a little hill, and 
thence across the ridge between Brunecnol and 
Helle, and thence descending by the marches he 
made for them into Hawfurlungdene, and thence as 
the burn descends from Hawfurlungdene into Kalne."* 
This grant seems now to be represented by the farms 
called the Granges. The gift was confirmed by 
William the Lion and the granter's son William. 
Before 1227, the same William gave them the whole 
of that land called Brunocnollflat. John de Laun- 
deles confirmed to the monks all the lands which 
they had in the territory of Hunum.-f- All these 
subjects remained with the monks till the Reforma- 
tion. In 1471, James Rutherfurd of that Ilk got a 
charter, under the great seal, of the lands and barony 
of Hownam. In 1605, the Stewarts of Traquair 
were proprietors of half of the lands and barony of 
Hownam, comprehending the lands of Philogar and 
Cunzearton.^; In 1650, the Earl of Roxburghe was 
retoured in the lands of Rasawe, which had formerly 
belonged to the monks of Melrose. The Duke of 
Roxburghe is proprietor of nearly a third of the 

* Lib. de Melros, pp. 121, 122. t Ib., pp. 244, 667. 
J Eetours, No. 30. 


whole parish of Hownam. The church of Hownam 
is situated within a bend of the Cayle river, near to 
the place where Capehopeburn flows into it. It is 
said to have been originally in the form of a cross, 
but it is now a rectangular building, 50 feet in 
length, by 19 in breadth, 10 feet having been taken 
off its length in 1752.* It affords accommodation 
for 226 persons. The manse was built in 1776, 
and repaired and improved in 1832. The church 
belonged to William of Hunum before 1185. In 
1220, it was in the possession of the monks of Jed- 
burgh. At that time it was agreed between the 
monks and the bishop of Glasgow, that the whole 
tithes of corn within the parish should belong to the 
canons, the vicar receiving ten pounds annually, or 
the altarages, in his option, on his giving annually, 
at the feast of St. James, a stone of wax to the 
monastery of Jedburgh.'h At this settlement, the 
convent reserved right to an acre of land, in some 
suitable place, on which to stack their corn.J In 
1227, the monks of Melrose compounded with the 
canons of Jedburgh for the tithes of Kasawe, by a 
payment of 20s. annually to the church of Hunam. 
For the grange of Hunedun, the monks of Melrose 
paid forty pence in accordance with an agreement 
between them and William the parson, in 1185. 

* New Statistical Account. t Kegist. of Glasg., p. 96. 
I " Ad reponendum bladum suum in loco competente." 


But the monks of Mel rose having disputed with the 
canons of Jedburgh as to their rights to the church 
of Hunum, and which they gave up on the canons 
agreeing to allow the lands of Hundune and Rasawe 
to go tithe free.* In 1567, the stipend of the reader 
of Hownam was 16, with the kirk lands. When 
parliament ratified the dissolution of Jedburgh and 
" Cannanbie " in favour of the Earl of Home, in 1621, 
it was enacted that the minister serving the cure of 
Hownam for the time should have for his susten- 
tation three chalders victual, half bear and half oat- 
meal with the whole vicarage, manse, and glebe of 
the kirk.^ In 1606, the patronage of the church of 
Hounam was in the hands of the Earl of Morton. 
In 1656, the advowson of the church was in the 
hands of the family of Rutherfurd. The patronage 
is now in the family of Warrender. The old town of 
Hounam stood a little way east from the Kirk Town, 
on the same bank of the river. The town of How- 
nam Kirk is situated near to the church between the 
Cayle and the Capehopeburn, consisting of a few 
modern houses, well built and cleanly kept. On the 
banks of the Capehope there are the ruins of a con- 
siderable number of houses, with the foundations of 
a mill. Here, it is said, the far-famed Rob the 
Ranter lived.| At Mainside, in the same locality, 

* Lib. de Melros, p. 242. t Acta Parl., vol. iv. p. 638. 
.t VoL i., Addenda, The ancient name of this place was 
Cuithenop. Lib. de Melros, p. 122. 


there were of old nine cottages, but which were 
thrown down to make way for a farm-house and its 
offices. In 1544, the town was destroyed by Kobert 
Collingwood, who also burned the towns of Sharplaw, 
Hownam, Heavyside, Hownam Grange, and other 
places. The town also suffered on the incursions of 
Eurie and Hertford. In 1545, Over Hownam, 
Nether Hownam, and Hownam Kirk, were burnt 
and cast down by Hertford. In 1684, John Ker of 
Hownam was executed at the Grassmarket, Edin- 
burgh, for his share in the rebellion of Bothwell.* 
On a hill above the town there are traces of a camp or 
fortified place, called " the Kings." The steep sides 
of this hill, towards the north and west, are defended 
by several terraces or rings, and on the summit are 
the foundations of a number of circular huts. On 
the south the ground is level. It seems to have 
been intended as a defence against an attack from 
the north. This is the locality of the stones called 
" the Eleven Shearers." Tradition bears that these 
stones were eleven persons who had gone to that 
place on the Sabbath-day for the purpose of shearing 
corn, and while so engaged were turned into stone. 
No doubt the punishment of the eleven shearers was 
a pious invention of some good priest, to deter the 
rude inhabitants of that day from breaking the 
Sabbath. The clergy of that day were good and 

* Crookshank's Hist., vol. ii. p. 208. 


able, and knew well how to deal with the wild 
people amongst whom they laboured. But there 
must have been more persons engaged in shearing 
than eleven, for, on examining the locality carefully, 
I found that these stones, which are now broken, had 
only formed a part of a large circle, communicating 
with the summit of the hill. The view from this 
place is extensive and beautiful, and will repay a 
visit to it in July or August ; and here, as well 
as "on every cairn-crowned" summit amidst the 
Cheviots, the violet abounds. 

CHATTHOU, which derives its name from the 
mossy nature of the hill at which it is situated, 
seems to have been a separate estate at an early 
period, and to have conferred a surname upon 
several persons. Adam and John de Chatthou wit- 
nessed charters during the reign of William the 
Lion. Alexander de Chatthou was a witness to a 
charter in the reign of Alexander III. The same 
Alexander de Chatthou claimed, in 1226, portions of 
land lying within the boundaries of Rasawe, granted 
by William of Hunum to the monks of Kelso ; but 
renounced the claim on being satisfied that it was 
unfounded. In 1296, Adam de Chatthou swore 
fealty to Edward I* John de Chatthou got certain 
lands in Roxburghshire from King Robert Bruce, in 

* Bagman's Eoll, p. 127. 


1322, which had been forfeited by the previous 
owner. The family of Chatthou seems to have pos- 
sessed the property till the loth century. In 1424, 
John Rutherford, second son of Richard Rutherford 
of that Ilk, progenitor of the family of Hunthill, got 
a grant of the lands of Chatthou, from Archibald, 
Earl of Douglas. Over Chatthou passed into the 
family of Ker about the end of the 16th century, 
and at the death of Christian Ker, Lady Chatthou, 
it became the property of the Synlaws family, who 
added the name of Ker to Scot. Nether Chatthou 
was at the beginning of this century the property of 
the Duke of Roxburghe. It now belongs to James 

PHILOGAR was at one time famed for its woods, 
but which were cut down many years ago. It was 
the property of the family of Rutherford, and is now 
enjoyed by Stavert of Hoscoat. Chatthou and 
Philogar were long famed for the produce of their 
dairies, which gave rise to the old proverbial dis- 
tich : 

" There's as good cheese at Chatto as e'er was chewed wi' 


There's as gude butter at Philogar as e'er was weigh'd 
wi' weights." 

Owing to the farmers, generally, having given up 
the practice of milking the ewes, it is difficult to 
obtain cheese made from ewe 


BEIEOPE, an ancient possession of Anselm of Whit- 
ton, afterwards of Molle. Anselm gave to the monks 
of Kelso a right of petary and pasturage for cattle, 
at certain seasons of the year, in Beirope. It seems 
to have conferred a surname on a family. In 1606, 
Robert Beirhope was accused of going to Littledene, 
belonging to Sir John Ker of Hirsel, and breaking 
up the byre doors, and stealing sixteen cows and 
oxen, with six horses and mares, and other goods. 
He was acquitted. The jury who tried him were 
John Mow of that Ilk, James Halyburton of Mer- 
town, James Ker of Steelstockbraes, John Eobson 
of Burvanes, and Patrick Dickson of Belchester, and 
others of little note.* 

The BUEVANES belonged to John Robson, and 
stood on the right bank of the river Cayle, a little 
below Heavyside mill. 

BUCHTRIG, now belonging to James Wilson, seems 
to have been included in the district attached to the 
little chapel of St. Mary's. Near to the onstead is a 
Mil called " the Moat," but I cannot ascertain the 
reason for its being called by that name. The hill 
does not appear to have been fortified. A road of 
sufficient breadth for a cart winds to the summit, 
with here and there stones placed so as to prevent a 

* Pitcaira's Criminal Trials, vol. ii. p. 515. 


vehicle going over the steep sides of the hill. My 
impression is that the top of the hill has been 
used as a quarry at some distant day. At the base 
of the hill, on the east, the foundations of houses can 
be distinctly traced. It may have been the locality of 
the little chapel of St. Mary. A high hill to the south 
of the Moat is called " Standard/' evidently a corrup- 
tion of Stane-axd, signifying " the Stone mountain." 

OVER WHITTON, the ancient possession of Riddell, 
now belongs to John Ord, and Chestres to Christo- 
pher Douglas. 

A yearly fair was formerly held at Capehope, and 
which was well attended, but it has long ceased to 
exist. A Border tryst is still held at Penny Muir, 
on the 31st July and 15th day of October, for the 
sale of lambs and draft ewes. 

During the months of October and November, 
great numbers of salmon and sea trout ascend 
the Cayle for the purpose of spawning. The parr, 
which used to be very plentiful, is now extinct;* 
but the river contains a fine red delicious trout, 
some of large size, and in great numbers. A 
little to the westward of Hounam Kirk, the 
stream throws itself over a rock several feet 
high, forming a beautiful cascade called "the 

* la not this fact against the theory that the parr is the 
young of the salmon ? 


Salmon Leap." All the streams of this territory 
abound in trout. 

The district was at one time richly wooded,* but 
only a few old trees are now to be seen at Capehope, 
and in the neighbourhood of the church. The ex- 
tensive forests of hazel which once adorned the 
margins of the river may yet be traced on Chatto 
crags and other places ; but the forests of oak, birch, 
and alder have been entirely cut up. The woods of 
Philogar have been cut within the last thirty years. 
It is gratifying, however, to notice that the present 
owners of the land are turning their attention to 
planting. On the estate of Chester House, there are 
17 acres of plantations arrived at a considerable 
height. On the property of the Duke of Roxburghe 
about 21 acres have been planted, and Mr. Dickson 
has planted five acres of ornamental wood on his 

tory derives its name from a ford on the river 

* Cayle derived its name from the woody coverts through 
which it flowed, when the Gaelic language was spoken on the 

t Circa 1165 ; Lib. de Melros, p. 80. 

I During the 13th century ; Kegist. Glasg., p. 99 ; Lib. de 
Melros, p. 225. In the settlement between the bishop of 
Glasgow and the abbot of Jedburgh, the name is, by an error 
of the scribe, written Heckford. 


Teviot, near to where the church is situated : Oak- 
ford. In the common dialect of the district, the 
Oak is still pronounced Aik or He. A road from 
Melrose, by Eckford, to the granges on the Cheviots, 
existed at a very early period. The oak must have 
flourished on the margins of the Teviot in ancient 
times, as trunks of oak trees of great size are 
occasionally, at the present day, exposed by a change 
of the channel of the river. The names of many 
places in the neighbourhood, evince that woods 
once covered the ground where not a trace of forest 
trees is now to be found. 

The territory of Eckford seems anciently to have 
comprehended all the land lying between the Cayle 
and the Teviot, and the manors of Morebattle, 
Whitton and the two Craillings. It is doubtful 
whether any of the lands lying on the right bank of 
the Cayle were included in the old manor. The 
first family seen in connection with the manor is 
that of GEOFFREY. In 1250, Geoffrey of Ekkeford 
was possessed of land in the town and territory of 
Home. In 1296, Richard, the son of the said 
Geoffrey, took the oath of fealty to Edward I* 
The family of Mowbray, who came to Scotland in 
the reign of William the Lion, appears as owner of 
the whole territory, but who lost Cessford about 

* Ragman's Rolls, p. 142. 
VOL. Ill, Y 


1316, and Eckford in 1322, in consequence of Roger 
de Mowbray being concerned with William de Sulis 
and Lady Strathearn in a conspiracy against Robert 
I. On the forfeiture of Mowbray, Robert I. granted 
the manor of Ecford to Walter, steward of Scotland, 
the husband of Marjory Bruce ; the demesne lands 
of Cessworth were granted to Edmond Marshall, and 
to William de St. Clair he gave the remainder of 
the lands of Cesseworthe and the miln. Robert II., 
before 1390, conferred the barony of Eckford on 
Walter Scott of Kirkurd. In 1463, James III. 
granted to David Scott, son of Walter Scott of 
Kirkurd, a charter, erecting into a free barony the 
lands, of Branxholm, Langtown, Lempitlaw, Elrig, 
Rankellburn, Ekfurd, and Whitchester, to be called 
the barony of Branxholm,* which charter was con- 
firmed by James V. in 1528. In this charter were 
included the lands of Grahamslaw. The barony still 
belongs to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

The principal messuage of the barony was Moss 
House or Moss Tower, so named from its situation 
in the midst of an extensive morass, and accessible 
only at one point by a causeway. In 1523, it was 
cast down by the English warden, Lord Dacre. In 
1544, Sir Bryan Layton, Henry Eurie, Robert Col- 
lingwood, and others, attacked the tower, and, accord- 
ing to Eurie's report, won the " barnkyn and gate, 

* Eeg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxii. No. 205. 


many naggs and nolt, and smoked very sore the 
towre, and took 30 prisoners, and so brought away 
80 horses and naggs, ] 80 or 200 nolt, 400 sheep, 
and moche insight geare." The same party also 
ranged the woods of Woodin and the country 
around. In 1545, it was destroyed by Hertford. In 
1570, it was burned by the Earl of Sussex. The 
ruins of the tower existed about the end of last cen- 
tury, but were taken down to afford access to mate- 
rials for the erection of a new farm-house upon 
part of its site. 

The town of Eckford seems to have been of some 
consequence during the Border wars. In all the 
English inroads, it shared the fate of other towns and 
villages which lay in the way of the destroying army.* 

The church of Eckford stands on the right bank of 
the Teviot, in the midst of fine scenery, and command- 
ing an extensive view of the vale of Teviot. It was 
built in 1662, completely repaired and new-seated in 
1 775. A few years ago, it again underwent a thorough 
repair, and is now capable of accommodating about 
300 persons. At the east door of the church is still 
to be seen an iron collar, or Jug, suspended from 
the wall, and in which offenders were in former 

* In the Statistical Account, it is stated that there 
formerly existed a tower at the village of Eckford, but there 
is no good reason for believing that there ever was any other 
tower than the Moss Tower, which was really the tower 
of the town. 


days punished.* The church of Eckford was the 
property of the Jedburgh monks about the begin- 
ning of the 13th century, and with whom it re- 
mained till the Reformation. In 1621, parliament 
enacted that the minister serving the cure at Eck- 
ford should receive five chalders of victual, half beer, 
half oatmeal, with the hail vicarage, manse, and 
glebe of said kirk.-f- At the present time, the sti- 
pend amounts to fifteen chalders, half oatmeal and 
half barley, with ^8, 6s. 8d. of communion expenses, 
forty-two pounds of cheese from the tenant of Cess- 
ford as vicarage tithes, with a servitude of turf on 
Woodinhill moor.^: The manse was built in 1775, 
and has been repeatedly improved since that time. 
Eckford Brae, near to the manse, was in former 
times notable for tent-preaching. The writer of the 
New Statistical Account of the parish says that, 
" thither, at particular seasons, immense multitudes 
from the surrounding country were wont to resort. 
Here Boston and other eminent divines used to dis- 
pense to the people the bread of life." 

The Moss Tower farm on this barony is cele- 
brated as being the place where a superior kind of 
oats, called Church's oats, were first raised. It is 
said that the farmer, James Church, in the year 

* It is said that the old bell of Eckford church was carried 
away in one of the English inroads, and placed in Carham 
belfry, where it remains to this day. 

t Acta Parl., vol. iv. p. 638. J New Statistical Account, 


1776, got from a gentleman in Galloway about 60 
grains of oats which were procured from abroad. 
These grains Mr. Church sowed by way of dropping 
in a common field of a blackish mossy soil. The 
return was fifty-fold. Next year, they were sown in 
a common field of a gravelly light soil. They were 
afterwards sown on different parts of the farm, and 
always produced a great crop. They were plump and 
short, but thick, weighed about 28 stones 6 Ibs. per 
Teviotdale boll, and yielded a greater quantity of 
meal than other oats. They were ready about a 
fortnight before the Blainslee or Dutch oats. The 
name of the farmer was conferred on the oats. A 
descendant of Mr. Church still occupies the farm, 
and these oats are still grown on the fields where 
they were first planted.* The lands are now in a 
high state of cultivation. 

GEAEMSLAW, part of the barony of Eckford, lies 
on the right bank of the Cayle river. The etymo- 
logy of the name is doubtful. Some suppose that 
the name is derived from an early settler on the 

* The black or small bearded grey oat was the only kind 
grown in the district till after the invasion of Cromwell, when 
it was displaced by the introduction of the white oat by an 
officer of the Commonwealth, named Blith. Natural History 
of the Eastern Borders, p. 219. Of this oat there are now 
many varieties. " Unlike," says Mr. Stark (in his Essay on 
the Supposed Progress of Human Society from Savage to Ci- 
vilized Life) "many other plants, with a circumscribed geogra- 


banks of the Cayle of the name of Ora, who had a ham 
or dwelling at the law, while others think that the 
name is purely Saxon, and descriptive of the nature 
of the locality at the time the name was conferred ; 
Grame, or Graeme, signifying " the savage or wild 
law." It may, however, have obtained the name 
from its situation at the deep cut or ditch through 
which the Cayle rushes. But it is thought the true 
etymology may be found in the Gaelic Grim, which 
means war, battle. Grimslaw would thus signify 
the battle law; and there are many reasons for be- 
lieving that this place has been the theatre of deadly 
strife in ancient times. In this locality, tumuli 
abound everywhere. There are a number of caves 
in the red sandstone banks of the river, in one of 
which the Douglas league was signed, and where 
also the Covenanters found refuge. On the same 
bank of the Cayle, near to where it mixes its waters 
with the Teviot, stood a Spittal, or hospital for 
lepers. Graemslaw was spoiled by Surrey in 1523, 
and by Hertford in 1545. 

phical range, wheats, barley, oats, and rye are found in almost 
every place where there are tribes of men. And it is, 
further, a curious and unaccountable circumstance, except in 
one view, that these grains are never found in a wild state 
available to any extent for the purposes of man. Their con- 
tinuance depends upon their cultivation. Everywhere they 
are found to die out if left to the spontaneous care of nature." 
Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, xv. 1, p. 204. 


On the left bank of the Cayle, opposite to Graerns- 
law, is HAUGHEAD, anciently included in the terri- 
tory of Eckford. In the 17th century, it belonged 
to Robert Hall, commonly called Hobbie Hall, a 
person remarkable for his piety and bodily strength. 
The mansion-house of the covenanting laird is still 
in existence, and an ash-tree near the house is pointed 
out as being the tree beneath whose shade tradition 
says his children were baptized. His son, Henry 
Hall, followed in the footsteps of his father, and 
afforded all the protection in his power to those 
who were persecuted for conscience sake. Like his 
father, he was of undaunted courage, and deeply 
imbued with religious zeal. He commanded the 
covenanting army at the skirmish of Drum clog and 
the battle of Bothwell Bridge, and was greatly dis- 
tinguished for bravery and skill. His banner at 
both these places is still preserved, and described as 
being of blue silk, four and a half feet long by three 
and a half broad, with an inscription on it of three 
lines the first, in the Hebrew character, " JEHOVAH- 
NISSI," Exodus xvii. 15; the second, "FOR CHRIST 


battle of Bothwell Bridge he escaped to Holland, 
but ere long returned, and shortly afterwards was 
discovered, in company with Mr. Cargill, by the 

* Transactions of the Antiquarian Society, Edinburgh, 1859. 


governor of Blackness. Hall struggled with the 
governor till Mr. Cargill escaped, and he also would 
have got away, but for a blow on the head with the 
doghead of a carbine, causing a mortal wound. The 
townsmen turned out in a body and conveyed him 
out of the town, and being unable to walk, he was 
carried to the house of Eobert Punton, whence he 
was taken by Dalziel and his guards. Although 
Hall was dying, Dalziel insisted upon taking him to 
Edinburgh, but he breathed his last before reaching 
that city. For three days his corpse lay in the 
Canongate Tolbooth, and it was with great difficulty 
that his friends obtained permission to bury him in 
the night. Four years afterwards, the said Henry 
Hall, deceased, John Menzies of Hanginshaw, Henry 
Boswell of Dunsytown, Robert Steel, portioner of 
Stain, John Mack, portioner of Hensilwood, were 
indicted in absence and found guilty, and forfeited, 
and were all, with the exception of Henry Hall, 
ordered to be executed when apprehended. This 
practice of hanging and trying afterwards, was not 
peculiar to this district, but was extensively followed 
in other parts of the country. It was usual in cases 
of high treason, where the party accused was dead, 
to place the corpse at the bar before an assize, lead 
evidence, obtain a verdict, and pronounce sentence, 
in the same way as if the person had been alive. 
The dead bodies of the Earl of Gowrie and Alexan- 
der Ruthven were produced at their trial, and sen- 


tence was pronounced against the corpses. In the 
case of Logan of Eestalrig, his bones, which had 
been buried for many years, were dug up and pro- 
duced at the bar, and trial had, and judgment pro- 
nounced, in the same manner as if he had been alive. 
During the time of the persecution, trials of this 
kind frequently occurred. A person of property 
refusing to swallow the abominable test, or resisting 
the servants of a tyrant, was shot on the hillside, 
his dead body was produced at the bar, and proof 
led of his guilt, a verdict returned, and sentence 
pronounced finding the person guilty, and forfeiting 
his estates, to enable the iniquitous government of 
the day to bestow them upon its willing tools. The 
Border land affords abundant examples of such pro- 

* They were proceedings of this nature that originated the 
reproachful phrase of " Jeddart justice," or " Hang a man first 
and try him after," which is known everywhere, and is alluded 
to by every one who imagines that the scales of Justice have 
not been held evenly. Historians, novelists, and essayists 
have all twitted the inhabitants of Jedburgh with the re- 
proachful phrase, until it has become proverbial. The same 
reproach is directed against Cupar ; and it appears, from a 
notice in the " Minstrelsy," that the same saying is applied 
to a place called Lydford, in England. Some imagine, mis- 
takenly, that the severity of George, the fourth Earl of Home, 
the father of one of the abbots of Jedburgh, gave it birth, 
and this view is adopted by Morton in his " Monastic Annals ; " 
but it is evident that it was not from a rigorous enforcement 
of the law, but the peculiar manner in which it was adminis- 
tered in a class of cases. Such a form of trial took place in 


A few hundred yards above Haughead, between 
the steep red scaur banks of the Cayle, is the place 
where the Covenanters met for preaching, and where 
one of the two great conventicles was held. The 
locality was well suited for such meetings, being 
lonely and retired, and in the neighbourhood of a 
number of places of concealment in the banks of the 
river and the mountain fastnesses. Here the zealous 
Eichard Cameron was licensed, and sent first to 
Annandale to preach the gospel.* 

all cases of treason, where the party accused was slain or had 
died. Without a trial, the goods and estate of the traitor 
could not be forfeited. The Justice aires, for nearly sixty 
miles of Border land, were held at Jedburgh, where many 
members of rebellious clans were tried and condemned to 
death, and where, also, the corpse of the rebel who had been 
slain, or died previous to trial, was placed at the bar, and 
sentence pronounced, forfeiting his goods and estate. The 
first trial of this kind was that of Robert Lesly, in 1540. 
After the action with the Covenanters at Pentland Hills, in 
November, 1666, the authorities in Scotland had recourse to 
a new process : that of trying in absence parties accused of 
being present in the action at Pentland ; and in August, 1667, 
a number of landed men were tried in absence, convicted, 
their lands declared forfeited, and adjudged to be executed 
when taken. After this trial it was not deemed necessary to 
produce the corpse or bones at the bar. On this change of 
practice, Lord Hailes remarks, " The bones of a traitor can 
neither plead defences, nor cross-question witnesses, and upon 
this matter there is no difference whether the accused person 
be absent in body or present in bones." No doubt, from 
these trials arose the phrase which has passed into a proverb. 
* On the appointment being intimated to Cameron by Mr. 


In the immediate neighbourhood of Haughead is 
a place called PEIEST'S CROWN, a corruption of 
Priest's crum, signifying the priest's meadow, and 
thought to have derived its name from its being the 
meadow of the vicar or priest. Originally both 
Haughead and Priest's Crown were church lands, 
and at the Reformation belonged to the vicar. In 
this locality small hills of sand abound, which many 
persons imagine to be artificial, but they are not so. 
Among these gravelly knolls there are many sand 
cones, and where the ridge is highest, there are 

Welsh, " he said, How can I go there ? I know what sort of 
people they are. But Mr. Welsh said, ' Go your way, 
Ritchie, and set the fire of hell to their tails!' He went, 
and the first day he preached upon that text, ' How shall I 
put thee among the children,' &c. In the application, he 
said, Put you among the children! the offspring of thieves 
and robbers! We have all heard of Annandale thieves! 
Some of them got a merciful cast that day, and told after- 
wards, that it was the first field meeting they ever attended, 
and that they went out of mere curiosity to see a minister 
preach in a tent, and people sit on the ground." Life of 
Cameron. In a note to the "Border Minstrelsy," it is 
stated that he was chaplain in the family of Sir Walter Scott 
of Harden, who attended the meetings of the indulged Pres- 
byterians ; but Cameron, considering this conduct as a com- 
promise with the foul-fiend Episcopacy, was dismissed from 
the family. This good man was slain at Air's Moss, in the 
parish of Auchinleck, in 1680, where he behaved with the 
greatest bravery. He and Mr. Hackston commanded the 
horse. It seems that his labours in the family of Sir Walter 
Scott of Harden had borne fruit, for, in 1684, Sir Walter was 
fined .2944, 8s. lOd., and his son, ,3500. 


several of these little hills. One of these, situated in 
a field to the east of the turnpike, existed till the 
autumn of 1857, at the side of a meadow; and the 
farmer of the land, desirous to fill up a morass at 
the corner of the field, thought the best way to do 
so was to cart the little law into it. To work the 
labourers went, when they found the knoll to be 
pure sand, and in the centre of it, a few feet from 
the top, they came upon a stone kist, lying east and 
west. It was formed of rough sandstone slabs, taken 
from the banks of the Cayle at least they are of the 
same kind as the stones in the channel of the river, 
and one or two of them, I observed, were water- 
worn. The kist was about three feet ten inches in 
length, and two feet four in breadth. Within it lay 
the bones of one of the ancient people. The head 
lay to the west, and it appeared to me that the body 
had been doubled up and laid on its side, as was 
usual in early times. Along with the bones were 
found a few beads of shaly coal, and part of a fibula 
of the same material. Nothing was found in the 
grave to mark the period at which the interment 
took place, or the sex. From the smallness of the 
skull and other bones, and the absence of all weapons, 
I am inclined to think that the inmate of the stone 
coffin belonged to the female sex. The kist is now 
protected by a wall, erected at the expense of the 
Duke of Buccleuch, the owner of the lands. 

From the apex of this knoll, a fair panorama is 


presented to the vision. Bonnie Teviotdale lies on 
the west, with the waters of Teviot sparkling as 
they wind through the lovely vale, like an inland 
lake ; on the east, the scene is fair of its kind, and 
both united form such a picture as is rarely to be 
met with in 

" Lands that afar do lie 
'Neath a sunnier day and bluer sky." 

CESSFORD barony lay to the south-east of Eckford 
manor, and seems to have included all the lands 
between it and Whitton. It was formerly written 
Cessworth, Cessworthe, and Cessforth, &c. The origin 
of the name may be sought for in its situation on 
the lake, i. e., the town on the lake or moss. It is 
thought that this lake was formed by the waters of 
the Cayle, in the valley above Marlefield. About 
the 15th century it came to be called Cessford, pro- 
bably from a passage in the lake at this place. In 
addition to a ford, there also seems to have been a 
boat upon the lake. In 1684, James Muir, at Cess- 
ford-boat, was, with John Kerr of Hownam, in- 
dicted before the Justiciary at Edinburgh for trea- 
son, for not owning the King's authority as then 
established, nor Sharp's death, murder ; nor account 
Both well, rebellion; and condemned to be hanged at 
the Grassmarket. Roger de Mowbray appears to 
have been one of the earliest proprietors of the 
manor. On his forfeiture, King Robert I., in 1316, 


gave to Edmund Marshall the whole demesne lands 
of Cessworth, and William St. Clair of Hirdmenston 
got all the other lands and miln. About this time 
the Douglas was over-lord of all Teviotdale, which 
he had won by his gallantry. According to the 
author of the "Memorie of the Somervills/' a family 
of Oliphant possessed the barony during the begin- 
ning of the 13th century, and to Lady Elizabeth 
Oliphant Sir John Sornerville was married.* The 
same author states that one of the barons of Linton 
was served heir to his father in the barony of Linton 
in April, 1381, before Sir Eobert Kerr of Cessford, 
in the town of Jedburgh.-f- Although this author 
may not be correct as to the dates, it is probable 
that the Kers were in possession of this barony at a 
much earlier period than is generally supposed. It 
is not clear, however, to whom the Kers succeeded. 
It is said that in 1446 the Earl of Douglas confirmed 
a charter to Andrew Ker of the barony of Cessford. 
In 1474, James, Lord Hamilton, granted a charter 
of the lands of Cessford to the same Andrew Ker. 
James IV. gave to Walter Ker, in 1494, the barony 
of Cessford, which belonged to William Cockburn 
of Skraling. The barony is still possessed by his 
descendant, the Duke of Roxburghe. 

The CASTLE of Cessford stands upon a ridge in- 
* Memorie of the Somervilles, vol. i. p. 50. t Ib. p. 136. 


clining towards Cayle valley, having the deep glen 
through which Cessford burn flows on the west, and 
on the south-east the ground slopes to a rivulet 
which joins the burn a little to the north of the 
castle. The castle is now a ruin, but enough of it 
remains to shew that it must have been, when 
entire, of great strength. The principal building is 
67 feet long, 60 feet broad, and 65 feet high. The 
walls are of an average thickness of 12 feet. The 
castle has been surrounded by an inner and outer 
wall ; no part of the former is to be seen, but por- 
tions of the latter, especially on the north-east, as 
well as a part of the offices, still remain. The whole 
course of the outer wall, which is about 300 yards, 
may be traced by its foundations, which are per- 
fectly distinct. It was surrounded by a moat, fur- 
nished with water, it is said, from a spring above 
the farm-house. At the end of last century the 
remains of the moat were to be seen, but the plough 
has now destroyed every vestige of it. In the 
month of May, 1523, the castle was besieged by 
Surrey, in the absence of its owner, with a nume- 
rous army, well provided with powerful ordnance, 
with which he battered the donjon with little 
effect. While the guns were playing against the 
castle, the Lord Leonard, Sir Arthur Darcy, Sir Wil- 
liam Parr, and others, by means of scaling ladders, 
entered the barnkin, where they suffered severely 
from the iron guns of the castle and stones cast 


down upon them. They then attempted to scale 
the donjon, while the archers and ordnance kept the 
besieged engaged, but notwithstanding all the efforts 
of the besiegers, they could not prevail against the 
castle, which was gallantly defended. At last, when 
Surrey was despairing of success, the warden came 
within a mile of the castle, and not knowing how 
matters stood within the castle, but fearing the 
worst, offered to give up the place on his men being 
allowed to leave with their bag and baggage, to which 
Surrey was but too glad to accede, as he could not 
have taken the castle by force of arms. In a letter 
to Henry VIII., written by Surrey after returning to 
Alnwick, he says, " I was very glad of the said ap- 
pointment (capitulation), for in maner I sawe not 
howe it wolde have been won if they within wold 
have contynued their deffending."* On the castle 
being delivered up, it was thrown down by the 
ordnance, and, while the destruction of its walls 
was going on, another party went to Whitton fort 
and cast it down. In 1545, Cessforthe, Cessforthe 
burn, and Cessfort maynes, are in the list of places 
destroyed by the army of the Earl of Hertford. In 
1066, Henry Hall of Haughead and a number of 
Covenanters were imprisoned in the castle.^ It is 
said that the castle ceased to be the dwelling-place 
of the Kers after 1650. 

* Cotton MS. t Wodrow, vol. ii. p. 134. 


A number of ash-trees of considerable size, some 
measuring eight feet in circumference, are at present 
growing in the courts of the castle, and within the 
ruined walls of the office-houses. About fifty yards 
west from the castle stands a solitary ash-tree, and a, 
place on the south where a number of trees grow is 
pointed out as the site of the ancient gardens.* 

MAKLEFIELD lies between the modern baronies 
of Eckford and Cessford. It anciently formed 
a part of the territory of Eckford. About the 
beginning of the 17th century, it was called Mow- 
maynis, and the property of Mr. William Bennett, 
rector of Ancrum. In 1677, William Bennet was 
served heir to his father in the lands and barony of 
Grubet, comprehending among others the lands of 
Mowmaynis.-f- He was succeeded by his son, Sir Wil- 
liam Bennet, who suffered many hardships for con- 
science sake. In 1677, he was fined 400 merks for 

* In the Old Statistical Account, the minister of Eckford 
parish gives an account of a remarkable ash that stood at the 
castle. It was called the Crow-tree, and measured at the base 
27 feet 8 inches in girth ; at six feet from the ground, 15 feet ; 
and at the cleft where the branches diverged and spread, 14 
feet 6 inches. The tree expanded its branches on every side. 
It was computed to contain 300 feet of wood. Although 
very old, it was in a healthy state in 1793, and was much 
admired. It does not now exist. 

t Ketours, No. 195. 



attending conventicles, and for hearing and convers- 
ing with Mr. Welsh, and ordered to remain in the Bass 
till the fine was paid. His son, Sir William, was 
born at Marlefield, where he lived during the greater 
part of his life. He took an active hand in raising 
the county of Roxburgh against the rebel forces in 
1715. He was the intimate friend of Ramsay and 
Thomson, who often visited at Marlefield House. In 
1721, Ramsay is said to have written a poetical 
address to Eolus, on the night of a high wind, at 
the house of his patron. There are good grounds 
for believing that this Sir William is the Patie of the 
" Gentle Shepherd," and that the scene of that beau- 
tiful pastoral is laid on the banks of the Cayle, in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Marlefield House. 
The description in the poem answers exactly to the 
scenery in this locality. The rocky, caverned banks 
of the Cayle correspond with the opening scene, 
where Patie and Roger are introduced 

" Beneath the south side of a craggy Meld, 
Where crystal springs their halesome waters yield, 
Twa youthfu' shepherds in the gowans lay, 
Tenting their flocks ae bonny morn of May ; 
Poor Roger granes till hollow echoes ring, 
But blyther Patie likes to laugh and sing." 

Habbie's Howe is also to be found within a short 
distance of the mansion, through which a burn 
wimples between two verdant banks to the Cayle. 
It is of consequence to notice that a remarkable per- 


sonage lived in the immediate neighbourhood, of the 
name of Habbie or Hobbie Hall, a friend and fellow- 
sufferer with Sir William in the cause of religious 
liberty. Their estates lay together, and were 
bounded by the burn, which 

" Kisses wi' easy whirls the bord'ring grass." 

There existed also a cottage on the estate, called 
Symon's House, and a field adjoining known as 
Symon's Field. Mowses Burn and Mowses Knowe 
are also on the estate. In every respect, the scenery 
at this place corresponds with the scenes of the 
drama. And further, the poem is an historical 
description of Sir William Bennet and his son. Sir 
William was imprisoned, and afterwards forced to 
leave his native land, leaving his son behind him 
under charge of a faithful tenant, to be brought up 
as his own. When a better sun shone on Scotia's hills 
and dales, the exile returned to his native vale, and 
found his son as described by his guardian. Patie's 
love of learning, as described by Symon, is a true 
representation of the character of Sir William 
Bennet, who was a man of taste and great literary 
attainments. Other localities may point to scenes 
answering the description of the poet ; but here are 
to be found, not only scenery exactly fitting the 
drama, but a pictorial representation of the owner of 
the lands and his son. Everything considered, I 
cannot entertain a doubt that the scene of the 


" Gentle Shepherd " is laid on the margins of the 
Cayle. Sir William Bennet died in 1724, and was 
interred in the family aisle adjoining the church 
of Eckford. Over the entrance to the aisle is the 
following inscription : " Hoc monumentum sibi et 
suis bene merentibus, ponendam curavit Dominus 
Qulielmus Bennet eques auratus anno salutis, 

The mansion of Marlefield stands at the west end 
of the Cayle valley, commanding a fine view of the 
vale and the distant Cheviots. In the grounds are 
a number of magnificent lime-trees, and on the 
banks of the river, near to the cottages, are a few 
fine oaks and beeches. The estate now belongs to 
the Marquis of Tweeddale. 

CAVEETON. The name of this ancient territory 
is derived from the Cambro-British cae ver, signi- 
fying little fields or enclosures, and the Saxon ton 
added describes the town at the fields or enclosures. 
This place is thought to be the Keveronum of the 
Inquisitio of Earl David in 1116, and belonging at 
that early period to the church of Glasgow. The 
name of this place is a proof that farms existed dur- 
ing the British period. The territory is situated on 
the right bank of the Cayle, opposite to Cessford and 
Marlefield, lying between the river and the baronies 
of Linton, Lempitlaw, Sprouston, Heaton, and Eck- 
ford. It belonged to the family of Sidi, and who 


obtained the name of Sules from two bailiewicks of 
that name in Northamptonshire. Ranulph de Sules 
followed David I. to Scotland, and got from him 
Liddisdale, Nisbet, and Caverton, in Teviotdale. He 
was butler to William the Lion. At his death, in 
1170, he was succeeded by his nephew Ranulph, the 
son of his brother William. Ranulph was assas- 
sinated at Castleton in 1207.* Nicholas, the son 
of Fulco, succeeded, and was a man remarkable for 
his great wisdom and eloquence. He married a 
daughter of the Earl of Buchan, by whom he had 
two sons, William and John. He died at Rouen, 
in Normandy, in 1264. William became justiciary 
of Lothian under Alexander III., and he was one of 
the Magnatus Scotce who pledged themselves to 
support the succession of Margaret to her father, 
Alexander III. He was present at the Parliament 
at Brigham in 1290. Nicholas de Soulis claimed 
the crown of Scotland, in right of his grandmother 
Margery, who was a daughter of Alexander II., but 
withdrew his pretensions, as her legitimacy could not 
be established. The barony of Caverton was for- 
feited while in possession of William de Soulis,*}* in 

* Chron. Mailros, p. 106 : " Ranulfus de Sules occisus est 
in domo a domesticis suas." 

t This is the person whom tradition says was rolled up in 
a sheet of lead for a funeral pall, and melted in a cauldron on 
the Ninestane Rig. But unfortunately for the tradition, and 
the minstrel who sung of the event, Sulis was seized at 
Berwick, confessed his guilt before Parliament, and his life 


consequence of his having entered into a conspiracy 
against Robert I., with the view of elevating himself 
to the throne. The plot was discovered by the 
Countess of Strathern. In 1216, it was granted by 
Robert I. to Robert Stewart, the son of Walter 
Stewart.* It was out of the forfeited lands in 
Teviotdale belonging to Soulis and Moubray that 
the ,2000 granted by Robert I. to the monks 
of Melrose, to enable them to restore their house, 
which had been destroyed during the war of Inde- 
pendence, was raised. On Edward, the English king, 
obtaining possession of Teviotdale, the barony of 
Cavertoun was conferred on the family of De Coucy. 
In 1335, Edward III. granted a charter of confirma- 
tion of the barony of Cavertoun.-f- Three years 
after, the barony was given by the same king to 
James de Loyrens ; but as it was so destroyed by the 
war, he added an annual pension of twenty pounds 
sterling.! The barony was valued during peace at 
58 yearly, but, owing to the war, did not yield 8 
sterling. About the middle of the 15th century, 
Walter Ker, designed as of Caverton, but probably 
of Cessford, was in possession of lands in Caverton. 

was spared by the king, but his estates forfeited, and himself 
confined in Dumbarton Castle, where he died. Chalmers 
says there never was a Lord Sulis, whatever the minstrel may 

* Robertson's Index, p. 10, No. 13. 

t Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 352 J Ib., p. 825. 


In 1478, he was summoned before the Lords Audi- 
tors, at the instance of Dougal M'Dougall of Maker- 
stoune.* About the same time, Eutherfurd of 
Hundole had a third part of the lands of Caverton.-f- 
In the beginning of the 17th century, families of the 
names of Pott and Pringle appear to have been in 
possession of lands in Caverton. In 1623, William 
Pott was served heir to his father, John, called Laird 
Pott, in three-pound lands called Langislands, in the 
territory of Caverton. J In the same year, George 
Pringill, in Schairpitlaw, was served heir to his 
father in two husbandlands in the barony of 
Hounam. In 1628, John Pott was retoured heir 
to his father, William Pott, of the lands commonly 
called Langislandis, in the barony of Caverton.|| 
In 1 675, Robert, Earl of Roxburghe, was served heir 
to his father, William, Earl of Roxburghe, Lord Ker 
of Cessford and Caverton, amongst others in a hus- 
bandland in Caverton, called Huntlilands.^]" The 
territory of Caverton, with the exception of the 
lands of Mainhouse, belong to the dukedom of Rox- 
burghe. The town of Caverton was of importance 
in early times, but now consists of only a few farm 
cottages. On the east side of the town stood a little 
chapel, which served the inhabitants of that terri- 

* Act. Dom. Aud., p. 69. t Keg. Mag. Sig., lib. xii. No. 320. 
t Eetours, No. 120. Ib., No. 117. 

|| Ib., No. 168. IT Ib. No. 267. 


tory, but every vestige of it had disappeared before 
the end of last century. As said before, this chapel 
is believed to have existed at a very early period, 
and to be the Keveronum in the inquisition made 
by Earl David in 1116, as to the property of the 
church of Glasgow in Teviotdale.* Very few notices 
are to be met with of this chapel. In the end of 
the 15th century, Walter Ker of Cessford burdened 
the lands of Caverton with a yearly payment of 
ten pounds to the officiating chaplain. He also 
granted to the chapel two cottages which lay near 
to the orchard, two acres of land with crums, 
meadow, and four soums in Caverton, with a manse 
and yard. In 1500, James IV. confirmed this grant. 
The small graveyard of the chapel was used by 
several families of the parish, and by others, because 
their forefathers were interred there up to 1793. 
Since that time, it has scarcely been used for burial. 
In a field north of the churchyard, a fountain was 
called the Holy Well, and occasionally the Priest's 
Well, from its connection with the chapel, but the 
name is beginning to be lost among the now ever- 
changing inhabitants of the country hamlets. 

To the west of Caverton hill-head cottages are the 
scarcely perceptible remains of a tumulus which was 
of considerable extent, and called the Slack Dyke. 
When examined by Mr. Paton, the minister of the 

* Reg. Glas., pp. 5, 7. 


parish, in 1793, it measured 342 feet in length, over 
27 feet at the east end ; it measured 42 feet at the 
western extremity ; it was 33 feet from side to side. 
It lay in a direct line east and west It was com- 
posed of fine loose mould, intermixed with large 
stones covered over with heath. No human bones or 
remains of any kind have been found in it. Tradi- 
tion has it that the bodies of those dying of the 
plague were buried here in 1349; but the shape of 
the mound and the absence of remains seem to in- 
dicate that the people who raised the dyke had a 
very different object in view than burial. 

MAINHOUSE, which was included in the territory 
of Caverton, belonged to a family of Chatto, in the 
end of the 16th century. Thomas Chatto was baillie 
of Kelso in 1717. In 1817, the lands were acquired 
by James Syme, a merchant in Glasgow. In 1847, 
the estate was purchased by Thomas Nisbet, who 
was, at his death, succeeded by his brother, Ealph 
Compton Nisbet, with whom it now remains. Since 
the estate came into the hands of Mr. Nisbet, it has 
been greatly improved, and the lands are in a high 
state of cultivation. The house occupies a fine 
situation, overlooking the vale of Cayle, with the 
Cheviot mountains in the distance. Mainhouse 
was destroyed by Hertford in 1545. 

The territory of Caverton suffered severely during 
the wars between England and Scotland, owing to 


its position between the Tweed and Cayle, the 
ground over which the invading army chiefly passed. 
The greater portion of the land must have been 
a moor, especially on the east. Caverton Edge, 
on which Kelso races were formerly run, is now 
planted, and the remainder is let into farms capable 
of producing crops of every kind, and is highly cul- 

OEMISTON. This ancient barony derives its name 
from Orm, the son of Eilar, who settled on the 
bend of the Teviot in the beginning of the 12th 
century. The dwelling of Orm was at the place 
now called Old Ormiston, and a lovelier situation is 
rarely met with in the Border land. It commands 
a fine view of the valley down which Cayle flows, 
and the green mountains which form the boundary 
line between the two kingdoms, appear in the dis- 
tance. The river Teviot bends around the barony, 
and hastens over its rocky bed to meet with the 
Tweed. The scenery around Old Ormiston far ex- 
cels that in the vicinity of the new mansion higher 
up the river. Ormeston became, in the end of the 
13th century, a surname of the family. John de 
Ormeston swore fealty to Edward I. in 1296.* 
After that time, a family of Dalmahoy appear to 
have been in possession of part of the lands of 

* Kagman's Kolls, p. 126. 


Ormeston. John Oopeland, Edward's sheriff of Rox- 
burgh, occupied for a time the lands which belonged 
to Dalmahoy, and on their being restored, he got 
a pension of twenty pounds yearly, as compensation 
for their loss.* In 1347, Andrew of Ormeston, 
James de Sandilancls, and Patrick le Clerk, got a 
safe-conduct from Edward III. to visit William 
Douglas, chevalier, a prisoner of war in England, 
and convey to him certain things which he re- 
quired.^ In 1358, a safe-conduct was granted to 
the same Andrew and four kinsmen to visit Eng- 
land. Andrew is styled "familiaris David de Bruys, 
prisonerie."J In 1476, Andrew Ormeston possessed 
the lands. Ormeston seems to have been a fol- 
lower of Scott of Branxholm, and at feud with the 
Kers; for, in the contract between the Scotts and 
Kers in 1564, the laird of Branxholm took burden 
upon him for James Ormeston of that Ilk.|| The 
same James Ormeston, and his uncle Hob Ormeston, 
were concerned in the murder of Henry Darnley in 
1566, and for which he was executed at Edinburgh 
in 1 573. While lying in the castle of Edinburgh, 
under sentence of death, he confessed to John Brand, 
minister, his share in the murder, and that he was 
urged to the deed by Bothwell ; but declared that 
the Queen never spake to him on the subject. 

* Rotuli Scotite, vol. i. p. 558. t Ib., 706. t Ib., 806. 
Acta Dom. Aud., 56. || Pitcairn, vol. iii. p. 391. 


Having made his confession as to the murder of 
Darnley, he asked the minister to pray for him, for 
he had been a great sinner otherwise : " for of all 
men in all the earth, I have been ane of the proud- 
est and heich-myndit, and maist filthie of my body, 
abusing myself dyvers ways. Bot specially I have 
shed innocent blood of ane Michael Hunter, with 
my awin hands. Allace, therefore ! Because the said 
Michael hevand me lying upon my back, haveing 
ane fork in his hand, might have slain me gif he 
pleasit, and did it not; quhilk of all things grieves 
me maist in conscience : Alswa in a rage I hangit a 
poor man for ane horse, with mony other wickit 
deids ; for the quhilk I ask my God mercy : For it 
is not mervel that I have been wickit, for the wickit 
companie that ever I have been in, bot specialie 
within thir seaven years byepast, quhilk I never 
saw twa guid men, or ane guid deid, bot all kind of 
wickedness. And that my God wald not suffer me 
to be lost, and hes drawn me from them as out of 
hell, and has given me layer and space with guid 
companie to repent; for the quhilk I thank him, 
and is assurit that I am ane of his elect."* It is 
said that he died, to the appearance of men, one of 
the most penitent sinners, and a great example of 
God's mercy. On the death of Ormeston, the barony 
passed into the hands of Captain Robert Anstruther, 

* Pitcaim, vol. i. p. 513. 


by whom they were afterwards resigned into the 
hands of the king, who granted to William Ker of 
Cessford, warden of the middle marches, the said 
lands and barony, together with the tower, fortalice, 
mills, and fishings, of the same, and also the twenty- 
merk lands of Maxton, called Govanis lands. This 
grant was ratified by Parliament in 1 581 .* In 1 585, 
his Majesty and the Parliament held at Linlithgow 
revoked and rescinded all deeds granted by the said 
James Ormeston previous to his execution, in favour 
of his children and friends; and in 1592, the Parlia- 
ment of new ratified the grant in favour of William 
Ker, of said lands and barony in liferent, and to 
Mark Ker, his second son, and his heirs male, whom 
failing, to return to the said William and his house 
of Cessford.'f- Under that grant, Mark Ker entered 
into possession of the barony of Ormeston, and in 
1606, Robert, Earl of Roxburghe, was served heir to 
his brother, the said Mark, in the lands and barony, 
with the twenty-merk lands of Maxton, called 
Govanis lands.! In the end of last century it was 
the property of William Elliot of Wells, from whom 
it passed into the hands of William Mein, whose 
ancestors seem to have been long connected witli 
the district, and to have intermarried with the Kers. 
He greatly improved the lands, built a new mansion, 

* Acta Parl., vol. iii. p. 269. t Ib., p. 612. 
Eetours, No. 35. 


and erected, at his own expense, for the accommo- 
dation of the public, an elegant suspension bridge 
for carriages over the Teviot at Cayle-mouth. Pre- 
vious to that time there was not a bridge over the 
river between Ancrum Bridge and Kelso. 

In 1523, Ormiston was cast down by Lord Dacre. 
The barnkyn of Onneston was taken and burnt 
by Lord Eurie in 1544. In 1545, the town of 
Ormeston was burnt and the tower destroyed by 

ancient manor derives its name from its position on 
the summit of a ridge which slopes down to the 
banks of the Teviot. From this place fine views 
are obtained of Teviotdale and the Merse. The 
first person who appears as owner of the manor is 
Alan de Perci the younger, who followed Earl David 
to Scotland, and fought by his side with all the 
spirit of a Percy, at the battle of the Standard, in 
1138. After this battle, he obtained from David I. 
the manors of Heton and Oxnam. Alan granted a 
carrucate of land in Heton to the monks of Whitby 
for the salvation of his own soul, for the salvation 
of the souls of David the king, and of his son Earl 
Henry, and for the souls of his father, Alan de Perci, 
and of his mother. This grant was witnessed by 
his four brothers, William, Walter, Geoffrey, Henry, 
and it was confirmed by David the king, by Malcolm 


IV., and by his two brothers, Geoffrey and Henry. 
Alan, dying without issue, was succeeded by his 
brother Geoffrey, who also died without issue. His 
nephew Walter, the son of Henry, next possessed 
the manor, and imitated his uncle in liberality to 
the religious houses. To the house of Kelso he gave 
a ploughgate, containing 1 04 acres, in Heton, next 
to the land belonging to the hospital of Eoxburghe.* 
He also granted the monks of Dryburgh two ox- 
gangs of land in Heton, with all the pasture and 
easements of the same town belonging to so much 
land, for the safety of his own soul, and the souls of 
all his ancestors.-f- This grant was confirmed by 
William the Lion, by Pope Lucius, by Philip Colville, 
by Pope Gregory, and by Alexander II., before 
1230.! The next owner of the manor was Philip 
de Colville, an Anglo-Norman, who settled in Scot- 
land during the reign of Malcolm IV. It was the 
first possession the family acquired in North Britain. 
He was succeeded by his son Thomas, who witnessed 
many charters of William the Lion, between 1189 
and 1199. In 1210, he was suspected of a con- 
spiracy against the life of his king, and imprisoned 
in Edinburgh Castle ; but having made his innocence 
appear, he was liberated, after a confinement of six 

* Lib. de Calchou. 

t Eegist. de Dryburgh, p. 163. 

J Ib. pp. 180, 195, 163, 164, 181, 199. 


months, and restored to favour.* He is a witness 
to several charters of Alexander II. He acquired 
the lands of Whitsorae in Berwickshire, and died in 
1219.f William de Colville, his son, acquired the 
manors of Kinaird in Stirlingshire, and of Ochiltree 
in Ayrshire. The laird of Heton, like the other 
lairds in the district, swore fealty to Edward I. in 
1296.J Robert de Colville possessed Heton and 
Oxnam during the reign of Robert I. About 1330, 
he quit-claimed to Roger of Auldton, "an annual 
revenue of five shillings, in which he was bound to 
him for two oxgangs of land which he held of him 
in the town and territory of Heton/' and liberty 
was granted to Roger to convert the said oxgangs 
to pious uses or perpetual alms. Under that leave, 
Roger granted the two oxgangs of land for the 
maintenance of a chantry and officiating priest, in 
the church of St. James, Roxburgh. The two ox- 
gangs lay on the south side of the town of Heton. 
between the land of Robert de Colville and the land 

* Chron. Mail, p. 109 : " Et Thomas de Couilla captus 
est et apud Edenburc custodie mancipatur propter sedicionem 
quam contra regena suum et dominum Machinatus est, ut 
infainia narrando clamat qui ad festum Sancti Martini si 

t Chron. Mail., p. 135. 

+ Ragman's Rolls, p. 128. 

These two oxgangs are thought to have amounted at 
that period to 38 acres: not twopence per acre for land 
which now lets at more than 2 per acre. 


of Thomes, called Walker* on the west side.-f- In 
the Register of Glasgow, the name of Heton is mis- 
takenly written Heton. In 1336, Edward III. ap- 
pointed Alan of Heton warden of the town and ter- 
ritory of Heton. j The barony of Heton was granted 
by Robert II. to Duncan Wallace, and his wife, Elenor 
de Bruges, Countess of Carrick. In 1456, John 
Heytone sat in the Parliament of Scotland as com- 
missioner for the burgh of Haddington. In 1502, 
Sir William Colville was in possession of the barony 
of Heton. At the Jedworthe Justiciare, in November, 
1502, Robert and Henry Douglas were permitted 
to compound for the theft of three oxen from Sir 
William Colville of Synlaws. Sir William was 
slain in the same year, leaving two daughters. In 

* The origin of the name of Walker is said to have been 
derived from Rolla, a Danish chieftain, who was, from his 
height and weight, unable to use a horse, and therefore 
compelled to walk a-foot, and from whence he obtained the 
sobriquet of the Ganger a- Walker. Giants must have lived 
in those days if we are to believe the accounts of the Danish 
period. Beauties of England, vol. i. p. 215, 234, 265 ; View 
of Derbyshire, vol. ii. p. 426; Glover's Derbyshire, vol. ii. 
p. 457. 

t Regist. Glasg., p. 244 : " Et duas bovatus terre in Villa 
de Eeton quarum toftum jacet in parte australi ejusdem 
ville inter terram Roberti de Colville domini de Reton ex 
parte oriental! et terram Thome dicte Walker ex parte 

J Rotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 903. Pitcairn, vol. i. p. 33. 
VOL. III. 2 A 


1510, at the Justiciare at Jedworthe, George Haly- 
burton was accused of art and part of the murder 
of Sir William Colville, and not appearing, Mark 
Ker of Dolphinstone, his surety, was fined in 100 
merks, the said George denounced, and his goods 
escheated to the king. In 1509, half of the barony 
belonged to Andrew Ker of Primsideloch, and the 
other half to Ralph Ker of Ferniehirst. The lands 
are now possessed by Sir George Douglas and William 
Scott Ker of Chatto. 

The town consists of a row of houses on each 
side of the turnpike road leading from Berwick to 
the western districts of the country. The houses 
are generally of an inferior kind, but the proprietor, 
Sir George Douglas, has begun the erection of very 
elegant cottages at the east end of the town. Hey- 
ton-on-the-Hill is in the list of places destroyed by 
Earl Hertford in 1545. 

Between 1190 and 1456, a number of persons 
bore the surname of Heton. 




Page 41. The following is a translation of the confirma- 
tion charter of Malcolm IV., preserved in the archives of the 
Duke of Roxburgh, a fac-simile of which is in volume i. of 
the Lib. de Calchou : 

" Malcolm by the grace of God King of Scots to all his 
friends French English and Scots and to all the sons of 
God's holy church wisheth perpetual health. Know all 
men now and hereafter that David King of Scots my grand- 
father of pious memory whilst he was earl founded an 
abbey at SELESCHIRCHE in honour of the holy Virgin 
Mary mother of God and Saint John the evangelist ; for the 
health of his own soul and the souls of his father and mother 
his brothers and sisters and all his ancestors and successors. 
But when by Divine mercy after the death of his brother 
Alexander he succeeded him in the kingdom by the council 
and advice of John of revered memory bishop of Glasgow 
and his nobles men who feared God he removed the afore- 
said abbey because the former place was not a convenient 
situation for a monastery to Eoxburg to the church of the 
blessed Virgin Mary which is situated on the bank of the 
river Tuede in the place which is called KELCHO. Which 
church Robert bishop of St. Andrews in whose diocese it was 
from love to God and of his own free will granted that it 
should be free from all episcopal authority insomuch that the 
abbot and monks might receive their consecrated ointment 


and oil and the ordination of the abbot himself and the monks 
from whatsoever bishop they pleased in Scotland or Cumbria.* 
This privilege with the other privileges and possessions which 
they enjoy through the liberality of my grandfather King 
David my father Earl Henry or my own I concede to 
them as far as my right extends for ever and by my 
royal power confirm to them for perpetual alms : viz. the 
town of KELCHO with its due bounds in land and water 
discharged quit and free from every burden ; also the land 
which Gerold gave me near the confines of the said town 
which land comes down to the road that goes to NEITH- 
ANSTHYRN.t And when ever I hear the service of God 
in that church on holidays or other days I confirm to the 
same all my offerings and the offerings of all those who shall 
be with me. Also from the milne of EDENHAM twelve 
chalders of malt every year ; and liberty to dig peats in the 
muir of Edenham from the ditch that comes down the other 
muir crossing that muir in a straight direction to the three 
large stones on the other side. Also forty shillings a year 
from the revenue of the burgh of EOKESBURGH and a toft 
beside the church of St. James and another in the new town 
and the land which was Walter Cementar's. Also in the 
churches of the same burgh with their land as freely and 
fully as ever Ascelline the archdeacon possessed them. Also 
the half toft which was Acculf s ; and twenty chalders half 
meal half wheat at the milns ; and the seventh part of a 
fishing. Also in SPROSTON a ploughgate of land and ten acres 
with the buildings belonging to the ploughgate ; and three 
acres of meadow ; and the church of the same village ; with 
the land belonging to the church ; and two oxgangs of land 

* The Cumbria of King David extended from the Solway, the 
Esk, and the Kersope on the south, to the upper Forth and Loch- 
lomond on the north, and from the Frith of Clyde and the Irish 
Sea on the west. It extended eastward to the boundaries of the 
Lothians and the Merse. 

t Nenthorn. 


beside PRESTERBRIDGE which I gave them in exchange for 
two oxgangs with which the monks accommodated me of 
the land of the church of St. Laurence at BEREWIC. Also 
the village of KAVENDENE* in land and water; and the 
pastures of Sproston and the muirs for digging turfs common 
as well to the inhabitants of Ravendene as to those of Spros- 
ton. Also in Berewich a ploughgate of land and a dwelling 
belonging to the same beside the church of St. Laurence ; and 
another dwelling in the burgh and forty shillings out of the 
revenue of the same burgh yearly and the half of a fishing 
which is called Berewicstrem. Also the seventh part of the 
milns and the land of Dodin in the same town and the land 
of Waltheof the son of Ernobold, Also the village of MIDDLE- 
HAM and BoTHELDENEt with their due bounds in lands and 
waters in woods and cleared grounds. Also thirty acres of 
land in the domains of LILLESCLIVE* between the ALNA and 
the brook that divides the grounds of Middleham and 
Lillesclive and the tithes of the miln of the same village viz. 
Lillesclive. Also WHITELAU and WHITEMERE with their due 
bounds ; and the lands of SELESCHIRCHE with its due bounds 
in. lands and its waters in woods and cleared ground and my 
waters about Seleschirche as free to them to fish in with their 
fishermen as to me with mine and my pastures as free to 
their people as to mine ; and my woods for building their 
houses and for fuel as free to them as to me. Also the church 
of the other Seleschirche with half a ploughgate of land ; and 
the church and the land of LESMAHAGU with its due bounds ; 
and TRAVERLIN with its due bounds as Vineth fully and 
freely possessed and enjoyed it with all the easments of 

* Kedden. + Bowden. J Lilliesleaf . 
+ Morton, in the Monastic Annals, page 116, mistakenly 
states that this place is Crailing, on the Oxnam water ; but the 
name of Crailing was in use before Malcolm IV. wrote this 
charter. Besides, Crailing was granted to the abbot of Jed- 
burgh. It is clear that Traverlin and Crailing cannot be the 


the adjoining strother which is called Cameri ; and the crag 1 
of the same village (as the Lord Alfwin abbot of Halyrude 
and Ernald abbot of Kelso came to a mutual agreement con- 
cerning a dispute which was between them about that same 
crag before these witnesses Ralph abbot of Newbottle ; 
William abbot of Strevelin; Osbert prior of Jeddeword; 
Richard the clerk ; Machbet.) For my grandfather gave this 
Traverlin to the foresaid church of Kelcho in exchange for 
the ten-pound lands which they had in Hardiggasthorn near 
Northamtun. Also in RINFRIV a toft and one net exempted 
quit and free from all customs ; and in EDINBURG a toft ; and 
in PEEBLES a toft ; and in LANNARCH a toft ; and the church 
of KETH ; and half of the fat of the craspies* that shall have 
been stranded in the Forth. Also the tenth of the beasts 
and swine and kain cheese of that part of Galwey which my 
grandfather had during the lifetime of King Alexander ; and 
the tenth of the cheeses of TUEDALE in like manner annually ; 
and the half of the hides of all the beasts slaughtered for my 
kitchen so that whenever I or any of my successors have one 
hide the monks may have another. And they shall have a 
like share of the suet and tallow of the hides ; and all the 
skins of the rams and lambs ; and the tenth of the skins 
of the deer taken by my huntsmen. These products of my 
kitchen and of my slain beasts the monks shall have over all 
that territory only which my grandfather possessed when 
king Alexander was alive. Also a salt work in KARSACH. 
Likewise as far as it depends upon me I grant and confirm 
to the said church by the gift of Earl Gospatrick the church 
of HOM with two ploughgates of land and a meadow in the 
precincts of the same village ; also the church of FOGHO 
with a ploughgate of land; the church of MACCHUSWEL f by 
the gift of Herbert de Macchuswell ; the church of SIMPRIG 
by the gift of Hye and his son Peter ; the church of ST. 
LAURENCE of Berewic by the gift of Robert the son of 
William the church of MALCARVASTONJ with a ploughgate of 

* Whales. t Maxwell. J Makerston . 


land by the gift of Walter Corbeth the church of MOLLA* with 
the adjacent land by the gift of Uctred of Molla ; the church 
of WITHAS-TOWN by the gift of Witha ; the church of CAM- 
BUSNEITHAN by the gift of William Finemund; and the 
church of LiNTONRUTHERct by the gift of Richard Cumin, 
All the above named lands and possessions therefore I grant 
to the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of KELCHO ; and to 
the monks serving God there ; to be freely and peaceably 
enjoyed by perpetual right ; and by this my charter I con- 
firm the same to them as perpetual alms ; so that none of 
my successors shall presume to demand anything of the 
foresaid church or any of its possessions but only prayers for 
the good of their souLs. And this charter is confirmed in the 
year one thousand one hundred and fifty-nine after the incar- 
nation of the Lord ; the following persons being witnesses ; 
Herbert bishop of Glasgow ; William bishop of Moray ; 
Gregory bishop of Dunkeld; William and David my 
brothers and Ada my mother; Gaufrid abbot of Dum- 
ferniline ; Osbert abbot of Jeddeword ; Amfred abbot of 
Newbottle; Alured abbot of Strevelin; Walter the chan- 
cellor ; Robert prior of St. Andrews ; Matthew archdeacon 
of St. Andrews ; Tor archdeacon of Lothian ; Herbert the 
chamberlain ; Nicholas the clerk ; Richard the chaplain ; 
Master Andrew ; Master Arthur ; Walter clerk to the 
chancellor ; John the nephew of bishop Robert ; Serle the 
clerk; Solomon chaplain to Bishop Herbert; and Helias 
clerk to the same bishop ; Godfrey king of the isles ; Earl 
Gospatric ; Earl Ferteth ; Gilliebride earl of Anagus ; Uctred 
the son of Fergus; Gillebert de Umframvill; William de 
Summervill ; Richard de Morvill ; Ranulph de Sulas ; David 
Olifard ; Richard Cumin ; Robert Avenil ; William de Mor- 
vill ; William Finnemond ; Walter Corbet ; Asketer de 
Ridale ; Henry de Percy ; Liulph the son of Maccus ; Orm 
the son of Hailaph, and many other clerks and laymen. 

At Rokesburg." 

* Mow. f Linton in Peebleshire, see page 206. 



P. 135. In 1451, the barony of Smalham was given in 
free regality to William, Earl of Douglas.* 


P. 144. The first Macdoual who appears in connection 
with lands in Roxburghshire, is Fergus Macdoual, the son of 
Duncan Macdoual of Galloway and Margaret Eraser his wife. 
Margaret Eraser inherited in her own right the baronies of 
Mackerston, Yetholm, and Clifton. In 1374, she resigned 
these baronies into the king's hands in favour of her son Fer- 
gus, and on the third day of May of that year, Robert II. 
granted him charters of said baronies, t The Macdouals were 
one of the most powerful families of the British race in 
Wigtonshire, and are thought to be descended from Roland 
Macdoual, Lord of Galloway. Fergus Macdoual and Dougal 
Macdoual of Wigtonshire took the oath of allegiance to Ed- 
ward I. at Berwick, in 1296.J During the Succession War, 
Dougal Macdoual took part against Brace, and for which 
their lands were forfeited. In 1306, he defeated Thomas and 
Alexander Bruce and Sir Reginald Crawford, took all the 
three prisoners, and carried them to Carlisle Castle, and were 
immediately ordered for execution by Edward I. Next year, 
Robert Bruce marched into Galloway to revenge the death 
of his brothers, and carried fire and sword through the terri- 
tories of his enemies. Macdoual raised the men of Galloway, 
and Edward II. ordered a large force to oppose Brace, which 
caused him to retire into the northern fastnesses. In 1308, the 
gallant Edward Bruce invaded Galloway, defeated Macdoual 
and the other chiefs who had joined him, and took Dougal 
Macdoual prisoner. His son, Duncan M'Dougal succeeded, 
and, like his father, adhered to the English king. 

* Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. iv., No. 143. J Ib., Rot. ii. 32, 33. 
Prynne, iii., p. 654-663. 


On Galloway being subdued, Robert I. conferred on his 
brother Edward the lordship, and all the estates in that terri- 
tory, forfeited by the heirs of the lords of Galloway. The 
grant was made in 1308. When Edward III., in 1332, set up 
Edward Baliol to claim the crown of Scotland, during the 
minority of David II., every part of Galloway became in- 
volved in the miseries of civil war. Those proprietors who 
had been settled on the forfeited lands by Robert I. shed 
their blood for his son ; but many of the old owners of the 
land, who had been allowed, by the leniency of the king, to 
possess their estates, went over to the English king. During the 
first seven years of the war, Duncan Macdoual, who was the 
chief of the Clan Macdoual, remained true to the young king, 
but in August, 1339, when the star of Edward III. was in 
the ascendant, he took the oath of fealty to that king, and 
was pardoned for his past offences.* At the death of the Re- 
gent Randolph, David II. granted in 1341 the whole of Wig- 
tonshire in free earldom to his faithful follower Sir Malcolm 
Fleming. On obtaining this grant, Sir Malcolm resolved 
upon punishing Duncan Macdoual for his revolt in 1339, and 
notwithstanding all the aid of the English king, he was sub- 
dued and forced to submit to the king of Scotland. Duncan 
Macdoual, and his son Duncan, fought with David II. at the 
battle of Durham in 1347, and were taken by the English 
army, and imprisoned in the castle of Rochester, from whence 
they were removed to York. Duncan, the father, was libe- 
rated, on promising to act against the Scots. His wife, 
brother, and two of his sons were hostages for him. In 1353, 
Duncan Macdoual renounced the authority of Edward III., 
and swore fealty to David II. in the church of Cumnock, and 
ever afterwards remained faithful to his sovereign.t On this 
fact becoming known to Edward, he ordered John de Boul- 
ton, his chancellor of Berwick, to seize all the lands, goods, 
and chattels of Duncan Macdoual, and the lands of his wife, 

* Eotuli Scotiae, vol. i. p. 571. t Fordun, 1. xiv., c. 15. 


their family and adherents.* The like command was issued 
to John Coupland, Edward's sheriff of Roxburghshire. 
Margaret Fraser was the wife of Duncan, and the mother 
of the said Fergus Macdoual, who was the first of the name 
that inherited the lands of Mackerston, &c., in the south of 
Scotland. Chalmers supposes that she was the second wife 
of Duncan Macdoual, as Fergus only inherited his mother's 
estates in Roxburghshire, and not those of his father in Gal- 
loway, t The principal seat of the Galloway family, from 
whom Fergus Macdoual sprung, was Garthland. The old 
Tower of Garthland was forty-five feet high, with the date 
of 1274 on its battlements.^ Macdougal was the original 
name of which Macdoual is an abbreviation. 


P. 170. In noticing Ringley Hall, and the tumulus in 
front of Mackerston House, I omitted to call attention to 
Stockstrother, which is situated a little to the south of Ring- 
ley Hall. Its name has been imposed by the Anglo-Saxon 
dwellers on the Tweed, stock in that language signifying a 
place or mansion; and str other, meadow, or marsh, i. e., 
Stockstrother, the place at the meadow. It is possible, how- 
ever, that the name may have been conferred upon the place 
from its being the residence of one of Edward's sheriffs of the 
county of Roxburgh, of the name of Strothers : Stockstrothers, 
the place of Strother. It must have been a place of importance 
in early times, and strongly fortified. Part of the old building 
is still to be seen in the walls of several of the cottages at the 
onstead. The walls are of great thickness, and the stones 
with which they have been built, of immense size, many of 

* Eotuli Scotise, vol. i. p. 761. The order is dated from 
Woodstock, August 18, 1353. 
t Caledonia, vol. iii. p. 378. 
Old Statistical Account of Stoney Kirk Parish, vol. ii. p. 56. 


them measuring about five feet in length, and of proportion- 
ate deepness. Stockstrother had its full share of visits from 
the armies of England. 


P. 217, Foot Note. In May, 1729, an ox, six feet four 
inches high, was sold in the Canongate market, Edinburgh.* 


P. 229. I have mistakenly included Zedon as one of the 
names of this place in 1388. It is so given in Froissart'a 
Chronicles, vol. iv. p. 3, and by other writers, but they have 
mistaken Yetham for Suden or Southdean, as explained in 
p. 264. 

Pp. 235, 236. In 1669, an addition was built at the west 
end of the church. It is probable that the old part to 
which the addition was made, was the original church of 
Yetham. It was covered with reeds. 

* Courant, No. 644. Caledonia, vol. ii. p. 734. 


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